关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 医学博士英语统考写作教程因果关系

医学博士英语统考写作教程因果关系.doc

医学博士英语统考写作教程因果关系

wangbadan43
2018-09-05 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《医学博士英语统考写作教程因果关系doc》,可适用于医药卫生领域

表达因果关系:这一基本功能意念是任何写作的最基本的任务之一。要掌握以下基本表达方式:名词及词组:causeforreasonforfactorforexplanationofresultofconsequenceofeffectoninfluenceon副词及词组:sothusthereforeasaresultasaconsequenceaccordinglyconsequentlybecauseofduetoowingto连接词:becauseassincesothatso动词及词组:makesbdosthmakesthhappenresultinresultfromleadtocausesbtodocausesthtohappenaffecthaveaneffectonhaveaninfluenceonhaveanimpactonI表达产生、引起、造成、使得:例句:.自然化学反应造成食物软化或变色。NaturalchemicalreactionscausefoodstobecomesoftordiscoloredNaturalchemicalreactionsmakefoods(become)softordiscolored.这种化学物质引起的健康问题一般不严重。ThehealthproblemscausedbythischemicalusuallyarenotsevereThehealthproblemsresultingfromthischemicalusuallyarenotsevereThischemicaldoesnotcauseserioushealthproblems.锻炼似乎可以减少体内雌激素(estrogen)的产生。Exerciseseemstoreducethebody’sproductionofthehormoneestrogenExerciseseemstomakethebodyproducelessofthehormoneestrogenExerciseseemstoresultinleadtothebody’slessproductionofthehormoneestrogenExerciseseemstoreduceestrogeninthebody.该病常常造成患者死亡。ThisdiseaseoftencausesitsvictimstodieThisdiseaseoftenmakesitsvictimsdieThisdiseaseoftenresultsinleadtothedeathofitsvictimsThisdiseaseoftenkillsitsvictims.这是因为它产生的症状与其它疾病相似。ThisisbecauseitproducescausesbringsaboutresultinsignslikemanyothersicknessesII表达影响:例句:他们研究该蛋白如何影响动物。TheystudyhowtheproteinaffectsanimalsTheystudywhateffectsimpactstheproteinhasonanimals心理的不正常严重影响了大学生的生活、学习。MentalproblemshavealreadyinterferedwiththenormallifeandworkofcollegestudentsMentalproblemshavealreadyhadanegativeeffectimpactinfluenceonthenormallifeandworkofcollegestudentsMentalproblemshavealreadyaffectedthenormallifeandworkofcollegestudents不良生活方式和行为受社会心理因素影响要靠全科医学服务才能很好地解决。Sinceunhealthylivingstylesandbehavioursareinfluencedaffectedbysocialandmentalfactors,theycanbedealtwithcorrectedonlybygeneralmedicalservicesSinceunhealthylifestylesandbehavioursareundertheinfluenceofsocialandmentalfactors,theycanbetreatedonlybygeneralmedicalservicesSinceunhealthylifestylesandbehavioursarelinkedtosocialandmentalfactors,theycanbecorrectedonlybygeneralmedicalservices其实早餐对人体健康、学习和工作效率有着直接的影响。Infact,breakfasthasadirecteffectimpactinfluenceonone’shealthandtheefficiencyofone’slearningandworkingInfact,breakfastcandirectlyaffectone’shealthandtheefficiencyofone’slearningandworking公立医院的服务问题一直影响着医患关系实现正常化。TheserviceproblemsinpublichospitalshavealwayshadaharmfulimpacteffectinfluenceonthenormalrelationshipbetweendoctorsandpatientsTheserviceproblemsinpublichospitalshavealwaysbeendoingharmtothenormalrelationshipbetweendoctorsandpatients忽视人的心理社会背景影响了医疗服务的质量。