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首页 英语词源词典复件 T

英语词源词典复件 T.doc

英语词源词典复件 T

baibainn
2018-09-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语词源词典复件 Tdoc》,可适用于服务领域

'Tisabbreviationofitis,firstrecordedcteencombiningformmeaning"tenmorethan,"fromOEtene,tiene,fromPGmc*tekhuniz(cfOStein,Dutien,OHGzehan,Gerzehn,Gothtaihun),aninflectedformoftherootoftencognatewithLdecim(cfItdici,Spce,Frze)Thecombiningformofordinalnumbers,teenth,developedfromOEteoða,teoðe(WSaxon),teogoða(Anglian)"tenth"thsuffixformingnounsfromverbs(depth,strength,truth,etc),fromOEðu,ð,fromPIE*ita(cfSkttati,Gktet,Ltati)Thesuffixformingordinalnumbers(fourth,tenth,etc)isOEða,fromPIE*tos(cfSktthah,Gktos,Ltus)tionsuffixformingnounsfromverbs,fromLtionem,accusativeofnounsuffixtio(gentionis)formingnounsofconditionandaction(thetistheLatinppstem)tomycombformmeaning"acutting,"fromGktomia"acuttingof,"fromtome"acutting,section"(seetome)trixfemagentialsuffix,fromL,correspondingtomasctortronasasuffixinnewcompoundsformedinphysics,,abstractedfromelectron(Gktronwasaninstrumentivesuffix)tropecombformmeaning"thatwhichturns,"fromGktropos(seetrope)trophycombformmeaning"food,noyurishment,"fromGktrophe"food,noeonce,itisrecordedfromThenotionisoflockingupafterwardturnout"audience,",fromturnoutturnover,"actionofturningover,"fromturnovermeaning"kindofpastrytart"isattestedfromMeaning"numberofemployeesleavingaplaceandbeingreplaced"isrecordedfromturnpikec,"spikedroadbarrierusedfordefense,"fromturnpike()"shaft"Sensetransfto"horizontalcrossoftimber,turningonaverticalpin"(),whichwereusedtobarhorsesfromfootroadsThisledtothesenseof"barriertostoppassageuntilatollispaid"()Meaning"roadwithatollgate"isfrom,shorteningofturnpikeroad()turnstile,fromturnstileturntable,originallyintherailroadsense,fromturntableTherecordplayersenseisattestedfromturpentine,terbentyn,fromOFrterebinte,fromLterebintharesina"resinoftheterebinthtree,"fromGkrhetineterebinthe,fromfemofterebinthos,earlierterminthos"terebinthtree,"probablyfromanonIElanguageBycappliedgenerallytoresinsfromfirtreesturpitude"depravity,infamy,",fromMFrturpitude(),fromLturpitudinem(nomturpitudo)"baseness,"fromturpis"vile,ugly,base,shameful,"usedinboththemoralandthephysicalsensesofunknownoriginPerhapsoriginally"whatoneturnsawayfrom"(cfLtrepit"heturns")turquoisepreciousstone,,replacementfromMFrofMEturkeis,turtogis(),fromOFrturqueise,femadj"Turkish,"inpierreturqueise"Turkishstone,"socalledbecauseitwasfirstbroughttoEuropefromTurkestanorsomeotherTurkishdominion(Sinaipeninsula,accordingtoonetheory)CognatewithSpturquesa,ML(lapis)turchesius,MDuturcoys,Gertürkis,SwedturkosAsacolorname,attestedfromturretc,"smalltower,"fromOFrtouret(c),dimoftour"tower,"fromLturris(seetower)Meaning"low,flatguntoweronawarship"isrecordedfrom,lateralsooftanksturtle()reptile,,"marinetortoise,"fromFrtortue"turtle,tortoise,"ofunknownoriginTheEngwordisperhapsasailors'maulingoftheFrenchone,