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首页 外语教师专业发展

外语教师专业发展.pptx

外语教师专业发展

xxj7584
2019-03-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《外语教师专业发展pptx》,可适用于综合领域

ForeignlanguageteachersprofessionaldevelopmentWhatisteacherprofessionaldevelopmentTeacherdevelopmentlooksbeyondinitialtraininganddealswiththeongoingprofessionaldevelopmentofteachers,particularlyininserviceeducationprogramsThisincludesafocusonteacherselfevaluation,investigationofdifferentdimensionsofteachingbetheteacher,andexaminationoftheteacherrsquosapproachtoteachingLongmanDictionaryofLanguageTeachingAppliedLinguistics,:)Teacherdevelopmentisatermusedintheliteraturetodescribeaprocessofcontinualintellectual,experiential,andattitudinalgrowthofteachersrdquo,whichallowsforldquocontinuedgrowthbothbeforeandthroughoutacareerrdquo,andldquotheintenthereistosuggestthatteacherscontinuetoevolveintheuse,adaptation,andapplicationoftheirartandcraftrdquo(DaleLange,)WhatisaprofessionAnoccupationrequiringadvancededucationandtraining,andinvolvingintellectualskills,asmedicine,law,theology,engineering,teaching,etcWebsterrsquosNWDALAprofessionisatypeofjobthatrequiresadvancededucationandtrainingCollinsCobuildDictionaryProfessionalismisthequalitiesofcompetenceandintegritydemonstratedbythebestpeopleinthefieldNewburyHouseDictionaryFourCriteriaforaProfessionEthicsCodesofconductandstandardsLegaladministrativeresponsibilitiesPersonalphilosophyofteachingBeingpartofaprofessionallearningcommunitySeekingadviceonhowtoimproveyourteachingPlanningforyourfuturedevelopmentasateacherTobeaprofessionalmeanshellipThreekindsofTeachers(JimScrivener,)ThreekindsofteachersSubjectMatterMethodologyPeopleExplainerradicInvolverradicradicEnablerradicradicradicEffectiveteachersResearchesonforeignlanguageteacherrsquosprofessionalquality研究者专业素养结构提出时间夏纪梅外语教育知识和观念、外语教学能力与研究能力朱纯外语知识和技能的能力、组织学生学习和运用外语的能力舒白梅对待学生情感和观念的态度、提问的技巧、启发式教学、师生关系Richards教学理论(含个人理论与公共理论)课堂教学与管理的技能外语交流技能学科知识(专业知识)教学推理与决策技能环境知识韩刚学科知识教学知识理论知识实践知识LarsenFreemanheightenedawareness,apositiveattitude,varioustypesofknowledge,thedevelopmentofskillsShulman的教师知识框架学科內容知识(ContentKnowledge)一般教学法知识(GeneralPedagogicalKnowledge)学科教学知识(PedagogicalContentKnowledge)課程知识(CurriculumKnowledge)学习者知识(KnowledgeofLearner)教学情境知识(KnowledgeofEducationalContext)教育价值知识(KnowledgeofEducationalValues)LeeSShulman()吴一安优秀外语教师的专业素质吴一安()研究了优秀外语教师行为特点和决策背后的精神世界归纳了优秀外语教师的专业素质的四个维度:()外语学科教学能力()外语教师职业观与职业道德()外语教学观()外语教师学习与发展观。(吴一安)KoehlerMishra的TPACK教师知识框架TPACK发展的五个层次(Niess)TPACK发展的五个层次认知(知识):教师能够使用技术并认识到可以将技术和数学内容相结合但还不能在教学中整合技术接受(劝说):教师赞成或者不赞成在教与学中使用适当的技术适应(决策):教师参与一些活动由此教师开始选择或者拒绝在教与学中使用适当的技术探索(执行):教师积极地在教与学中整合适当的技术提升(证实):教师评价在教与学中整合适当的技术的效果。(Niess)外语学科教学能力包括(吴一安):)具备熟练的英语口笔语运用能力、扎实的英语语言及其运用知识、宽广的知识面)善于营造能够激发学习兴趣和气氛和睦的课堂学习环境)善于抓住时机因势利导和鼓励学生)了解学生需求并善于根据学生需求衡量、确定和调整规定的教学内容)有明确的教学目标并善于根据目标组织教学活动)善于根据学生随时出现的需求及时调整教学)善于挖掘教学内容的人文内涵)善于以准确、流利为目标组织语言基本功训练)善于在课堂上抓住契机为学生创造学习机会)善于培养学生的学习能力和在学习方法上引导学生)善于抓住机会增进学生对英语语言及其运用体系的了解)明确自己的教学在整体课程中的位置。(吴一安)Pedagogicalcontentknowledge(Shulman,)knowledgeabouthowtoteacheffectively:thetheoriesandskillsthatyouneedindealingwiththesubjects,includingcurriculum,classroomaction,classroommanagement,materialdevelopment,assessment,contextspracticeandacademiccompetencePCKexistsattheintersectionofcontentandpedagogyPedagogicalcontentknowledgeldquoItrepresentstheblendingofcontentandpedagogyintoanunderstandingofhowparticulartopics,problems,orissuesareorganized,represented,andadaptedtothediverseinterestsandabilitiesoflearners,andpresentedforinstructionrdquo(p)ldquoinaword,thewaysofrepresentingandformulatingthesubjectthatmakeitcomprehensibletoothersrdquo(p)Pedagogicalcontentknowledgeincludesknowingwhatteachingapproachesfitthecontent,andhowelementsofthecontentcanbearrangedforbetterteachingtheoriesofepistemology(认识论)knowledgeofteachingstrategies,knowledgethatmightbeeitherfacilitativeordysfunctionalfortheparticularlearningtaskathandknowledgeofstudentsincludingtheirstrategies,priorconceptions,theirmisconceptionsaboutaparticulardomainandpotentialmisapplicationsofpriorknowledge学科教学知识(韩刚)ldquo学科教学知识rdquo(PCK)(Shulman,)被公认为最核心的教师知识是教师在教学实践中对其拥有和使用的学科知识与教学知识(含教学理论和实践知识)的一种高度融合具体表现为:教师对各种教学复杂因素及其关系的个人理解教师根据教学需求对学科知识所进行的一种筛选、重组和对教学形式的一种创造教师在特定课堂环境中为促进学习将知识、技能、策略、经验和智慧的综合运用。