Ifadoctoroverlooksthesocialandmentalbackgroundofhispatient,hismedicalservicecanbeweakenedIgnoranceofthesocialandmentalbackgroundofapatientcanhaveanegativeeffectontheoutcomeofthemedicalserviceNeglectofthesocialandmentalbackgroundofapatientcanharmthemedicalserviceIfadoctordoesnotpayattentiontothesocialandmentalbackgroundofapatient,hecannotprovidegoodmedicalservicesIII表达广义的因果关系:除了上面两组有明显的文字表示的因果关系以外大部分的汉语中的因果关系都是没有用明显的文字表示的是暗含在上下文中的而且可以用多种的英语的表达方式来表达学生们要注意同一意念的多种表达方式及语法要点。中国学生写英语一个常见的毛病是句子很散没有连接词语将有逻辑联系的句子连接起来。现在就从学习因果关系的表达开始学习把句子用连接词语连接起来吧。例句:管理不善问题很多。Thoseproblemsresultedfromwerecausedbythepoormanagement(注意!使用resultin和resultfrom前后的主语及宾语都必须用名词或者名词词组。)Thepoormanagementresultedincausedledtomanyproblems(注意!resultin和resultfrom的前后的因果关系正好相反。)BecauseofDuetothepoormanagement,theyhadmanyproblemsBecausethemanagementwasverypoor,theyfacedmanyproblemsThemanagementwassopoorthattheymetwithmanyproblems(注意!sothat常常分开用。)Themanagementwasverypoor,sotheyhadmanyproblemsThemanagementwasverypoorAsaresult,theyhadmanyproblems(注意!asaresult是副词性词组不能连接两个分句前面要用句号。)这个问题(情况)很严重我们不得不制定相关法律来解决。Theproblem(situation)issoseriousthatwehavetomakesomelawstodealwithitTheproblem(situation)isveryserioussothatwehavetomakesomelawstodealwithitBecausethisproblemisveryserious,wemustmakelawstodealwithitTheseriousproblemresultsinthenecessityofmakingsomelawstodealwithitTheseriousproblemresultedinthelawsthatwehadtomaketodealwithit现在许多农村人觉得看西医很贵在大多数情况下他们更愿意去看中医。ManyruralpeoplethinktreatmentofwesternmedicineissoexpensivethattheyprefertoseeadoctoroftraditionalChinesemedicineinmostcasesManyruralpeoplethinktreatmentofwesternmedicineistooexpensivesothattheyprefertoseeadoctoroftraditionalChinesemedicineinmostcasesBecausemanyruralpeoplethinktreatmentofwesternmedicineisveryexpensive,theyprefertoseeadoctoroftraditionalChinesemedicineinmostcasesExpensivetreatmentofwesternmedicineresultedinthepreferenceofruralpeopletoseeadoctoroftraditionalChinesemedicineinmostcasesTheexpensivetreatmentofwesternmedicineresultedinthepopularityoftraditionalChinesemedicineinmostcasesThehighexpensesofwesternmedicinetreatmentresultedinthepopularityoftraditionalChinesemedicineamongruralpeopleinmostcasesTheworryaboutthehighexpensesofwesternmedicinetreatmentof(among)theruralpeopleresultedintheirwillingness(preference)toseekmedicaltreatmentofthetraditionalChinesemedicineinmostcases艾滋病传播得很快已成为对社会的重大威胁之一。AIDSspreadssoquicklythatithasbecomeadangerousthreattooursocietyAIDSspreadsveryquicklysothatithasbecomeadangertooursocietySinceAIDSspreadsveryquickly,ithasbecomeagreatthreattooursociety人人都应养成保持公共卫生的良好习惯这样我们就能有一个干净整洁的生活、工作、游玩的环境。Everypersonshoulddevelopagoodhabittomaintainpublicsanitationsothatwecanhavecleanandcomfortablesurroundingsinwhichwelive,work,andplayEverypersonshouldkeepagoodhabittomaintainpublicsanitationsothatwecanhaveacleanandtidyenvironmentwherewelive,work,andplayIfeverypersonkeepsagoodhabittomaintainpublicsanitation,wecanhaveacleanandtidyenvironmentwherewelive,work,andplay卫生资源短缺使他们的处境很困难。