inflbythesimilarsoundingturtle()LaterextendedtolandtortoisesTurtleneck"closefittingcollar"isrecordedfromturtle()"turtledove,"OEturtle,dissimilationofLturtur"turtledove,"areduplicatedformimitativeofthebird'scallGraceful,harmoniousandaffectionatetoitsmate,henceatermofendearmentinMETurtledoveisattestedfromcTuscan,fromItToscano,fromLLTuscanus"belongingtotheTusci,"araceofancientItaly,fromTuscus,earlier*Truscus,apheticformofEtruscus(cfEtruscan)TuscaroraIroquoianpeople,,fromIroquoian,lit"hempgatherers"tush(n)"backside,buttocks,",anabbreviationoftochus(),fromYiddishtokhes,fromHebtahat"beneath"tush(interj)cseetuttuskOEtux,tusc,cognatewithOFristusk,probablyfromPGmc*tunthskaz(cfGothtunþus"tooth"),extendedformoftherootoftoothButtherearenocertaincognatesoutsideAngloFrisiantussive"pertainingtocough,",fromLtussis"cough,"ofunknownorigintussle(v)c,ScottishandnorthernEnglishvariantoftouselen(seetousle)Thenounisfirstrecordedbutrarebeforectussock,"tuftofhair,"ofuncertainorigincfearliertusk()withthesamemeaning(andalsoofobscureorigin)Meaning"tuftofgrass"isfirstrecordedtut,alongwithtush(),anaturalinterjectionexpressingcontempttutelage,fromLtutela"awatching,protection,"fromvariantppstemoftueri"watchover"(seetutor)Meaning"instruction,tuition"firstappearedtutelary,fromLtutelarius"aguardian,"fromtutela"protection,watching"(seetutor)tutor,"guardian,custodian,"fromOFrtutour"guardian,privateteacher,"fromLtutorem(nomtutor)"guardian,watcher,"fromtutus,variantppoftueri"watchover,"ofunknownoriginSpecificsenseof"seniorboyappointedtohelpajuniorinhisstudies"isrecordedfromTheverbisattestedfromtutorial(adj)isrecordedfromasanounitisattestedfromtuttifrutti,fromIttuttifrutti"allfruits,"fromtutti,ploftutto"all"frutti,ploffrutto"fruit"tutuballetskirt,,fromFrtutu,alterationofcucu,infantilereduplicationofcul"bottom,backside"tuxedoman'seveningdressforsemiformaloccasions,,namedforTuxedoPark,NY,siteofacountryclubwhereitfirstwaswornin"TheWolftribeinNewYorkwascalledinscornbyotherAlgonquianstuksit:roundfoot,implyingthattheyeasilyfelldowninsurrenderIntheirregionthuscamethenamesTuxedoandTuxedoLake,whichwereacquiredbytheGriswoldfamilyinpaymentofadebtTherethefamilyestablishedtheexclusiveTuxedoClub,andthereinthelatesGriswoldLorillardfirstappearedinadinnerjacketwithouttails,atuxedoByatwistofslang,onemaynowrefertoamaninatuxedoasa'wolf"ShipleyButinanotherversionofthestory,p'tuksitwastheAlgonquianwordfor"wolf,"theanimal,perhapsfromtheshapeofitspawsShortformtuxisattestedfromTV,shortenedformoftelevision(qv)TVdinner()isaproprietarynameregbySwansonSons,Omaha,Nebraska,USTWAformedMay,,asTranscontinentalAirTransport,mergedwithWesternAirExpresstoformTranscontinentalandWesternAir,Inc(TWA)NamechangedtoTransWorldAirlines,butthemonikerremainedthesameLastremnantsboughtoutbyrivalAmericanAirlinesinApriltwaddle"sillytalk,",probablyfromtwattle(),ofobscureorigintwainOEtwegen(masc)"two"(mascnomandacc),fromPGmc*twa(seetwo)