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首页 RRC NEBOSH UnitIGC1

RRC NEBOSH UnitIGC1.pdf

RRC NEBOSH UnitIGC1

环安卫_小草
2017-09-03 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《RRC NEBOSH UnitIGC1pdf》,可适用于领域

NEBOSHInternationalGeneralCertificateinOccupationalHealthandSafetyUnitIGCManagementofInternationalHealthandSafetyRRCTRAININGStGeorgersquosRoad,LondonSWDSTel()bullFax()supportrrccoukbullwwwrrccoukiiTHECOURSETEAMThefollowingwritershavecontributedtothiscourse:DRDAVIDTOWLSONMRTONYAGGISSACKNOWLEDGMENTCrowncopyrightmaterialisreproducedunderthetermsoftheClickUseLicenceRRCModuleNo:IGCcopyRRCTrainingAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyform,orbyanymeans,electronic,electrostatic,mechanical,photocopiedorotherwise,withouttheexpresspermissioninwritingfromRRCTrainingiiiNEBOSHInternationalCertificate|UnitIGC:ManagementofInternationalHealthandSafetyCONTENTSElementTitlePageIntroductiontoYourCourseFoundationsinHealthandSafetyIntroductionScopeandNatureofHealthandSafetyMoral,SocialandEconomicReasonsforMaintainingandPromotingHealthandSafetyRoleofNationalGovernmentsandInternationalBodiesinFormulatingAFrameworkforTheRegulationofHealthandSafetySourcesofInformationonHealthandSafetyKeyElementsofAHealthandSafetyManagementSystemSummaryPolicyIntroductionPurposeandImportanceofSettingPolicyforHealthandSafetyKeyFeaturesandAppropriateContentofanOrganisationrsquosHealthandSafetyPolicySummaryAppendix:SpecimenHealthandSafetyPolicyOrganisingforHealthandSafetyIntroductionOrganisationalHealthandSafetyRolesandResponsibilitiesConsultationwithEmployeesSummaryPromotingaPositiveHealthandSafetyCultureIntroductionConceptsofSafetyCultureFactorsInfluencingSafetyCultureFactorsInfluencingSafetyRelatedBehaviourImprovingHealthandSafetyCultureInternalandExternalInfluencesonHealthandSafetyManagementStandardsSummaryivElementTitlePageRiskAssessmentIntroductionAimsandObjectivesIdentifyingHazardsPrinciplesandPracticeofRiskAssessmentSummaryPrinciplesofControlIntroductionGeneralPrinciplesofControllingHazardsandReducingRiskSafeSystemsofWorkPermittoWorkSystemsEmergencyProceduresFirstAidSummaryMonitoring,ReviewandAuditIntroductionActiveandReactiveMonitoringWorkplaceInspectionsReviewofHealthandSafetyPerformanceAuditingSummaryOccupationalIncidentandAccidentInvestigation,RecordingandReportingIntroductionTheProcessandPurposeofInvestigatingOccupationalIncidentsOrganisationalRequirementsforRecordingandReportingIncidentsSummaryRevisionandExaminationPreparationIntroductionTheExaminationRevisionTechniqueExaminationTechniqueSpecialCircumstancesAffectingtheExaminationSuggestedAnswerstoRevisionQuestionsNEBOSHInternationalCertificate|UnitIGC:ManagementofInternationalHealthandSafetyNEBOSHInternationalGeneralCertificateElementTitlePageFoundationsinHealthandSafetyINTRODUCTIONndashSCOPEANDNATUREOFHEALTHANDSAFETYndashTHEMULTIDISCIPLINARYNATUREOFHEALTHANDSAFETYndashBARRIERSTOGOODSTANDARDSOFHEALTHANDSAFETYndashMEANINGSANDDISTINCTIONSndashREVISIONQUESTIONSndashMORAL,SOCIALANDECONOMICREASONSFORMAINTAININGANDPROMOTINGHEALTHANDSAFETYndashTHESIZEOFTHEPROBLEMndashTHENEEDTOPROVIDEASAFEPLACEOFWORK,SAFEPLANTANDEQUIPMENT,SAFESYSTEMSOFWORK,TRAININGANDSUPERVISION,ANDCOMPETENTEMPLOYEESndashTHEBUSINESSCASEFORHEALTHANDSAFETY:DIRECTANDINDIRECTCOSTSOFACCIDENTSANDILLHEALTHndashROLEOFNATIONALGOVERNMENTSANDINTERNATIONALBODIESINFORMULATINGAFRAMEWORKFORTHEREGULATIONOFHEALTHANDSAFETYndashEMPLOYERSrsquoRESPONSIBILITIESndashWORKERSrsquoRESPONSIBILITIESANDRIGHTSndashTHEROLEOFENFORCEMENTAGENCIESndashTHECONSEQUENCESOFNONCOMPLIANCEndashINTERNATIONALSTANDARDSANDCONVENTIONSndashSOURCESOFINFORMATIONONHEALTHANDSAFETYndashINTERNALndashEXTERNALndashREVISIONQUESTIONSndashKEYELEMENTSOFAHEALTHANDSAFETYMANAGEMENTSYSTEMndashSETTINGPOLICYndashORGANISINGndashPLANNINGANDIMPLEMENTINGndashEVALUATIONndashAUDITINGndashACTIONFORIMPROVEMENTndashCONTINUALIMPROVEMENTndashREVISIONQUESTIONSndashSUMMARYndashcopyRRCTrainingElement:FoundationsinHealthandSafetyIGCndashNEBOSHInternationalCertificate|UnitIGC:ManagementofInternationalHealthandSafetyNEBOSHInternationalGeneralCertificateElement|FoundationsinHealthandSafetyLearningOutcomesWhenyouhaveworkedthroughthiselementandansweredtheRevisionQuestions,youshouldbeabletodemonstrateunderstandingofthecontentthroughtheapplicationofknowledgetofamiliarandunfamiliarsituationsInparticularyoushouldbeableto:fracOutlinethescopeandnatureofoccupationalhealthandsafetyfracExplainbrieflythemoral,socialandeconomicreasonsforpromotinggoodstandardsofhealthandsafetyfracOutlinetheroleofnationalgovernmentsandinternationalbodiesinformulatingaframeworkfortheregulationofhealthandsafetyfracIdentifythenatureandkeysourcesofhealthandsafetyinformationfracOutlinethekeyelementsofahealthandsafetymanagementsystemIGCndashElement:FoundationsinHealthandSafetycopyRRCTrainingNEBOSHInternationalCertificate|UnitIGC:ManagementofInternationalHealthandSafetyINTRODUCTIONMostpeoplewouldagreethatpoorworkingconditionsofanytypehavethepotentialtoaffectanemployeersquoshealthandsafetyItwouldalsobeagreedthatouraimshouldbetoeliminateoratleastminimisetheriskofaccidentorinjuryandtoprotectemployeesfromtheeffectsofillhealthcausedbytheirworkingconditionsHowever,thoseaimsarenotthatsimpletoachieveinpracticeTakealmostanycountryintheworldandpeoplearestillkilledeitheratworkorasaresultofworkactivitiesmanymorehavenonfatalinjuriesatworkorsufferfromworkrelatedillhealthThecostofworkplaceaccidentsordiseasesisveryhighThereisbothadirectcosttotheemployerinlostworkingtime,medicalcosts,repairorreplacementofequipment,etc,andalsoamuchhigherindirectcostwhichaffectstheinjuredorsickemployeesandtheirfamiliesThiselementsetsoutaframeworkofhealthandsafetybylookingatthepractical,moralandfinancialissuessurroundingthegoalofasafeworkplaceenvironment,andthelegalandorganisationalframeworkwhichseekstoensurethatgoalcopyRRCTrainingElement:FoundationsinHealthandSafetyIGCndashNEBOSHInternationalCertificate|UnitIGC:ManagementofInternationalHealthandSafetySCOPEANDNATUREOFHEALTHANDSAFETYHealthandsafetyatworkisbasedonanunderstandingofthecausesofaccidentsandothereventsattheworkplacewhichleadtoharmtoemployeesandotherswhomaybeclosebyIngeneralterms,though,thisisperhapsnotaseasyasmayatfirstbethoughtTheMultiDisciplinaryNatureofHealthandSafetyTherootsofasystematicapproachtohealthandsafetylieinthedevelopmentoflargescalemanufacturingoperationsInthepast,factorymachinerywasoperatedwithlittleornoregardtothesafetyofemployeesanditwasnotunusualforfactorystaff(includingyoungchildren)tosufferbodilyinjuryfromunguardedmachinesReactingtotheseeffects,thecauseswereaddressedbyconcernedfactoryownersandpoliticians,alliedtoincreasingpressurefromemployeesthemselves,byputtinginprotectivemeasures(suchasmachineguards)anddevelopingsaferworkingpracticesAsscientificknowledgehasgrownandpoliticalandsocialconcernoverworkplacehealthandsafetyhasbroadened,theeffectsofworkhavebeenstudiedextensivelyTherangeofissuesidentified,whichstartedwiththoseclearlyidentifiablephysicalinjuriessuchaslosingfingersorarms,haswidenedtoincludelessapparentinjuries(suchasdeterioratingeyesightandbadbacks)andillnesses(bothphysicalandpsychological),whichveryoftenbuildupovertime,ratherthanbeingcausedbyasingleincidentThecausesoftheseproblemsthemselvesareoftennoteasilyidentifiableOccupationalhealthandsafetytoday,then,hasmovedalongwayfromitsengineeringrootsandbringstogetherawiderangeofsubjectspecialitiestoinvestigatewhattheilleffectsofworkareandwhatcausesthemItdrawsonthestudyofboththephysicalworldndashchemistry,physics,biology,etcndashandthesocialworld,ofhowandwhypeoplebehaveastheydoAsahealthandsafetypractitioner,youwouldnotexpecttobefamiliarwiththedetailofallthesesubjects,butshouldbeawareoftherangeofdifferentdisciplineswhichcontributetoknowledgeandunderstandingofhealthandsafetyissuesTheseinclude:bullChemistryandphysics,whichexplainthepropertiesofdifferentsubstancesandthewaysinwhichtheybehaveindifferentcircumstances,egelectricity,explosiveorflammablematerials,acid,etcbullBiologicalsciences(includingtoxicology,hygieneandmedicine),whichexplainthecompositionandprocessesoflivingorganisms,egtheeffectsofharmfulorganismsonpeople,theresponsesandreactionsofthehumanbodywhenunderphysicalstress,etcbullEngineering,whichisresponsiblefortheconstructionofbuildingsandmechanicalprocesses,egthesafedesignofmachineryandvehicles,fireproofingbuildings,etcbullPsychology,whichattemptstoexplainthebehaviouroftheindividual,egtheeffectsofstressonthemind,themotivationbehindthebehaviourofindividualsandgroupsattheworkplace,etcbullSociology,whichattemptstoexplainthebehaviourofpeopleingroups,egmanagementprocesses,patternsofwork,communicationinorganisations,etcbullThelaw,whichcontainstherulesandregulationsofsociety,egthemassoflawwhichdealswithworkplaceactivitiesIGCndashElement:FoundationsinHealthandSafetycopyRRCTrainingNEBOSHInternationalCertificate|UnitIGC:ManagementofInternationalHealthandSafetyBarrierstoGoodStandardsofHealthandSafetyAswehavenoted,healthandsafetyisbasedonremoving,orminimising,thecausesofaccidentsandothereventsintheworkplacewhichmayhaveadverseeffectsonemployeesItshouldbeclearnowthatthiscauseandeffectrelationshipisnotalwayseasilyidentifiableand,astheprocessesandactivitiesintheworkplacecontinuetodevelop,thatthecomplexityoftheproblemisacontinuingobstacletogoodstandardsofhealthandsafetyHowever,otherobstaclesarisefromthenatureoftheworkplaceitselfndashthecharacteristicsbothoftheorganisationwithinwhichworkiscarriedout(includingprivatecommercialbusinessesandpublicsectorbodies)andofthepeoplewhocarryouttheworkComplexityoftheProblemWecanseethreewaysinwhichtheissueofhealthandsafetyintheworkplaceisfarfromsimplebullTheCauseandEffectRelationshipWhilstthisisselfevidentinrespectofcertainevents,egdroppingastillburningcigaretteintoawastepaperbasketcancauseafire,therearemanyilleffectssufferedbypeopleatworkforwhichthereisnoreadilyidentifiablecauseor,wherethereisanidentifiablecause,itsrelationshipwiththeeffectdoesnotseemtobestraightforwardForexample,insomeofficesemployeeshavesufferedfromavarietyofsymptomssuchasheadaches,oreye,skin,noseandthroatirritations,etcwherethereisnooneapparentcauseRathertheproblemisattributedtoldquosickbuildingsyndromerdquondashageneraltermwhichmaycoverawholevarietyofcauses,includingthelighting,airconditioning,presenceofstaticelectricity,etcAnotherexampleisthatofworkrelatedupperlimbdisorders(WRULDforshort,or,asitwasoftenknowninthepast,repetitivestraininjuryorRSI),whichaffectsomeemployeesusingcomputerkeyboardsbutnotothersIngeneral,theseissuesmayberesolvedbyincreasingourscientificunderstandingofthenatureoftheinjuryorharm,andthewaysinwhichtheworkingenvironmentactstocausethemTheincidenceoflungdisordersamongcertainemployeeswasonlyattributedtotheworkplacewhenthelinkbetweenasbestosexposureandsuchhealthproblemswasestablished,andsincethentherehavebeeneverstrictercontrolsovertheuseofthesubstancebullWorkProcessesandActivitiesInmanycountries,thelastyearshasseenarevolutioninthewayinwhichworkiscarriedoutandthetypeofworkwhichisundertakenInthemain,thishasbeenfuelledbytechnologicalchangendashprimarily,thecomputerisationofmanufacturingandinformationprocessingndashandthedriveforincreasedefficiencyandproductivitytokeepcostsdowninthefaceofincreasingcompetitionTheeffectsincludeanincreaseintherangeandcomplexityofactivities,thespeedingupofoperationsandchangestothetraditionalpatternsoforganisationandmanagementTheincreasingcomplexityofthemodernworkplacehasperhapsincreasedtherangeofhazardsandrisksbullExtentoftheProblemItmaybearguedthatasthehazardsandriskstohealthhavebecomebetterunderstood,therangeofissueswhichhavetobetakenintoaccounthavethemselvesmadehealthandsafetymorecomplexReflectingthis,thelegislationandofficialguidancecoveringworkplaceshavesteadilyincreasedinbothnumberandcomplexityovertheyearsThoseresponsibleforhealthandsafetyhaveaneverincreasingtaskcopyRRCTrainingElement:FoundationsinHealthandSafetyIGCndashNEBOSHInternationalCertificate|UnitIGC:ManagementofInternationalHealthandSafetyofkeepinguptodatewithnewdevelopmentsandrequirements,andofimplementingappropriateresponsestothemthroughpoliciesandpractices,inanalreadycomplexworkingenvironmentCompetingandConflictingDemandsOrganisationsexisttoproducethegoodsandservicesdemandedofthembytheircustomersandclientsIftheydonotdothisanddoitprofitably,theywillgooutofbusinessor,inthecaseofpublicsectororganisations,therewillbepoliticalandormanagementchangestoensurethattheydoTheprimaryobjectiveofmanagementinacompetitiveandcostconsciousenvironmentthereforewillbetoachievethosegoalsBylookingatorganisationsinthisway,youcanseethathealthandsafetyrepresentsacost,whichmightberegardedasanonproductivecostinthatitdoesnotdirectlycontributetotheefficientprovisionofgoodsandservicesAsaresult,inmanyorganisations,healthandsafetyisnotapriorityofmanagementInstead,itmaybeseenasconflictingwiththeneedtoincreaseproduction,topursuehighersalesfiguresortocutcostsInthesituationwhereanemployertakeslittleresponsibilityfortheprotectionofhisemployeesrsquohealthandsafety,theresultwillbethatseriousworkplaceaccidents,injuriesordiseasesarecommonplaceBehaviouralIssuesThefirstthingweshouldnoteisthatforoccupationalhealthandsafetypracticetoworksuccessfully,therehastobethecollaborationandparticipationofboththeemployersandtheemployeesinhealthandsafetymattersTosomeextent,themanagementmeasurestakentoimplementgoodhealthandsafetystandardsatworkcanbeintegratedintotheworkingprocessesthemselves:guardsmaybeplacedonmachines,circuitbreakersincorporatedintoelectricalappliances,orautomaticfiredetectiondevicesfittedwhichimmediatelysetoffalarmswhentheysensethepresenceofsmokeHowever,mostmeasuresrely,toagreaterorlesserdegree,ontheactionsofemployeestomakethemeffectiveUnfortunately,thisisamajorsourceofweaknessIthasbeenestimatedthatofworkplaceaccidentsarecausedbyhumanaction(orlackofaction),withthemainreasonsforthisbeingignorance,carelessnessorincompetenceTheextenttowhichemployees,individuallyorcollectively,areconsciousofthehazardsandrisksattheworkplaceandaremotivatedtomaintainthenecessarystandardstoensuresafeworkingpracticescanvaryenormouslyThereareanumberoffactorswhichcaninfluencethis:bullConflictsbetweenindividualorgroupgoalsandtherequirementsofhealthandsafety,egthepursuitofhigherlevelsofoutputtoattractbonuspayments,workingexcessivenumbersofhours,orsimplypatternsofsocialinteractionwhichmaycausedistractionorlossofattentionbullIndividualcharacteristicsandsuitabilityforthejobndashincludingphysicalormentalcharacteristics,knowledgeandskills,temperament,personality,etcbullThesatisfactionofneedsthroughachievementsatworkndashtheextenttowhichthecharacteristicsofthejobandtheworkplacemeettheneedsofindividualsandprovideamotivationtoperformeffectivelyAllofthesefactorscanndashandshouldndashbeconsideredbymanagementintheinterestsofdevelopingandmaintainingasafeworkingenvironmentIGCndashElement:FoundationsinHealthandSafetycopyRRCTrainingNEBOSHInternationalCertificate|UnitIGC:ManagementofInternationalHealthandSafetyMeaningsandDistinctionsThesubjectofhealthandsafetyis,likeallsubjects,fullofitsownlanguageandterminologyndashwehavealreadystartedtousesome,suchashazardsandrisksItisimportanttobeclearaboutanumberofthebasicconceptsofthesubjectandhereweshalldefineandexplaincertainunderlyingprinciplesHealth,Safety,WelfareandEnvironmentalProtectionHealthandsafetyatworkisageneraltermtocoverawiderangeofeffectswhichmaybecreatedbyactivitiesandeventswhichoccurattheworkplaceExactlywhatiscoveredbullHealthrelatestothephysicalconditionofbothbodyandmind,ofallpeopleattheworkplace(employees,contractorsandvisitors)andtheirprotectionfromharmintheformofinjuryordiseasebullSafetyrelatestotheconditionsattheworkplaceandappliestothepursuitofastatewheretheriskofharmhasbeeneliminatedorreducedtoanacceptablelevelbullWelfarerelatestothegeneralwellbeingofemployeesattheworkplaceandthepromotionofconditionswhichhelptoprovidefortheirneedsinrespectofhealth,comfort,socialandpersonalwellbeingThisbroaderconceptofwelfareisnotaspecificconcernofhealthandsafetyatwork,buteffectivehealthandsafetymeasuresmaycontributetotheconditionswhichpromoteitbullEnvironmentalprotectioncanbeseenascomprisingtwotypes:minusTheworkplaceenvironment,whichrelatestothegeneralconditionsintheimmediateareaoftheworkplaceitself,eglevelsoflighting,noise,heat,etcminusTheexternalenvironment,whichrelatestopollutionof,ordamageto,theair,land,waterandlivingcreaturesoutsidetheworkplace,insofarastheymaybeaffectedbyworkplaceactivitiesThesecondtypeisnotgenerallyconsideredtobepartofhealthandsafetyatwork,sinceitsfocusisnotontheprotectionofpeopleattheworkplaceHowever,someoftheissueswithwhichitisconcernedaresharedwiththoseofhealthandsafetyandthereisadegreeofcommonpracticeandmethodsbetweenthemOccupationalAccidentsandOtherEventsItisusefultodefineseveraltypesofeventcommonlyconsideredinrelationtohealthandsafetyIncident:aneventthatgaverisetoanaccidentorhadthepotentialtoleadtoanaccident(thetermincidentincludesaccidentsandnearmisses(seebelow))Accident:thisiswidelyagreedtomeananundesiredevent,givingrisetodeath,illhealth,injury,damageorotherloss,eganemployeeisinjuredwhenheputshishandintoamachinefromwhichaguardhasbeenremovedNearmiss:thisisanyformofeventwhichcouldhaveresultedininjuryorlossbutdidnotinfactdosoConsiderthefollowingexample:anemployeerealisesthatamachineguardismissingandpullsouthishand,justgettingasmearofoilonhisfingersNearmissesmaybethesameeventswiththesamecausesastheaccidentsillustratedbefore,butwithadifferentoutcomeTheyaresignificantinthatlessonsshouldbelearnedfromtheminordertopreventthemreoccurringand,perhaps,causingharmthenexttimeInmanyregionsthroughouttheworld,certaintypesofeventsarereportabletotheenforcingauthorityByenforcingauthoritywemeantheexecutivebranchofthecopyRRCTrainingElement:FoundationsinHealthandSafetyIGCndashNEBOSHInternationalCertificate|UnitIGC:ManagementofInternationalHealthandSafetygovernmen

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