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首页 医学博士英语统考写作教程需要与变化

医学博士英语统考写作教程需要与变化.doc

医学博士英语统考写作教程需要与变化

wangbadan43
2018-09-05 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《医学博士英语统考写作教程需要与变化doc》,可适用于医药卫生领域

一、基本句型I表达需要、必要、要求:基本句型:Itisnecessaryunnecessaryforsbtodosth(参见“是”句型)Thereisnoneednecessityfor(doing)sthThereisnoneednecessityforsbtodosth动词及词组:needsthneedtodosthneedsbsthtodosthneednotdosth(情态动词用于否定和疑问式)needdoingneedsthforsthmeetsatisfyaneedrequirementrequiresbtodosthrequiresthwantsthwantsbtodosth名词及词组:inneedofsthaneedtodosthaneedrequirementfor(doing)sth形容词及词组:necessaryfordoingsthnecessary例句:所有的动植物均需要碳才能生长。AllplantsandanimalsneedrequirecarbonforgrowthAllplantsandanimalsneedrequirecarbontogrowCarbonisnecessaryforthegrowthofallplantsandanimalsCarbonisnecessaryforallplantsandanimalstogrow感冒不必要使用抗生素。ThereisnoneedforyoutotakeantibioticswhenyoucatchcoldYouhavenoneedofusingantibioticswhenyoucatchcoldYouneednotusetakeantibioticswhenyoucatchcoldYoudonotneedtousetakeantibioticswhenyoucatchcoldItisnotnecessaryforyoutotakeantibioticswhenyoucatchcoldYouneednottousetakeantibioticswhenyoucatchcoldwrong高校心理咨询是校园精神文明建设的必要组成部分。Collegementalconsultationisanecessarypartofcampusculturalconstruction由于卫生资源的不足我国有必要对新的医疗方法和设备作出效益评价。Becauseofinsufficientmedicalresources,itisnecessaryforourcountrytoconductcosteffectappraisalsassessmentsfornewmedicaltherapiesandequipmentBecauseofinadequatemedicalresources,itisnecessarythatourcountry(should)conductcosteffectappraisalsassessmentsfornewmedicaltherapiesandequipment(要用虚拟语气)Becausewedonothaveenoughmedicalresources,itisnecessaryforustoevaluatetheeffectsofnewmedicaltreatmentsandequipment他们不必排队挂号不必楼上楼下跑。ItisnotnecessaryforthemtohaveallthetroublesofseekingmedicalattentionThereisnoneedforthemtotakeallthetroublesofseekingmedicalattentionTheyneednothaveallthetroublesofseekingmedicalattentionTheydonotneedtotakeallthetroublesofseekingmedicalattention但对医疗的高水平需求越来越盛行。TherearemoreandmoreneedsrequirementsforhighlevelmedicaltreatmentMoreandmorepeoplewanthighlevelmedicaltreatmentMoreandmorepeopleareinneedofhighlevelmedicaltreatment浩如烟海的医学信息需要进行系统评价和统计分析。AvastseaofmedicalinformationneedsreviewingsystematicallyandanalyzingstatisticallyAvastseaofmedicalinformationneedssystematicalreviewandstatisticalanalysisAvastseaofmedicalinformationneedstobereviewedsystematicallyandanalyzedstatistically循证医学(evidencebasedmedicine)对临床医生提出很高要求。EvidencebasedmedicineplaceimposestrictrequirementsuponclinicaldoctorsEvidencebasedmedicineisverychallengingtoclinicaldoctors不要对自己所做的事要求十全十美。DonotwantrequireeverythingyoudotobeperfectYoudonothavetodoeverythingperfectlyYouneednotdoeverythingperfectlyYoudonotneedtodoeverythingperfectlyThereisnoneedforyoutodoeverythingperfectly新技术大大消除了牙科医生打钻的必要。