ThewordoutlastedthebreakdownofgenderinMEandsurvivedasasecondaryformoftwo,especiallyincaseswherethenumeralfollowsanounItscontinuationintomoderntimeswasaidedbyitsuseinKJVandtheMarriageService,inpoetry(whereitisausefulrhymeword),andinoralusewhereitisnecessarytobeclearthattwoandnottoortooismeanttwang(n),ofimitativeoriginOriginallyofbowsandstringsextensionto"anasalvocalsound"isfirstrecordedTheverbisfirstattestedtwat,ofunknownoriginAgeneraltermofabusesincesTheTwordoccupiesaspecialnicheinliteraryhistory,however,thankstoahorriblemistakebyRobertBrowning,whoincludeditin'PippaPasses'()withoutknowingitstruemeaning'Theowlsandbats,Cowlsandtwats,Monksandnuns,Inacloister'smoods'PoorRobert!Hehadbeenmisledintothinkingthewordmeant'hat'byitsappearancein'VanityofVanities,'apoemof,containingthetreacherouslines:'They'dtalk'tofhishavingaCardinallsHat,They'dsendhimassoonanOldNunsTwat'(Thereisalessonhereaboutnotusingwordsunlessoneisverysureoftheirmeaning)HughRawson,"WickedWords,"tweak(v)probablyfromOEtwiccian"topluck,"ofobscureoriginperhapsrelatedtotwitchMeaning"tomakefineadjustments"isattestedfromtwee"tiny,dainty,miniature,",fromchildishpronunciationofsweettweed(perhapsasearlyas),atradenamesaidtohavedevelopedfromamisreading(supposedlybyLondonhatterJamesLocke)oftweel,Scottishvariantoftwill,possiblyinfluencedbytheriverTweedinScotlandTweedy"characteristicofthecountryorsuburbanset"firstrecordedtweedledumpairedwithtweedledeetosignifytwothingsorpersonsnearlyalike,differinginname,,coinedbyEngpoetJohnByrom()inhissatire"OntheFeudBetweenHandelandBononcini,"acoupleofcompetingmusicians,fromtweedle"tosing,towhistle"(),ofimitativeoriginThedumanddeeperhapssuggestlowandhighsoundsrespectivelytweenabbreviationofbetween,recordedfromctweet,imitativeofthesoundmadebyasmallbirdTweeter"loudspeakerforhighertones"firstrecordedtweezers,extendedfromtweezes,pluraloftweeze"casefortweezers"(),apheticofetweese,consideredaspluralofetwee()"asmallcase,"fromFrétui"smallcase,"originally"akeepingsafe,"fromOFrestuier"tokeep,shutup,imprison,"ofuncertainoriginSensetransffromthecasetotheimplementinsideitTheverbtweeze"topluckwithtweezers"isabackformationtwelfthOEtwelfta,cognatewithONtolfti,OFristwelefta,OHGzwelifto,Gerzwölfte(seetwelve)OEtwelftanniht"TwelfthNight,"theeveofEpiphany,whichcomestwelvedaysafterChristmas,formerlywasatimeofmerrymakingtwelveOEtwelf,lit"twoleft"(overten),fromPGmc*twalif,acompoundoftherootoftwo*lif,rootoftheverbleave(seeeleven)CfOStwelif,ONtolf,OFristwelef,MDutwalef,Dutwaalf,OHGzwelif,Gerzwölf,GothtwalifOutsideGmc,ananalogousformationisLithdrylika,withsecondelementlika"leftover"twentyOEtwentig"groupoftwenty,"fromtwegen"two"(seetwo)tig"groupoften"(seety())CognatewithOFristwintich,Dutwintig,OHGzweinzug,GerzwanzigGothtwaitigjusisevenmoretransparent:lit"twotens"TwentiethisOEtwentigoðaThecardgametwentyone()isfromFrvingtetun()Twentytwentyhindsightisfirstrecorded,afiguseoftheSnellenfractionfornormalvisualacuity,expressedinfeetTheguessinggameoftwentyquestionsisrecordedfromTheTwentiethCenturyLimitedwasanexpresstrainfromNewYorktoChicagotwerpofunknownoriginthe"DictionaryofAmericanSlang"givesafirstreferenceof(butwithoutcitation),which,ifcorrect,wouldruleouttheusualtheorythatitisfromthepropernameofTWEarp,astudentatOxfordc,whokindledwrath"intheheartsoftheruggerplayingstalwartsatOxford,whenhewaspresidentoftheUnion,bybeingthelast,mostcharming,andwittiestofthe'decadents'"twiprefixmeaning"two,"OEtwi,prefixmeaning"two,intwoways,twice,double,"fromPGmc*twi(cfOFristwi,ONtvi,Dutwee,OHGzwi,Gerzwei),fromPIE*dwis(cfSktdvi,Gkdi,OldLdvi,Lbi,Lithdvi),from*dwo"two"(seetwo)CognatewithbiOlderinstancesofitincludeMEtwinter"twoyearsold"(,ofcattle,sheep,etc),reducedfromOEtwiwintre,andOEtwispræc"doubleordeceitfulspeech"twicelateOEtwiga,twigea"twotimes"(cognatewithOFristwia,OStuuio)adverbialgenitiveendingestwiddlec,"totrifle,"ofunknownoriginofthefingers,firstrecordedFigphrasetwiddleone'sthumbs"havenothingtodo"isrecordedfromtotwirlone'sthumbsinthesamesenseisrecordedfromtwigOEtwigge,fromPGmc*twigan(cfMDutwijch,Dutwijg,OHGzwig,GerZweig"branch,twig"),fromtherootoftwi(seetwin),heremeaning"forked"(asinOEtwisel"fork,pointofdivision")Twiggy"slender"isrecordedfromtwilight(impliedintwilighting),acompoundoftwilight(n)CognatewithDutweelicht(c),GerzwielichtExactconnotationoftwiinthiswordisunclear,butitappearstoreferto"half"light,ratherthanthefactthattwilightoccurstwiceadayCfalsoSktsamdhya"twilight,"lit"aholdingtogether,junction,"MHGzwischerliecht,lit"tweenlight"OriginallyandmostcommonlyinEngwithreftoeveningtwilightbutoccasionallyusedofmorningtwilight(asensefirstattestedc)Figurativeextensionisfirstrecordedtwill"clothwoveninparalleldiagonallines,",ScottishandnorthernEnglishvariantofMEtwile,fromOEtwili"wovenwithdoublethread,twilled,"formedonmodelofLbilix"withadoublethread"(withOEtwisubstitutedforcognateLbi),fromLlicium"thread,"ofuncertainorigintwin(adj)OEtwinn"consistingoftwo,twofold,double,"probablyultimatelyfromPGmc*twinjaz(cfONtvinnr,ODantvinling,Dutweeling,Gerzwillung),fromPIE*dwisno(cfLbini"twoeach,"Lithdvynu"twins"),from*dwi"double,"frombase*dwo"two"(seetwo)Theverbmeaning"tocombinetwothingsclosely"isrecordedfromcThenoundevelopedfromOEgetwinn"double"twine(n)OEtwin"doublethread,"fromPGmc*twizna(cfDutwijn,LowGertwern,Gerzwirn"twine,thread"),fromthesamerootastwin(qv)Theverbmeaning"totwiststrandstogethertoformtwine"isrecordedfromcsenseof"totwistaroundsomething"(astwinedoes)isrecordedfromctwinge(n),"apinch,"fromobsoleteverbtwinge"topinch,tweak,"fromOEtwengan"topinch,"ofuncertainoriginMeaning"sharp,suddenpain"isrecordedfromFigsense(withreftoshame,remorse,etc)isrecordedfromtwinkc,"awinkingoftheeye,"also"atwinkle"(),fromtwinkleMeaning"youngsexuallyattractiveperson"isrecordedfrom,probablyfromTwinkies,trademarknameofacupcakejunkfoodintroducedinbyContinentalBakingCo,apparentlyanalterationoftwinkleButcfssBritishhomosexualslangtwankinasimilarsensetwinkle(v)OEtwinclian,frequentativeoftwincan"towink,blink"relatedtoMHGzwinken,Gerzwinkern,andprobablysomehowimitativeThenounisrecordedfromPhraseinthetwinklingofaneyeisattestedfromtwirl(nandv),ofuncertainorigin,possiblyconnectedwithOEþwirl"astirrer"Orelseablendoftwistandwhirltwist(n),"flatpartofahinge,"probablyfromOEtwist(inmæsttwist"mastrope,stay"candeltwist"wick"),fromPGmc*twis,fromrootoftwoOriginalsensessuggest"dividingintwo"(cfcognateONtvistra"todivide,separate,"Gothtwis"intwo,asunder,"Dutwist,Gerzwist"quarrel,discord,"thoughtheseseneshavenoequivalentinEng),butlateronesareof"combiningtwointoone,"hencetheoriginalsenseofthewordmaybe"ropemadeoftwostrands"Meaning"threadorcordcomposedoftwoormorefibers"isrecordedfromMeaning"actoractionofturningonanaxis"isattestedfromSenseof"beverageconsistingoftwoormoreliquors"isfirstattestedcMeaning"thickcordoftobacco"isfromMeaning"curledpieceoflemon,etc,usedtoflavoradrink"isrecordedfromSenseof"unexpectedplotdevelopment"isfromThepopularrock'n'rolldancecrazeisfrom,buttwistwasusedtodescribepopulardancesinandagaininthesTogetone'sknickersinatwist"beundulyagitated"isBritishslangfirstattestedtwist(v)c(impliedinpttwaste),"towring,"fromthesourceoftwist(n)Senseof"tospintwoormorestrandsofyarnintothread"isattestedfromMeaning"tomoveinawindingfashion"isrecordedfromTotwistthelion'stailwasUSslang()for"toprovokeBritishfeeling"twisted"perverted,mentallystrange,",fromtwist(n)inasenseof"mentalpeculiarity,perversion"firstattestedtwister,"onewhospinsthread,"fromtwist(v)Meaning"tornado"isattestedfrom,AmerEngtwisty"attractivelyfeminine,"sslang,isfromtwist"girl"(),apparentlyfromrhymingslangtwistandtwirl()twit(v),apheticformofatwite,fromOEætwitan"toblame,reproach,"fromæt"at"witan"toblame,"fromPGmc*witanan(cfOEwite,OSwiti,ONviti"punishment,torture"OHGwizzi"punishment,"wizan"topunish"Duverwijten,OHGfirwizan,Gerverweisen"toreproach,reprove,"Gothfraweitan"toavenge"),fromPIEbase*weid"tosee"Forsenseevolution,cfLanimadvertere,lit"togiveheedto,observe,"later"tochastise,censure,punish"Thenounmeaning"foolish,stupidandineffectualperson"isfirstattestedinBritishslang,popularss,crossedovertoUSwithBritishsitcomsItprobablydevelopedfromtheverbsenseof"reproach"butmaybeinfluencedbynitwittwitch(v)c,totwicchen"pullapartwithaquickjerk,"relatedtoOEtwiccian"topluck,"fromPGmc*twikjonan(cfLowGertwicken,Dutwikken,OHGgizwickan,Gerzwicken"topinch,tweak")Thenounisattestedfromtwitter(v)c,ofimitativeorigin(cfOHGzwizziron,Gerzwitschern,Dankvidre)Thenounmeaning"conditionoftremulousexcitement"isattestedfromtwixtc,apheticforbetwixt(qv)twizzle(v)"totwist,formbytwisting"(trans),,apparentlyamadeupwordsuggestedbytwisttwoOEtwa,femandneutformoftwegen"two"(seetwain),fromPGmc*twai(cfOS,OFristwene,twa,ONtveir,tvau,Dutwee,OHGzwene,zwo,Gerzwei,Gothtwai),fromPIE*duwo(cfSktdvau,Avestandva,Gkduo,Lduo,OWelshdou,Lithdvi,OCSduva,