教师知识的本质()教师的ldquo默会知识rdquo(tacitknowledge)或ldquo隐性知识rdquo(implicitknowledge)支配着整个教学认识活动起着ldquo向导rdquo和ldquo主人rdquo的作用这种知识对教师发展更为重要ldquo因为人们能够识知的比人们能够讲述的外显知识(explicitknowledge)更多rdquo(Polanyi)教师在实践中并非总是依靠理论知识他们往往依靠自己的实践知识即行动中知识(knowinginaction)指导行动和解决问题(Schoumln)教师的个人知识应受到重视(ElbazConnellyCladinin,)这种ldquo本地rdquo的实践知识应合法地与ldquo外来rdquo的理论知识共同构成教师的知识基础(Shulman,,Verloop,)教师知识的本质()教师无论接受何种与教学相关的知识都会以他们个人已有的、来自其教学实践的知识为基础这些知识将形成一种难以改变的看法称之为ldquo教师信念rdquo(teachersrsquobeliefs)(WilliamBurden)教师的ldquo个人理论rdquo(personaltheories)直接影响着教师每天的教学决策(FreemanRichardsNunan)与教师发展相关的是教师是否根据个人已有经验和关于有效教学的理解、原则和信念去创造教学方法这些就是教师隐性的教学理论(Richards)。教师教育与发展的理论基础随着认识论哲学从实证主义向建构主义、解释主义的转向人们开始意识到:教学并非可以模仿的外在行为它是教师对教与学的一种个人理解或解释教师知识并非可以直接传授的客观知识它是教师在教育教学实践中逐渐形成与发展的一种融合了教师各种知识、技能、文化素养和经验的个人知识教师的发展并非直接接受知识的结果而是教师在实践、反思和团队交流的过程中建构个人教师知识(获得对教学的理解对教师身份的认同)的过程。(韩刚)TwowaysofprofessionaldevelopmentIndividualdevelopmentWritingteachingjournalCompilingateachingportfoliohellipCollaborativedevelopmentPeerobservationMentoringandcoachingCasestudyTeamteachinghellip(Bailey,etc:)TheJohariWindow((Bailey,etc:)KnowntoSelfUnknowntoSelfKnowntoOthersOpenSelfBlindSelfUnknowntoOthersSecretSelfHiddenSelfWallacersquosmodelsforteacherprofessionaldevelopment()Reflectivepracticemodelofprofessionaldevelopment(Wallace,)LanguagetrainingOtherrsquosexperienceReceivedexperienceOwnexperiencePracticeReflectionProfessionalcompetenceStageStageStageExperimentallearningcycle(Davidkolb,)ReflectionsExperienceisakeycomponentofteacherdevelopment,initselfitmaybeinsufficientasabasisforteacherdevelopment(RichardLockhart,:)ExperiencecombineswithreflectionsleadstogrowthTeacherswhodonrsquotbothertoreflectontheirworkareslavestoroutineandareguidedbyimpulse,tradition,andauthority(Dewey,)Teacherscanimprovetheirownteachingbyconsciouslyandsystematicallyreflectingontheirteachingexperiences(Farrell,,)BenefitsofreflectiveteachingReflectiveteachinghelpsfreetheteachersformimpulseandroutinebehaviorsReflectiveteachingallowsteacherstoactinadeliberate,intentionalmannerandavoidtheldquoIdonrsquotknowwhatIwilldotodayrdquosyndromeReflectiveteachingdistinguishesteachersaseducatedhumanbeingssinceitisoneofthesignsofintelligentactionAsteachersgainexperienceinacommunityofprofessionaleducators,theyfeeltheneedtogrowbeyondtheinitialstagesofsurvivalintheclassroomtoreconstructtheirownparticulartheoryfromtheirpractice(Farrell,:)CasestudyAcasehasldquoanarrative,sstory,ssetofeventsthatunfoldsovertimeinaparticularplacerdquo(Schumlan,:)Acasestartsfromidentificationofaparticularissueandtheninvolvesselectingamethodforcollectinginformationaboutithellipateachingcaseisreallyaldquofreezeframerdquoofaclassroomsituation(Farrell,:)CasestudyCasescanbeusedtoteachPrinciplesorconceptsofatheoreticalnaturePrecedentsforpracticemoralsorethicsStrategies,dispositions,andhabitsofmindVisionsorimagesofthepossible(Shulman,:)FeaturesofCasesTheyaretypical,memorableevents,criticalincidentsetcFromShulman(:)StatusasnarrativesContextualizationintimeanplaceActionresearchAimsSolvingproblemsimprovingpracticeEnhancingunderstanding(Nunan,b:)LabelofresearchbecauseQuestions,puzzlesorproblemsDataAnalysisorinterpretationModelofActionResearchTheDilemmaSpaceldquoRelativetootherprofessions,teachersstillhavetowrestleforstatusandrespect,andwhiletheyoftenareexpectedtobesmartandentrepreneurial,theyalsoareexpectedtobecompliantandconformingrdquo(Barnett,TheFutureoftheTeachingProfession)Thanks!

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