TheshortageofmedicalresourcesputtheminaverydifficultpositionTheshortageofmedicalresourcesmadetheirconditionssituationverydifficultTheshortageofmedicalresourcesmadethemverydifficultTheshortageofmedicalresourcescausedagreatdifficultyforthemTheshortageofmedicalresourcesbroughtaboutledtoresultedinagreatdifficultyforthemTheshortageofmedicalresourcescausedthemtobeinadifficultsituation医生粗心大意就容易犯错误。CarelessnessofadoctorislikelytoleadtocauseresultinmistakesWhenadoctoriscareless,itislikelyforhimtomakemistakesAdoctormayprobablymakemistakesjustbecauseofcarelessness医院之间的竞争十分激烈大家都为了留住病人纷纷打起了技术、服务、环境、价格牌。AsBecauseSincethecompetitionbetweenhospitalsgrowsincreasinglyfierceintensestiff,hospitalsaretakingeffectivemeasuresconcerningtechnology,service,environmentandpricetoattractmorepatientsThefiercecompetitioncauseshospitalstomakeshospitalstakeeffectivemeasuresconcerningtechnology,service,environmentandpricetoattractmorepatients人口的数量迅速增加恶化了城市的卫生条件。TherapidincreaseofcitypopulationresultedinledtocausedpoorersanitaryconditionsBecausethecitypopulationincreasedrapidly,thesanitaryconditionsinthecitybecameworseandworseAsaresultofrapidlyincreasedpopulation,thesanitaryconditionsinthecitybecamepoorer环境、教育不同人的性格也不同。DifferentenvironmentsandeducationsresultinleadtodifferentpersonalitiesDifferentpersonalitiesresultfromarecausedbydifferentenvironmentsandeducationsBecauseofdifferentenvironmentsandeducations,peoplecandevelopdifferentpersonalitiesAsSinceBecausepeopleliveindifferentenvironmentsandreceivedifferenteducations,theirpersonalitiesaredifferent误诊是可怕的往往会导致悲剧。AterriblemisdiagnosisoftenresultsinleadstoatragedyAmisdiagnosiscanbeterrible,foritresultsinleadstoatragedyAtragedyoftenresultsfromisoftencausedbyaterriblemisdiagnosis疾病能给人类造成巨大损失。IllnesscanresultinleadtoagreatdamagelosstohumanbeingsAgreatdamagelosstohumanbeingscanresultfrombecausedbyfire据专家分析城市空气污染以上是由汽车造成的。Accordingtoexperts’analysis,morethanofairpollutionincitiesresultsfromiscausedbyautos洋快餐方便快捷、口味不同、环境舒适所以在大城市很流行。Theconvenience,differenttasteandcomfortablesurroundingsenvironmentofthewesternfastfoodcentersresultintheirpopularityinbigcitiesTheforeignfastfoodisservedconvenientlyandquickly,andinadifferenttasteandcomfortablesurroundingsenvironmentTherefore,itisverypopularinbigcitiesBecausetheforeignfastfoodisservedconvenientlyandquickly,andinadifferenttasteandcomfortablesurroundingsenvironment,itisverypopularinbigcities体育锻炼不仅强身健体还有助于心理愉快。PhysicaltrainingresultsinleadtobothastrongbodyandahappymindPhysicaltrainingcanmakepeoplestrongandhappy计算机使得我们的工作、生活、生产乃至我们的整个社会发生了巨大变化。Computershavebroughtaboutgreatchangestoourwork,lifeandproduction,eventothewholesocietyofoursComputershavemadeourwork,lifeandproduction,evenourwholesociety,changegreatlyComputershaveresultedincausedledtogreatchangesinourwork,life,productionandeventhewholesociety练习:用英语表达以下意念:.