firstelementinHittitetaugash"twoyearsold")TwofoldisOEtweofealdDancestyletwostepisrecordedfromTwoferisfirstrecorded(originallyinreftocigars),fromtwofor(adollar,etc)Twofaced"deceitful"firstrecordedTwocheersfor,expressingqualifiedenthusiasmfirstrecordedinEMForster'stitle"TwoCheersforDemocracy"Twodimensionalisrecordedfromfigsenseof"lackingsubstanceordepth"isattestedfromtwobits"quarter,",inreftotheMexicanreal,alargecointhatwasdividedintoeightbits(cfpieceofeightseepiece)hencetwobit(adj)"cheap,tawdry,"firstrecordedtwotime(v)"todeceive,cheat,betray,",perhapsfromnotionof"tohavetwoatatime"TyburnplaceofpublicexecutionforMiddlesexfromctoitstoodatthejunctionofmodernOxfordStreet,BayswaterRoadandEdgwareRoadtycoon,titlegivenbyforeignerstotheshogunofJapan(saidtohavebeenusedbyhissupporterswhenaddressingforeigners,asanattempttoconveythattheshogunwasmoreimportantthantheemperor),fromJaptaikun"greatlordorprince,"fromChinesetai"great"kiun"lord"Transfmeaning"importantperson"isattestedfrom,inreftoUSpresidentAbrahamLincoln(inHay'sdiary)specificapplicationto"businessman"ispostWorldWarItykec,"cur,mongrel,"fromONtik"bitch,"relatedtoMLGtikeAlsoappliedtoalowbredorlazymanThemeaning"child"isfrom,thoughitwasusedinplayfulreprooffromtympanum"drumoftheear,",fromMLtympanum,introducedinthissensebyItanatomistGabrieleFallopio(),fromLtympanum"drum,"fromGktympanon"adrum,panelofadoor,"fromrootoftyptein"tobeat,strike"(seetype)CfOEtimpan"drum,timbrel,tambourine,"FromLtympanumThemodernmeaning"adrum"isattestedinEngfromTympanist"onewhoplaysonadrum"isrecordedfromsincemidcspecificallyofplayersonkettledrumstype(n)c,"symbol,emblem,"fromLtypus"figure,image,form,kind,"fromGktypos"dent,impression,mark,figure,originalform,"fromrootoftyptein"tostrike,beat,"fromPIEbase*(s)teu"tostrike,cut,hew"(seesteep(adj))ExtendedtoprintingblockswithletterscarvedonthemThemeaning"generalformorcharacterofsomekind,class"isfirstinEng,thoughithadthatsenseinLandGkTheverbmeaning"towritewithatypewriter"isattestedfromTypewriterinthemechanicalsenseisattestedfromtypistisrecordedfromTypefacefirstattestedTypecast(adjandv)withreftoactorsisrecordedfrom,perhapsadeliberatepunontheverbalphraseintheprinttypefoundingsense(attestedfrom)Tobesomeone'stype"bethesortofpersonthatpersonisattractedto"isrecordedfromtyphoid(adj),lit"resemblingtyphus,"fromtyphussuffixfromGkoeides"like,"fromeidos"form,shape"(seeoid)Thenounisfrom,ashortenedformoftyphoidfever(),socalledbecauseitwasoriginallythoughttobeavarietyoftyphusTyphoidMary()wasMaryMallon(d),atyphoidcarrierwhoworkedasacookandbecamenotoriousafteritwaslearnedshehadunwittinglyinfectedhundredsinUStyphoonthemodernwordrepresentsacoincidenceandconvergenceofatleasttwounrelatedwordsofsimilarsoundandsenseTiphon"violentstorm,whirlwind,tornado"isrecordedfrom,fromGktyphon"whirlwind,"personifiedasagiant,fatherofthewinds,perhapsfromtyphein"tosmoke"Themeaning"cyclone,violenthurricaneofIndiaortheChinaSeas"()isfirstrecordedinTHickock'stranslationofanaccountinItalianofavoyagetotheEastIndiesbyCæsarFrederick,amerchantofVenice,probablyborrowedfrom,orinflby,Chinese(Cantonese)taifung"agreatwind,"fromtu"big"feng"wind"namegiventoviolentcyclonicstormsintheChinaseasAthirdpossibilityistufan,awordinArabic,PersianandHindimeaning"bigcyclonicstorm"(andthesourceofPorttufao),whichmaybefromGktyphonbutcommonlyissaidtobeanounofactionfromArabictafa"toturnround"typhusacuteinfectiousfever,,fromModL(DeSauvages,),fromGktyphos"stuporcausedbyfever,"lit"smoke,"fromtyphein"tosmoke,"relatedtotyphos"blind,"typhon"whirlwind,"ultoriginunknownThediseasesocalledfromtheprostrationthatitcausestypical,"symbolic,emblematic,"fromMLtypicalis"symbolic,"fromLLtypicus"oforpertainingtoatype,"fromGktypikos,fromtypos"impression"(seetype)Senseof"characteristic"isfirstrecordedtypify,"torepresentbyasymbol,"fromLtypus(seetype)Meaning"toserveasatypicalspecimenofsomeclass,etc"isattestedfromtypo,shortfortypographerasshortfortypographicalerror(seetypography)typography,fromFrtypographie,fromMLtypographia,fromGktypos(seetype)grapheia"writing"Typographical"pertainingtotypography"isrecordedfromtyrannosauruscarnivorousCretaceousbipedaldinosaur,,ModL,thegenusname,coinedbyHFOsborn(publishedin"BulletinoftheAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory"XXI,p)fromGktyrannos"tyrant"sauros"lizard"tyrannyc,"cruelorunjustuseofpower,"fromOFrtyrannie(c),fromLLtyrannia"tyranny,"fromGktyrannia"ruleofatyrant,"fromtyrannos"master"(seetyrant)Tyrannizeisfirstattested,fromMFrtyranniser(c)tyrannicalwasformed(tyrannicwasusedinthissensefrom)tyrant,"absoluteruler,"fromOFrtyrant(c),fromLtyrannus"lord,master,tyrant"(cfSptirano,Ittiranno),fromGktyrannos"lord,master,sovereign,absoluteruler,"aloanwordfromalanguageofAsiaMinor(probablyLydian)cfEtruscanTuran"mistress,lady"(surnameofVenus)"Intheexactsense,atyrantisanindividualwhoarrogatestohimselftheroyalauthoritywithouthavingarighttoitThisishowtheGreeksunderstoodtheword'tyrant':theyapplieditindifferentlytogoodandbadprinceswhoseauthoritywasnotlegitimate"Rousseau,"TheSocialContract"ThespellingwithtaroseinOFrbyanalogywithprpendingsinantFemformtyrannessisrecordedfrom(Spenser)cfMLtyrannissa()tyrevariantspellingoftire(n)Tyrian,fromLTyrius"ofTyre,"fromTyrus,islandcityintheLevant,fromGkTyros,fromHebrewPhoeniciantzor,lit"rock,rockyplace"EspeciallyinreftoTyrianpurple,adyemadethereinancienttimesfromcertainmolluskstyro,fromMLtyro,variantofLtiro(pltirones)"youngsoldier,recruit,beginner,"ofunknownorigintyrosineaminoacid,,coinedbyGerchemistBaronvonJustusLiebig()fromGktyros"cheese"chemicalsuffixineSocalledbecauseitwaseasilyobtainedfromcheeseTyrrhenian,"pertainingtotheEtruscans,"fromLTyrrheni,fromGkTyrrenoi"Tyrrhenians,"fromtyrsis"tower,walledcity"(cfLturris"tower")EarlierTyrrhene()æt"aged,"abbreviationofLætatis"oftheageof,"gensingofætas"age
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