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首页 研究生论文写作:critical writing tips.pdf

研究生论文写作:critical writing tips.pdf

研究生论文写作:critical writing tips.p…

上传者: 小菠菜 2018-03-13 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《研究生论文写作:critical writing tipspdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含AshortguidetoessayplanningandstructureAshortguidetocriticalwritingforPostg符等。

AshortguidetoessayplanningandstructureAshortguidetocriticalwritingforPostgraduateTaughtstudentswwwintranetbirminghamacukascAshortguidetocriticalwritingforPostgraduateTaughtstudentsCriticalwritingIntroductionHasatutoreverputacommentononeofyouressayssuggestingthatyourwritingislsquotoodescriptiversquo,orlsquonotcriticalenoughrsquoItisaverycommonexperience,butthedifferencebetweenthesetwokindsofwritingisnotalwaysclearYouwillalmostcertainlyalreadybeexpertatwritingdescriptivelyHowever,soonerratherthanlaterinyourcourse,youmaywanttodevelopskillsforwritinginbothdescriptiveandcriticalwaysGenerallyspeaking,itiscriticalthinkingandcriticalwritingthattendstoattractpositivecommentsandhighermarksfromyourtutorsCharacteristicsWhatisdescriptivewritingDescriptivewritingisfactbasedExamplesinclude:FactsandfiguresaboutaparticularissueDescriptionofabackgroundtoacasestudyDetailsofanorganisationAnaccountofhowresearchwasundertakenAsummaryofasequenceofeventsDescriptionsofwhathappenedinanexperimentOnthenextpageisashortexampleofdescriptivewritingfromanessayonfilmhistoryandaspecificexhibitionlsquoThemostcharacteristicfeaturesofdescriptivewritingarethatitwilldescribesomething,butwillnotgobeyondanaccountofwhatappearstobetherersquo(UniversityofLeicesterLearningDevelopmentCentre,)AshortguidetocriticalwritingforPostgraduateTaughtstudentsThefirstjuxtapositionisbetweenOneWeekandGordonMattaClarkrsquosSplitting()OneWeektellsthestoryofanewlymarriedcouplemakingtheirfirsthome,andBusterKeatonplaysthehusbandwhobuildstheflatpackedhouseThetwentyfiveminutesflowswithaseriesofpredictableaccidents,suchasKeatonsawingapieceofwoodontheroofwhilstsittingontheendheiscuttingaway,hefallsandsimplycarriesonTherearetwokeymomentsofdestruction:firstlythestormwhichcausesthecompletedhousetospinoutofcontrol,whilstthecoupleandtheirguestsareinitandsecondlyatrainrunningthroughthehouse(whenthecoupletrytomoveittoitscorrectplot)(PostgraduatestudentEssay,Veryslightlyadapted,andusedwithpermission)ExampleDescriptivewritingTheparagraphdescribessomeincidentsinafilmThatrsquosfine,buttocarrymuchweightandtosatisfythemarker,theessaywillalsoneedsomecriticalwritingNowhereisashortexampleofcriticalwritingfromthesameessaySomecautionisrequiredwhenusingslapstickasaninterpretivemethodKeatonengineeredfilmsforcomiceffect,andasalludedtoearlier,itisunlikelythathewasseekingtointentionallychallengeconvention,orleavehisaudienceswiththoughtsoffailureandthefutilityoflifeAsBalandBryson()state,anevaluationofcontextcanrevealwhattheworkissupposedtobeKeatonrsquosfilmswerenotintendedasart,norasalensthroughwhichtoviewcontemporaryartFurther,itisunknownwhetheralloftheartistsrsquoworksexhibitedaredirectlyinfluencedbyanyoftheKeatonfilmsshownHowever,OrsquoDohertyrsquosnotionthatlsquoideasaremoreinterestingthanartrsquoisusefultoarticulatetheideathatKeatonrsquosprocesseshavegeneratedideasforthecurators(OrsquoDoherty,)SlapstickrsquoshistoricalcontextshouldnotpreventitsprocessesfrombeingusedasaninterpretativeapproachandasDillonrsquosthesessuggests(),thereismuchtobegainedfromapplyingthem(PostgraduatestudentEssay,Usedwithpermission)ExampleCriticalwritingInthisparagraph,bycontrastwithExample,thewritersuggeststheirowninterpretation,relatesthefilmmakerrsquosworktocriticaltheorists,andclearlypresentsherselfasbeingamemberofanacademiccommunitySeeforinstancethephraseslsquoslapstickrsquoshistoricalcontextrsquoandlsquothereismuchtobegainedbyapplyingitrsquoBoththeseindicatealevelofacademicconfidenceandofcomfortwithinthesubjectdisciplineoffilmstudiesWhatiscriticalwritingAsExamplesuggests,criticalwritingismorecomplex,andinvolvesmorediscussion,analysisandevaluationthandoesdescriptivewritingExamplesofcriticalwritingactivitiesinclude:EngagingwithevidenceOpenmindedandobjectiveenquiryPresentingreasonstodisputeaparticularfindingProvidinganalternativeapproachRecognisingthelimitationsofevidence:eitheryourevidenceortheevidenceprovidedbyothersThinkingaroundaspecificproblemApplyingcautionandhumilitywhenchallengingestablishedpositionsCriticalwritersmighttentativelysuggestanindependentpointofview,usingsuchphrasesaslsquoItcouldbearguedthatrsquoorlsquoAnalternativeviewpointmightsuggestthatrsquoCriticalwritingisaninvolvementinanacademicdebateItrequireslsquoarefusaltoaccepttheconclusionsofotherwriterswithoutevaluatingtheargumentsandevidencetheyprovidersquo(UniversityofLeicesterLearningDevelopmentCentre,)AshortguidetocriticalwritingforPostgraduateTaughtstudentsTOPTIPForpostgraduates,thinkingandwritingcriticallyisanexpectedpartofyourstudiesSodemonstrateyourcriticalwritingskillsbyexploringacademictheories,discussingevidence,andusingexcellentreferencingtechniquesAshortguidetocriticalwritingforPostgraduateTaughtstudentsDifferencesinsubjectdisciplinesWhendoyouusethesedifferentkindsofwritingDescriptivewritingndashwhenyouneedto:Criticalwritingndashwhenyouneedto:IntroduceOrganiseandevaluateevidencePresentfactseg,acasestudyMakecomparisonsbetweenmaterialsDescribehowanexperimentwascarriedoutAnalysewhysomethingdidnotworkListdetailseg,resourcesusedApplyyourownjudgementsOutlineareasofknowledgeMakelinksbetweenareasofknowledgeQuotefromwritersinthefieldWeighupalternativesProvideinformationordataEvaluatearguecontestSummariseDrawconclusionsAshortguidetocriticalwritingforPostgraduateTaughtstudentsCriticalwritingdependsonthesubjectwithwhichyouareengagingForinstance,comparethefollowingDisciplineFilmstudiesGeographyBusinessstudiesTopicCanTarantinoreallybedescribedasanauteurIsitpossibletocontaincoastalerosionalongtheNorfolkshorelineWhatlessonshastheNHSlearnedfromhospitalPFIcontractsthusfarEachofthethreedisciplineshasitsowndiscourseanditsownmodeofcriticalwritingCriticalwriting,likealltherestofacademicwriting,existsinparticularsubjectcontextYoucanonlylearntowritecriticallywithinagivencontextordisciplineConsequently,thisguidesimplyprovidesabriefoverviewGettingthebalancerightAcademicwritingoftenrequiressomeelementofbothdescriptiveandcriticalwritinginthesamedocumentThedescriptivewritinghelpsprovidesthestructureforcriticalthoughtItisusuallythelevelofcriticalanalysisinyouressaythatmarkersseek,anditiscriticalanalysisthatwillgainyoumoremarksConsequentlyitissoimportanttobeclearaboutthewayinwhichthemarkswillbeallocatedHowcanyouimproveyourcriticalwritingFigureonthenextpage,fromtheUniversityofPlymouth,providesyouwithsomeverysimplequestionstoaskyourselfasyouarewritingeachassignmentAtpostgraduatelevel,itisextremelyimportanttoseekfeedbackfromyourtutors,sothatwitheachassignment,youbecomeprogressivelyabletoengagewiththesubjectdisciplineUSEFULREFERENCESONCRITICALWRITINGCottrell,Stella()Criticalthinkingskills:DevelopingeffectiveanalysisandargumentndedLondon:PalgraveUniversityofLeicesterLearningDevelopmentCentre()WhatiscriticalwritingonlineAvailablefrom:http:wwwleacukofficesldresourceswritingwritingresourcescriticalwritingAccessedMarchAcademicSkillsCentreMarchAshortguidetocriticalwritingforPostgraduateTaughtstudentsFigureCriticalquestions:alinearmodel(PlymouthUniversityLearningDevelopmentUnit,)copyUniversityofBirminghamPrintedonarecycledgradepapercontainingpostconsumerwasteLibraryServicesEdgbaston,Birmingham,BTT,UnitedKingdomwwwbirminghamacuk

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