该病可以引起严重的心脏损伤。.接种过实验性疫苗的实验室的猴子产生了抗艾滋病病毒的抗体。.抗原使人体产生抗病的抗体。农村卫生资源严重不足的问题极大地影响了农村卫生事业。医生与病人进行语言交流能影响治疗效果。人类平均寿命的延长给人类和自然界带来的影响需要相当长的时间才能显现出来。禽流感给人们再次带来了恐慌相关国家和地区一些行业的经济也受到影响。最容易受到这种化学物品影响的是那些患有哮喘呼吸疾病的人。新的健康概念对整个现代医学产生了巨大影响。现在人们的消费能力提高了也舍得为孩子买高价的营养品。碳水化合物提供的热量不足导致蛋白质和脂肪不能发挥它们的功能。只有均衡营养素才能维持小儿的正常发育和健康。许多学生由于没有及时找医生进行心理治疗使得心理问题发展为心理障碍甚至成为心理疾病。长期郁闷压抑最终导致各种疾病症状出现。肝痛是工作紧张引起的。运动时应穿轻便的衣服这样在运动中产热增加时可以方便地脱掉。在寒冷环境下运动机体血管扩展大大降低了身体对寒冷的抵抗能力。身体内的能源物质消耗增多维生素的需求也增加。脂肪具有产热量多的特点增加脂肪有助于机体御寒。冬季遇大雾天晨练最好在室内进行一是雾天能见度低容易发生交通事故二是冬雾中含有对人体有害的污染物。过度节食者难免精疲力尽。实验表明吸人含有薄荷(mint)和百花香味(fragrance)的气体能使计算机操作人员明显减少操作失误。这类食物脂肪含量高胃肠一般难以承受容易出现消化不良并易诱发胆、胰疾患或使这类疾病复发、加重。老年人还要少吃甜食因为多余的糖在体内转化为脂肪容易引起无机盐缺乏。艾滋病病毒侵入人体后破坏人体免疫功能使人体发生多种不可治愈的感染和肿瘤最后导致被感染者死亡。艾滋病威胁着每一个人和每一个家庭预防艾滋病是全社会的责任。共用注射器、吸毒是传播艾滋病的重要途径因此要拒绝毒品珍爱生命。人类平均寿命无节制地延长将会给人类带来很多伦理困惑。许多头发问题源于一个人所吃的东西。好奇心和想象力常常导致成功。这个医生医术高明看病认真负责很受病人欢迎。由于没有固定场所和必需的设备这种社区健康教育服务最终未能坚持下去。显然热量的缺乏是导致这些小儿消瘦的主要原因。Referencekeys:.该病可以引起严重的心脏损伤。Thesicknesscanleadtoresultincausegiverisetoseriousheartdamage.接种过实验性疫苗的实验室的猴子产生了抗艾滋病病毒的抗体。ThelaboratorymonkeysthatgotanexperimentalvaccinemedicinedevelopedproducedantibodiesagainstAIDSvirus.抗原使人体产生抗病的抗体。AntigenscausethehumanbodytoproducedevelopantibodiesthatfightthediseaseAntigensmakethehumanbodyproducedevelopantibodiesthatfightthedisease农村卫生资源严重不足的问题极大地影响了农村卫生事业。InadequatemedicalresourcesintheruralareasgreatlyaffecttheruralmedicalcareSevereshortageofruralmedicalresourceshasaharmfuleffectontheruralmedicalcare医生与病人进行语言交流能影响治疗效果。TheverbalcommunicationbetweendoctorsandpatientscanhaveaneffectonthetreatmentoutcomesThespokencommunicationbetweendoctorsandpatientscanaffectthetreatmentresults人类平均寿命的延长给人类和自然界带来的影响需要相当长的时间才能显现出来。TheeffectsinfluencesimpactsthattheprolongedaveragehumanlifetimewillhaveonhumanbeingsandNaturewillbeshowninalongtimeItwilltakealongtimefortheeffectsofprolongedlifespantobecomeapparent禽流感给人们再次带来了恐慌相关国家和地区一些行业的经济也受到影响。ThebirdflubroughtpeopleanotherpanicwhichhadagreatharmfuleffectimpactontheeconomiesinthecountriesandareasattackedbythediseaseThebirdflumadepeoplescaredonceagainAsaconsequence,theeconomiesinthecountriesandareasattackedbythediseaseweregreatlyaffecteddamaged最容易受到这种化学物品影响的是那些患有哮喘呼吸疾病的人。ThepeoplemostlikelytobeaffectedbythischemicalarethosewhosufferfromthebreathingdisordercalledasthmaPeoplewithbreathingdisordersarelikelytobeaffectedbythechemical新的健康概念对整个现代医学产生了巨大影响。Thenewconceptofhealthhasproducedagreatinfluenceeffectimpactonthemodernmedicine现在人们的消费能力提高了也舍得为孩子买高价的营养品。AsBecausepeoplehavemoreconsumptionpower,theycanaffordtobuyexpensivenutritiousfoodfortheirchildrenAsBecausepeoplebecomerich,theycanbuyexpensivenutritiousfoodfortheirchildren碳水化合物提供的热量不足导致蛋白质和脂肪不能发挥它们的功能。Becausecarbohydratescannotsupplyenoughcalories,proteinandfatcannotfulfilltheirnormalfunctionsDuetoBecauseofinsufficientcaloriessuppliedbycarbohydrates,proteinandfatcannotfunctionwellTheproblemthatcarbohydratescannotsupplyenoughcaloriesmakesproteinandfatfailtoperformtheirnormalfunctions只有均衡营养素才能维持小儿的正常发育和健康。