NewtechniquessharplycutreducetheneednecessityfordrillingbyadentistThereisnoneedforadentistusingthenewtechniquetodrillaholeNewtechniquesmakeitunnecessaryforadentisttodrillaholeII表示变化、改变、改革:动词及词组:(sth)changechangesth(intosth)change(fromsth)tosthvaryfrom…to…varybetween…and…varyaccordingtodependingonsthvarywithbecomemakechangesinsthmakealterationstosthmakereforms名词及词组:changealterationinchangefromsthtosthsocialeconomicchangechangeofsocialeconomicreform形容词及词组:changingchangedchangeablevaried例句:人的体温可在℃与℃之间变化。Aperson’stemperaturecanvarybetween℃and℃Aperson’stemperaturecanchangefrom℃to℃人的情绪往往随着气候的变化而变化。Aperson’smoodsoftenvaryaccordingtodependingontheweatherAperson’smoodsoftenchangeastheweatherchanges社会经济的发展使人们的生活方式发生了很大变化引发了一些新的健康问题。Withthesocialandeconomicdevelopment,greatchangeshavetakenplaceinpeople’slifestylesandledtonewhealthproblemsWiththesocialandeconomicdevelopment,people’slifestyleshavechangedgreatlyandnewhealthproblemsariseaccordinglyThesocialandeconomicdevelopmentshavechangedpeople’slifestylesgreatlyandledtonewhealthproblemsaccordingly医生与病人进行语言交流应注意因人而异、因时制宜和因地制宜。Verbalcommunicationsbetweendoctorsandpatientsshouldvaryfrompatienttopatient,fromtimetotimeandfromplacetoplaceCommunicationsbetweendoctorsandpatientsshouldvaryaccordingtodependingondifferentpatients,timesandplacesCommunicationsbetweendoctorsandpatientsshouldchangeaspatientsandoccasionschange在出生率不变的情况下人类社会将变得愈来愈老化。Onconditionthatthebirthrateisstable,thehumansocietywillbecomemoreandmoreagingWhenthebirthratedoesnotchange,thehumansocietywillbecomemoreandmoreaging通过改变生产和生活环境改变人们不良的行为生活方式降低危险因素的作用延长寿命。TheeffectsofriskfactorscanbereducedandlifespanprolongedbymeansofchangingtheworkingandlivingenvironmentsandunhealthylifestylesofthepeopleIfpeoplechangetheirlivingenvironmentsandunhealthylifestyles,theycandiminishtheeffectsofriskfactorsandprolongtheirlifespan循证医学这三要素使得传统医学行为迅速向循证医学行为转变。ThethreebasicelementsmadetraditionalmedicalpracticebecometurnintopracticeofevidencebasedmedicineThethreebasicelementschangedtraditionalmedicalpracticeintopracticeofevidencebasedmedicine很难开发一种长期有效的抗流感病毒的药物因为病毒很快发生变异。Itisimpossibletodevelopalongtermeffectivemedicinetokillfluviruses,becausethemicroorganismschangevaryrapidlyeasilyItisimpossibletodevelopalongtermeffectivemedicinetokillfluviruseswhichchangevaryrapidlyeasily现行医疗制度的改革是一项社会系统工程要有其它社会经济制度改革的基础。ReformofcurrentmedicalsystemisasocialcomprehensiveprojectwhichshouldbebasedonreformsofothersocialsystemsAsasocialcomprehensiveproject,reformofcurrentmedicalsystemshouldbebasedonreformsofothersocialsystemsReformofcurrentmedicalsystemiscomplicatedandshouldbebasedonreformsofothersocialsystems练习:用英语表达以下意念:人体需要碳水化合物来制造用以产生热量的糖。医生需要与病人进行交流了解病人的需要。人类对水的需求不断在增长。科学合理地搭配早膳以满足人体健康的需要。食物所含的热量要充分满足青少年脑力活动与体力活动的需要。儿童与中老年期对钙的需要量增加更应注意补钙。与医疗有关的问题都需要讨论。传染病的暴发流行的危险要求我们建立健全的突发公共卫生事件的应急机制。有益原则要求医护人员在治疗护理过程中选择最佳方案以使病人获益最大受害最小。循证护理要求临床护士学习新的技能。对于精神及其脆弱的病人感情的交流与投入对他们的生存非常必要。可持续发展的观念要求把个人利益和整体利益、眼前利益和长远利益结合起来考虑。随着社会发生巨大变化影响人类健康的因素及医学模式也都有所改变。面对医学模式的转变我们应该做些什么呢?搞好健康教育需要医务人员的配合需要医生“转变角色”。许多公立医院对门诊服务进行了一些调整改动。如果不采取有力措施农村卫生工作面貌会变得更加落后。学生对心理咨询的态度发生了改变。公立医院进行了新一轮的全方位的改革。血压水平随年龄和性别而异。即使停止危险因素的继续作用一般也不易改变病程。一旦进入青年期行为发展开始分化。如果不改变传统伦理关于人类平均寿命延长的道德观念人类的未来将很难预测。

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