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Constructionalization.pdf

Constructionalization.pdf

上传者: 撩人的阿江 2017-09-13 评分1 评论0 下载0 收藏0 阅读量692 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Constructionalizationpdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含ConstructionalizationandConstructionalChangesELIZABETHCLOSSTRAUGOTTANDGRAE符等。

ConstructionalizationandConstructionalChangesELIZABETHCLOSSTRAUGOTTANDGRAEMETROUSDALEGreatClarendonStreet,Oxford,oxdp,UnitedKingdomOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversityrsquosobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountries#ElizabethClossTraugottandGraemeTrousdaleThemoralrightsoftheauthorshavebeenassertedFirstEditionpublishedinImpression:AllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,bylicence,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisworkinanyotherformandyoumustimposethissameconditiononanyacquirerPublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyOxfordUniversityPressMadisonAvenue,NewYork,NY,UnitedStatesofAmericaBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressControlNumber:ISBNndashndashndashndashPrintedinGreatBritainbyCPIGroup(UK)Ltd,Croydon,cryyContentsSeriesprefaceixAcknowledgementsxFiguresandtablesxiiAbbreviationsxiiiInventoryofnotationxvDatabasesandelectroniccorporaxviTheFrameworkIntroductionConstructionalapproachestolanguageBerkeleyConstructionGrammarSignBasedConstructionGrammarCognitiveConstructionGrammarRadicalConstructionGrammarCognitiveGrammarOurrepresentationofconstructionsNetworksandconstructiongrammarConstructionsandfactorsrelevanttothemConstructionscharacterizedSchematicity,productivity,andcompositionalitySchematicityProductivityCompositionalityAconstructionalviewofchangeAcharacterizationandexampleofconstructionalizationConstructionalchangesTherelationofconstructionalchangestoconstructionalizationInstantaneousconstructionalizationDiachronicworkparticularlyrelevanttothisbooklsquoConstructionrsquoasusedinearlierhistoricallinguisticsGrammaticalizationLexicalizationMechanismsofchangeNeoanalysis(lsquoreanalysisrsquo)Analogization(lsquoanalogyrsquo)WorkondiachronicconstructiongrammarEvidenceSummaryandoutlineofthebookAUsageBasedApproachtoSignChangeIntroductionUsagebasedmodelsStorageasaunitSanctionNetworksinausagebasedmodelTherelationshipbetweennetworks,languageprocessing,andlanguagelearningSpreadingactivationImplicationsforlsquoanalogyrsquoTypesoflinksRelationallinksInheritancelinksGrowth,obsolescence,andreconfigurationinanetworkThelifecycleofconstructionsGrowthatthemarginsStayingatthemarginsMarginalizationandlossofaconstructionReconfigurationoflinksCategories,gradience,andgradualnessAcasestudy:thedevelopmentofthewayconstructionrevisitedThewayconstructioninPDEPrecursorsofthewayconstructionConstructionalizationofthewayconstructionFurtherexpansionofthewayconstructionGrowthofthewayconstructioninanetworkThestatusofthewayconstructiononthelexicalgrammaticalgradientSummaryandsomequestionsGrammaticalConstructionalizationIntroductionApproachestogrammaticalizationGrammaticalizationasreductionandincreaseddependencyGrammaticalizationasexpansionTheinterconnectednessoftheGRandGEapproachesAconstructionalapproachtodirectionalityIncreaseinproductivityviContentsIncreaseinschematicityDecreaseincompositionalityTheinterweavingofGRandGEfactorsinconstructionalizationandconstructionalchangePossiblemotivationsfordirectionalityofchangeRethinkingdegrammaticalizationintermsofconstructionalizationDeinflectionalizationDebondingAcautionagainstprojectingoriginalusesfromthepresentAcasestudy:thedevelopmentofALLandWHATpseudocleftsPrecursorsofALLandWHATpseudocleftsEarlypseudocleftsThelaterhistoryofALLandWHATpseudocleftsDiscussionSummaryLexicalConstructionalizationIntroductionOnsomecharacteristicsoflexicalconstructionsSomeapproachestolexicalizationAllegeddiscreteoutputsoflexicalizationandgrammaticalizationLexicalizationasentryintotheinventoryTowardrethinkingviewsoflexicalizationinthelightoflexicalconstructionalizationChangingproductivity,schematicity,andcompositionalityinlexicalconstructionalizationProductivitySchematicityCompositionalityThedevelopmentoflexical(sub)schemasOEdomOEraeligdenChoicesamongnominalaffixoidsinOEandMEThedevelopmentofatomiclexicalconstructionsLexicalconstructionalizationofclausesandphrasesOntheinstantaneousdevelopmentofsomelexicalconstructionsLexicalconstructionalizationanddegrammaticalizationSummaryContentsviiContextsforConstructionalizationIntroductionAframeworkforthinkingaboutcontextsKeycontextualfactorsinpreconstructionalizationPostconstructionalizationcontextualchangesTypesofcontextsforconstructionalizationContextsforthedevelopmentofwordformationschemas:dom,raeligden,andlacPartitivecontextsforthedevelopmentofbinominalquantifiers:alotofContextsforthedevelopmentofanadjectiveofdifferenceintoaquantifier:severalContextsforthedevelopmentoffutureBEgoingtoSlotsascontextsforthedevelopmentofsnowclones:nottheADJestNintheNContextsfortheriseofpseudocleftsPersistenceofenablingcontextsSummaryReviewandFutureProspectsIntroductionThemajorobjectivesAsummativeexample:ishSomeareasforfurtherresearchReferencesIndexofkeyhistoricalexamplesIndexofnamesIndexofsubjectsviiiContentsSeriesprefaceModerndiachroniclinguisticshasimportantcontactswithothersubdisciplines,notablyfirstlanguageacquisition,learnabilitytheory,computationallinguistics,sociolinguistics,andthetraditionalphilologicalstudyoftextsItisnowrecognizedinthewiderfieldthatdiachroniclinguisticscanmakeanovelcontributiontolinguistictheory,tohistoricallinguistics,andarguablytocognitivesciencemorewidelyThisseriesprovidesaforumforworkinbothdiachronicandhistoricallinguistics,includingworkonchangeingrammar,sound,andmeaningwithinandacrosslanguagessynchronicstudiesoflanguagesinthepastanddescriptivehistoriesofoneormorelanguagesItisintendedtoreflectandencouragethelinksbetweenthesesubjectsandfieldssuchasthosementionedaboveThegoaloftheseriesistopublishhighqualitymonographsandcollectionsofpapersindiachroniclinguisticsgenerally,iestudiesfocusingonchangeinlinguisticstructure,andorchangeingrammars,whicharealsointendedtomakeacontributiontolinguistictheory,bydevelopingandadoptingacurrenttheoreticalmodel,byraisingwiderquestionsconcerningthenatureoflanguagechange,orbydevelopingtheoreticalconnectionswithotherareasoflinguisticsandcognitivescienceaslistedaboveThereisnobiastowardsaparticularlanguageorlanguagefamilyortowardsaparticulartheoreticalframeworkworkinalltheoreticalframeworks,andworkbasedonthedescriptivetraditionoflanguagetypology,aswellasquantitativelybasedworkusingtheoreticalideas,alsofeatureintheseriesAdamLedgewayandIanRobertsUniversityofCambridgeSeptemberAcknowledgementsComingtogripswiththechallengeofrethinkingmanyaspectsoflanguagechange,mostespeciallygrammaticalizationandlexicalizationinaconstructionalframework,hasrequiredtimeandmanyexploratorydiscussionsWehaveenjoyeddebatingandarguingpointswithalargenumberofstudentsandcolleagues,andespeciallybetweenourselvesThenumberofpeoplewhohaveinspiredusishugeandwearenotabletothankeveryonepersonallyElizabethTraugottparticularlythanksAlexanderBergsandGabrieleDiewaldforinvitinghertoparticipateintheworkshoponlsquoConstructionsandLanguageChangersquoheldinconjunctionwiththethInternationalConferenceonHistoricalLinguisticsinMadison,WI,,aneventthatwastheimpetusfortheworkdiscussedhereOtherconferenceswheresignificantopportunitiestodevelopanddiscussideasoccurredincludethethInternationalConferenceonConstructionGrammarinPrague,,organizedbyMirjamFried,theWorkshoponDiachronicConstructionGrammar,thSocietasLinguisticaEuropea,Logrontildeoin,organizedbyJoacutehannaBarethdalandSpikeGildea,andtheInternationalConferenceonGrammaticalizationTheoryandDatainRouen,organizedbySophieHancil,ThanksareduetocolleaguesattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences,Beijing,SouthwestUniversity,Chongqing,andtheUniversitiesofErlangen,Freiburg,SantiagodeCompostela,andStockholm,wheresomeoftheideasinthebookwerediscussedAboveall,thankstothestudentsandcolleaguesinTraugottrsquosseminarinatStanfordUniversityonconstructionalization,mostespeciallyRichardFutrell,MeichunLiu,JoannaNykiel,YoshikoMatsumoto,andFangqiongZhanGraemeTrousdalethanksaudiencesatanumberofconferencesandworkshops,includingbutnotlimitedtothoseatNewReflectionsonGrammaticalizationinLeuvenin,convenedbyBertCornillie,HubertCuyckens,KristinDavidse,TorstenLeuschner,andTanjaMortelmansCurrentTrendsinGrammaticalizationResearchinGroningenin,organizedbyMurielNordeandAlexandraLenzandtheworkshopontheoryanddataincognitivelinguisticsattherdSocietasLinguisticaEuropea,inVilniusin,organizedbyNikolasGisborneandWillemHollmannHeisalsogratefulfordiscussionswithcolleaguesandstudentsinEdinburgh,particularlyintheEnglishLanguageResearchGroup,andinhisEnglishGrammarclassBothauthorswouldliketothankthefollowingfriendsandcolleagues,whohavecommentedondraftsofthematerialpresentedhere:TineBreban,TimothyColleman,HendrikDeSmet,NikolasGisborne,MartinHilpert,WillemHollmann,RichardHudson,MurielNorde,AmandaPatten,PeterPetreacuteandFreekVandeVeldeWearealsogratefultoanonymousreviewers,boththosecommissionedbyOxfordUniversityPressfortheirhelpfulfeedbackonadraftversionofpartsofthemanuscript,andthoseinvolvedinreviewingthejournalpapersandbookchapterswewroteleadinguptothisbookFinally,wewouldliketothankJohnDaveyandcolleaguesatOxfordUniversityPressfortheirhelpandadvicewhileguidingthebookthroughthevariousstagesofpublicationAcknowledgementsxiFiguresandtablesFiguresModelofthesymbolicstructureofaconstructioninRadicalConstructionGrammar(Croft:)AsmallconceptualnetworkGradientofhierarchicrelationshipsamongconstructionsLangackerrsquos(:)representationofaconstructionalnetworkWaypatternsatthebeginningofthethcenturyWaypatternsattheendofthethcenturyWaypatternsattheendofthethcenturyQuantifieruseofsomesizenounsinCOBUILD(basedonBrems:)Theproductivitycline(basedonBarethdal:,)AschemaforsomelexicalconstructionsinableTablesDimensionsofconstructionsMotivationvsmechanismSubtypesoftheEnglishimpersonalconstructionConceptualaxesforworkonlanguagechangeCorrelationofgrammaticalityparameters(basedonLehmann:)CompatibilityofthedevelopmentofanewgrammaticalmicroconstructionwithLehmannrsquosprocessesofgrammaticalizationLexicalization,grammaticalization,orbothRelativefrequencyoffouraffixoidsGradualandinstantaneousconstructionalizationSchematicity,productivity,andcompositionalityinlexicalandgrammaticalconstructionalizationAbbreviationsACCaccusativeA(DJ)adjectiveAgtagentARTarticleCCconstructionalchangeCxznconstructionalizationDQUANTquantifyingdeterminerDATdativeDETdeterminerDIRdirectionalDISdiscourseEModEEarlyModernEnglishFformFutureGEgrammaticalizationasexpansionGENgenitiveGRgrammaticalizationasreductionHPSGHeadDrivenPhraseStructureGrammarINFinfinitiveLElexicalizationasexpansionLRlexicalizationasreductionMmeaningMEMiddleEnglishMODADJModifyingadjectiveModEModernEnglishMORPHmorphologyNnounNEGnegativeNOMnominativeNPnounphraseO(BJ)objectOBLobliqueOEOldEnglishPprepositionPDEPresentDayEnglishPOSSpossessivePPprepositionalphrasePRAGpragmaticsPRESpresentQuantquantityRecrecipientSAIsubjectauxiliaryinversionSBCGSignBasedConstructionGrammarSEMsemanticsSGsingularSUBJsubjectSUPERsuperlativeSYNsyntaxUGuniversalgrammarVverbVITRintransitiveverbVPverbphraseVTRtransitiveverbX,Y,ZvariablesxivAbbreviationsInventoryofnotationF$Mconstruction(whethermicroorschemalevel)$symboliclinkbetweenformandmeaninglsquoisneoanalyzedasbecomesrsquo##lsquofeedsrsquostronglinkbetweennodesweaklinkbetweennodesunderspecifiedsmallcapsalexicalconstructionunspecifiedformorphologicalstatus(egdom)|compound(egpick|pocket)affixoid(eghedeinMiddleEnglish)affix(egness)DatabasesandelectroniccorporaAmericanHeritageDictionaryoftheEnglishLanguageBoston:HoughtonMifflinHarcourt,thedBNCBritishNationalCorpus,version(BNCXMLEdition)DistributedbyOxfordUniversityComputingServicesonbehalfoftheBNCConsortiumhttp:wwwnatcorpoxacukBosworthTollerAnAngloSaxondictionary,basedonthemanuscriptcollectionsofthelateJosephBosworth(firstedition)andSupplement(firstedition),edbyJosephBosworthandTNorthcoteTollerDigitaleditionbySeanCristinhttp:wwwbosworthtollercomnodeCEECCorpusofEarlyEnglishCorrespondenceCompiledbyTerttuNevalainen,HelenaRaumolinBrunberg,JukkaKeraumlnen,MinnaNevala,ArjaNurmi,andMinnaPalanderCollinDepartmentofEnglish,UniversityofHelsinkihttp:wwwhelsinkifivariengCoRDcorporaCEECindexhtmlCLAbbreviationforCLMETEVusedincitationsCLMETEVTheCorpusofLateModernEnglishTexts(ExtendedVersion)CompiledbyHendrikDeSmetDepartmentofLinguistics,UniversityofLeuvenhttp:wwwhelsinkifivariengCoRDcorporaCLMETEVCOCATheCorpusofContemporaryAmericanEnglishndashCompiledbyMarkDaviesBrighamYoungUniversityhttp:corpusbyueducocaCOHACorpusofHistoricalAmericanEnglishndashCompiledbyMarkDaviesBrighamYoungUniversityhttp:corpusbyueducohaCWOCollinsWordbanksOnlinehttp:wwwcollinslanguagecomcontentsolutionswordbanksDOECDictionaryofOldEnglishCorpusOriginalreleasecompiledbyAngusCameron,AshleyCrandellAmos,SharonButler,andAntonettediPaoloHealeyReleasecompiledbyAntonettediPaoloHealey,JoanHolland,IanMcDougall,andDavidMcDougall,withXinXiangUniversityofTorontohttp:wwwhelsinkifivariengCoRDcorporaDOECindexhtmlFROWNTheFreiburgBrownCorpusOriginalreleasecompiledbyChristianMairReleasecompiledbyChristianMairandGeoffreyLeechhttp:wwwhelsinkifivariengCoRDcorporaFROWNGooglehttp:wwwgooglecomGoogleBookshttp:booksgooglecomHCHelsinkiCorpusofEnglishTextsCompiledbyMattiRissanen(Projectleader),MerjaKytouml(Projectsecretary)LeenaKahlasTarkka,MattiKilpiouml(OldEnglish)SaaraNevanlinna,IrmaTaavitsainen(MiddleEnglish)TerttuNevalainen,HelenaRaumolinBrunberg(EarlyModernEnglish)DepartmentofEnglish,UniversityofHelsinkihttp:wwwhelsinkifivariengCoRDcorporaHelsinkiCorpusindexhtmlICAMEInternationalComputerArchiveofModernandMedievalEnglishhttp:icameuibnoInnsbruckProseSamplerCorpusSamplernowincludedinInnsbruckCorpusofMiddleEnglishProsehttp:wwwuibkacatanglistikprojectsicametLIONEEBOEarlyEnglishBooksOnline,http:lionchadwyckcomLIONLiteratureOnline,ndashhttp:lionchadwyckcomMEDTheMiddleEnglishDictionaryndashAnnArbor:UniversityofMichiganPresshttp:wwwhtiumichedudictmedOBPTheOldBaileyProceedingsOnline,ndashTimHitchcock,RobertShoemaker,CliveEmsley,SharonHoward,andJamieMcLaughlin,etalwwwoldbaileyonlineorg,versionOEDOxfordEnglishDictionaryhttp:wwwoedcomPPCMBEPennParsedCorpusofModernBritishEnglishCompiledbyAnthonyKroch,BeatriceSantorini,andArielDiertaniUniversityofPennsylvaniahttp:wwwlingupenneduhistcorporaPPCMBERELEASEindexhtmlSBCSAESantaBarbaraCorpusofAmericanSpokenAmericanEnglish,PartsndashndashDuBois,John,etalPhiladelphiaPA:LinguisticDataConsortiumhttp:wwwlinguisticsucsbeduresearchsbcorpuscontentshtmlTIMETimeMagazineCorpusndashCompiledbyMarkDaviesBrighamYoungUniversityhttp:corpusbyuedutimeUrbanDictionaryhttp:wwwurbandictionarycomDatabasesandelectroniccorporaxvii

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