OnlybalancednutritioncanmaintainnormalgrowthandhealthofchildrenOnlybalancednutritioncanresultinleadtonormalgrowthandhealthofchildrenNormalgrowthandhealthofchildrencanonlyresultfrombalancednutritionOnlybalancednutritioncanmakechildrengrownormallyandhealthily许多学生由于没有及时找医生进行心理治疗使得心理问题发展为心理障碍甚至成为心理疾病。Becausemanystudentsfailedtoconsultapsychologicaldoctorintime,theirmentalproblemsdevelopedintomentalobstructions,orevenmentalillnessesManystudentsfailedtoconsultapsychologicaldoctorintimesothattheirmentalproblemsdevelopedintomentalobstructions,orevenmentalillnessesManystudentsfailedtoconsultapsychologicaldoctorintimeConsequentlyAsaresult,theirmentalproblemsdevelopedintomentalobstructions,orevenmentaldisorders长期郁闷压抑最终导致各种疾病症状出现。Longtermdepressioncancauseleadtoresultinsymptomsofavarietyofdiseases肝痛是工作紧张引起的。TheliverpainresultedfromwascausedbyintenseworkIntenseworkwasthecauseoftheliverpain运动时应穿轻便的衣服这样在运动中产热增加时可以方便地脱掉。TodoexercisesweshouldwearlightandconvenientclotheswhichcanbeeasilytakenoffwhenwebecomeveryhotduringexercisesWeshouldwearlightandconvenientclotheswhenwetakegetexercisesothattheycanbeeasilytakenoffafterwebecomeveryhotduringexerciseWeshouldwearlightandconvenientclotheswhenwetakegetexercise,becausewecaneasilytakethemoffafterwebecomeveryhotduringexercise在寒冷环境下运动机体血管扩展大大降低了身体对寒冷的抵抗能力。Whenwedoexercisesincoldenvironment,bloodvesselsofourbodywillbecomeexpandedConsequentlyTherefore,ourbody’sabilitytoresistcoldwillbegreatlyreducedBecausebloodvesselsofourbodywillexpandwhenwedoexercisesincoldwhether,ourbody’scoldresistancewillbegreatlyreduced身体内的能源物质消耗增多维生素的需求也增加。TheincreasedconsumptionofenergysubstancesinourbodyresultsinleadstocausesanincreasedneedforvitaminsBecausemoreenergymaterialsareusedupinourbody,weneedmorevitamins脂肪具有产热量多的特点增加脂肪有助于机体御寒。Becausefatcanproducemorecalories,tohavemorefathelpsourbodyresistcoldItishelpfultoourbody’scoldresistancetohavemorefatbecausefatproducesalotofcalories冬季遇大雾天晨练最好在室内进行一是雾天能见度低容易发生交通事故二是冬雾中含有对人体有害的污染物。Inaheavyfoggydayinwinter,morningexerciseshouldbedoneindoorsThisisbecauseatrafficaccidentislikelytohappeninsuchweatherandtherearemoreharmfulpollutantsinthewinterfogInaheavyfoggydayinwinter,morningexerciseshouldbedoneindoorsThereasonsarethatlowvisibilityintheheavyfogislikelytocauseatrafficaccidentandthatwinterfogcontainsharmfuldirtysubstances过度节食者难免精疲力尽。ExcessivedietingresultsinevitablyinfatigueandexhaustionExcessivedietingsurelymakespeoplefeelextremelytiredexhaustedExcessivedietingsurelycausespeopletofeelextremelytiredexhausted实验表明吸人含有薄荷(mint)和百花香味(fragrance)的气体能使计算机操作人员明显减少操作失误。ExperimentsshowedthatbreathinginairwithmintandfragrancecouldmakecomputeroperatorsgreatlyreduceoperationerrorsExperimentsshowedthatbreathinginairwithmintandfragrancecouldcausecomputeroperatorstoobviouslyreduceerrorsinoperationExperimentsshowedthatbreathinginairwithmintandfragrancecouldresultinmuchfeweroperationerrorsbycomputeroperators这类食物脂肪含量高胃肠一般难以承受容易出现消化不良并易诱发胆、胰疾患或使这类疾病复发、加重。Becausethiskindoffoodcontainstoomuchfatforstomachandintestinestobear,indigestionanddisordersofgallbladderandpancreasarelikelytohappen,orsucholddisorderscanrecurorbecomeworseToomuchfatinthiskindoffoodislikelytocauseleadtoresultindigestivedisordersormakeoldonesreturnorbecomeworse老年人还要少吃甜食因为多余的糖在体内转化为脂肪容易引起无机盐缺乏。Oldpeopleshouldtakelesssweetfood,becauseextrasugarwillturnintofatinthebodyandconsequentlycauseleadtoresultinlackofinorganicsalts艾滋病病毒侵入人体后破坏人体免疫功能使人体发生多种不可治愈的感染和肿瘤最后导致被感染者死亡。AfterAIDSvirusesinvadethehumanbodyanddestroytheimmunesystem,theycausethebodytodevelopvariousincurableinfectionsandtumorsandfinallycausethevictimtodieAIDSvirusesinvadethehumanbodyanddestroytheimmunesystemsothatvariousincurableinfectionsandtumorswilldevelopinthebodyandfinallymakethevictimdie艾滋病威胁着每一个人和每一个家庭预防艾滋病是全社会的责任。SinceAIDSisthreateningeverypersonandeveryfamily,itisadutyofthewholesocietytopreventthediseaseAIDSisthreateningeverypersonandeveryfamilysothatthewholesocietyhasadutytopreventthedisease共用注射器、吸毒是传播艾滋病的重要途径因此要拒绝毒品珍爱生命。AsBecauseAIDSischieflyspreadthroughsharinganeedletoinjectdrugs,weshouldrejectrefusedrugsandtakegoodcareofourlifeBecausesharinganeedletoinjectdrugsisachiefwayofspreadingforAIDS,weshouldrejectrefusedrugsandcherishourlife人类平均寿命无节制地延长将会给人类带来很多伦理困惑。TheunlimitedprolongedaveragelifetimeofhumanbeingswillcauseleadtoresultinmanyethicalproblemsItwillcauseleadtoresultinmanyethicalproblemstoprolongendlesslytheaveragelifetimeofhumanbeingsManyethicalproblemscanresultfrombecausedbytheunlimitedprolongedaveragelifetimeofhumanbeings许多头发问题源于一个人所吃的东西。ManyhairproblemsresultfromarecausedbywhatoneeatsWhatoneeatscanresultincauseleadtomanyproblems好奇心和想象力常常导致成功。CuriosityInterestandimaginationoftenresultinleadtosuccessCuriosityInterestandimaginationcanoftenmakeonesucceed这个医生医术高明看病认真负责很受病人欢迎。TheskillfultreatmentandresponsibilityofthedoctorresultedinleadtohispopularityamongpatientsBecausethedoctorwasveryskillfulandresponsible,heenjoyedagreatpopularityamonghispatientsBecauseofhismedicalskillsandresponsibility,thedoctorwasverypopularamongpatients由于没有固定场所和必需的设备这种社区健康教育服务最终未能坚持下去。Withoutregularplacesandnecessaryequipment,thecommunityhealtheducationcouldnotbecarriedontotheendDuetoBecauseoflackofregularplacesandnecessaryfacilities,thecommunityhealtheducationfailedtobecarriedon显然热量的缺乏是导致这些小儿消瘦的主要原因。ItisobviousthatinsufficientenergyhasresultedinledtothethinnessofthechildrenItisobviousthatinsufficientsupplyofcaloriesisthemaincauseofthethinnessofthechildrenThesechildrenareweakandthin,becausetheydonothaveenoughcalories

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

评分:

/69

意见
反馈

立即扫码关注

爱问共享资料微信公众号

返回
顶部

举报
资料