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首页 生命意义感量表

生命意义感量表.pdf

生命意义感量表

嘟嘟家的小胖
2017-11-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《生命意义感量表pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheMeaninginLifeQuestionnaire:AssessingthePresenceofandSearchforMeaninginLifeMichaelFStegerandPatriciaFrazierUniversityofMinnesotamdashTwinCitiesCampusShigehiroOishiUniversityofVirginiaMatthewKalerUniversityofMinnesotamdashTwinCitiesCampusCounselingpsychologistsoftenworkwithclientstoincreasetheirwellbeingaswellastodecreasetheirdistressOneimportantaspectofwellbeing,highlightedparticularlyinhumanistictheoriesofthecounselingprocess,isperceivedmeaninginlifeHowever,poormeasurementhashamperedresearchonmeaninginlifeInstudies,evidenceisprovidedfortheinternalconsistency,temporalstability,factorstructure,andvalidityoftheMeaninginLifeQuestionnaire(MLQ),anewitemmeasureofthepresenceof,andthesearchfor,meaninginlifeAmultitraitndashmultimethodmatrixdemonstratestheconvergentanddiscriminantvalidityoftheMLQsubscalesacrosstimeandinformants,incomparisonwithothermeaningscalesTheMLQoffersseveralimprovementsovercurrentmeaninginlifemeasures,includingnoitemoverlapwithdistressmeasures,astablefactorstructure,betterdiscriminantvalidity,abrieferformat,andtheabilitytomeasurethesearchformeaningKeywords:meaninginlife,purposeinlife,measurement,scaleconstruction,wellbeingInrecentyearstheconstructofmeaninginlifehasreceivedrenewedattentionandlegitimacy,perhapsinconjunctionwithagrowingfocusonpositivetraitsandpsychologicalstrengths(RyanDeci,SeligmanCsikszentmihalyi,)Invariably,meaninginlifeisregardedasapositivevariablemdashanindicatorofwellbeing(Ryff,),afacilitatorofadaptivecoping(ParkFolkman,),oramarkeroftherapeuticgrowth(CrumbaughMaholick,Frankl,)ArecentreportintheJournalofCounselingPsychologyadvocatedfortheunderstandingandassessmentofwellbeingvariablessuchasmeaninginlifeinordertopromoteclientgrowthandrecovery(Lent,)Despitesubstantialprogressovertheyearhistoryofempiricalresearchonmeaningandtheresurgencepresentlyoccurring,existingresearchseemsunabletoanswermanyfundamentalquestionsabouttheconstructWearguethatbettermeasurementwillhelpadvancethisresearchbyprovidingameasureoftherapeuticoutcomeandpersonalgrowththatcounselingpsychologistshistoricallyhavebeeninterestedin,particularlythoseinfluencedbythehumanistictraditionofpromotinggrowthandnotsimplydecreasingsymptomsThepurposeofthepresentresearchwastodevelopanimprovedmeasureofmeaninginlifeOverviewofMeaninginLifeLiteratureThedefinitionofmeaninginlifevariesthroughoutthefield,rangingfromcoherenceinonersquoslife(BattistaAlmond,RekerWong,)togoaldirectednessorpurposefulness(eg,RyffSinger,)toldquotheontologicalsignificanceoflifefromthepointofviewoftheexperiencingindividualrdquo(CrumbaughMaholick,,p)Othersoffersemanticdefinitions(eg,ldquoWhatdoesmylifemeanrdquoBaumeister,Yalom,)Likewise,thereisdiversityinperspectivesregardinghowtoachievemeaninginlifeBecausethereisnouniversalmeaningthatcanfiteveryonersquoslife(Frankl,),eachpersonmustcreatemeaninginhisorherownlife(BattistaAlmond,),whetherthroughthepursuitofimportantgoals(Klinger,)orthedevelopmentofacoherentlifenarrative(Kenyon,McAdams,)Baumeister()proposedthatafeelingofmeaningcanbeattainedbyfirstmeetingneedsforvalue,purpose,efficacy,andselfworthOthershaveindicatedtheimportanceofeverydaydecisionmakingandaction(Maddi,)orofselftranscendence(eg,Allport,Seligman,)inthecreationofmeaningDespitethesedifferencesindefinitionsof,androutesto,meaninginlife,theoristsuniformlyregardmeaningascrucialMeaningfullivinghasbeendirectlyequatedwithauthenticliving(Kenyon,),andineudaimonictheoriesofwellbeing,whichfocusonpersonalgrowthandpsychologicalstrengthsbeyondMichaelFSteger,PatriciaFrazier,andMatthewKaler,DepartmentofPsychology,UniversityofMinnesotamdashTwinCitiesCampusShigehiroOishi,DepartmentofPsychology,UniversityofVirginiaThisresearchwassupportedbyaHarrisonGoughGraduateResearchGranttoMichaelFStegerfromtheUniversityofMinnesotaPortionsofthisarticlewerepresentedatthendInternationalPositivePsychologySummit,October,Washington,DC,andattheSeventhEuropeanConferenceonPsychologicalAssessment,March,Málaga,SpainWethankBrandonSullivanandAndrewTixfortheircollectionofsomeofthedatausedinthesestudiesWealsothankMarkSnyderandToddKashdanfortheirhelpfulcommentsonadraftofthisarticleCorrespondenceconcerningthisarticleshouldbeaddressedtoMichaelFSteger,UniversityofMinnesota,DepartmentofPsychology,NElliottHall,EastRiverRoad,Minneapolis,MNEmail:stegumneduJournalofCounselingPsychologyCopyrightbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,Vol,No,ndash$DOI:pleasantaffect,meaningisimportant,whetherasacriticalcomponent(RyffSinger,)orasaresultofmaximizingonersquospotentials(eg,DeciRyan,Maslow,)Frankl()arguedthathumansarecharacterizedbyaldquowilltomeaning,rdquoaninnatedrivetofindmeaningandsignificanceintheirlives,andthatfailuretoachievemeaningresultsinpsychologicaldistressResearchhassupportedthisproposedlinkbetweenlackofmeaningandpsychologicaldistressHavinglessmeaninginlifehasbeenassociatedwithgreaterneedfortherapy(BattistaAlmond,),depressionandanxiety(eg,Debats,vanderLubbe,Wezeman,),andsuicidalideationandsubstanceabuse(eg,Harlow,Newcomb,Bentler,),aswellasotherformsofdistressHavingmoremeaninghasbeenpositivelyrelatedtoworkenjoyment(Bonebright,Clay,Ankenmann,),lifesatisfaction(eg,ChamberlainZika,b),andhappiness(Debatsetal,),amongothermeasuresofhealthypsychologicalfunctioningCounselingpsychologyhastraditionallyfocusedonpositivefunctioningandhumanstrengths,althoughmoreenergyhasbeenfocusedonldquoadaptingdeficitorpathologyorientedmodelstothetreatmentofrelativelywellfunctioningclientsthantoforging,testing,andapplyingmodelsofpsychologicalhealthrdquo(Lent,,p)LentfurtherarguedthatgreaterinquiryintowellbeingcouldleadtodevelopmentofmodelsofmentalhealththataddresstheneedsofpracticingpsychologistsSeveralcounselingpsychologistshavecommentedontheimportanceofmeaninginlifeandmeaningrelatedvariablestothehealthypersonality(DayRottinghaus,),psychotherapy(GelsoWoodhouse,),healthpsychology(eg,HarrisThoresen,),andcareercounseling(Savickas,)Meaningisoneofasetofgrowthrelatedvariablesthatarethoughttoprovidetheconditionsfromwhichhappinessarises(Lent,RyffSinger,)Thus,meaningmaycontributetothefoundationofoverallclienthappinessSomeclientsmayalsopresentwithadesiretobecomeactualizedandachieveadeepersenseofmeaningandpurpose(Lent,)Further,thecriseswithwhichclientsmostoftenpresentofferopportunitiesforgrowth,andgreatermeaningorpurposeinlifemaybeoneimportantoutcomeoftherapyInhismonograph,Lent()surveyedmanyoftheseissuesandalsocalledforeffortstopurifymeasuresofwellbeingconstructsthatoverlapinitemcontentThepresentstudiesdescribeexactlysuchaneffortOneshortcominginthemeaninginlifeliteratureconcernsmeasuresofmeaningMostmeaningresearchhasusedoneofthreemeasures:thePurposeinLifeTest(PILCrumbaughMaholick,),theLifeRegardIndex(LRIBattistaAlmond,),ortheSenseofCoherenceScale(Antonovsky,),whichisactuallyacopingdispositionmeasure(seeSammallahti,Holi,Komulainen,Aalberg,)SomewhatlessoftenusedaretheLifeAttitudeProfile(RekerPeacock,)andtheLifeAttitudeProfilemdashRevised(Reker,)andRyffrsquos()PurposeinLifesubscaleMany,ifnotall,ofthesescalesappeartohavecharacteristicsthatmuddlethenomologicalnetwork(CronbachMeehl,)ofmeaning,asoutlinednextMeaninginlifescaleshavebeencriticizedforbeingconfoundedonanitemlevelwithmanyofthevariablestheycorrelatewithintheirresearchapplications(Dyck,Frazier,Oishi,Steger,Garfield,Klinger,Yalom,)Forinstance,thePILandtheLRIcontainitemssuchasldquoWithregardtosuicide,IhavethoughtofitseriouslyasawayoutrdquoandldquoIfeelreallygoodaboutmyliferdquoTheseitemscouldtapanynumberofconstructsasidefrommeaning,suchasmoodAccordingtoClarkandWatson(),itemsassessingnearlyanynegativemoodtermwillcovaryhighlywithneuroticismEmpiricalfindingssupportthisidea,withdisconcertinglyhighcorrelationsobservedbetweenthePILandnegativeaffect(ndashZikaChamberlain,),positiveaffect(ZikaChamberlain,),andlifesatisfaction(ChamberlainZika,b)Othermeaningmeasuresalsoarehighlycorrelatedwithmeasuresofpositiveandnegativeaffect(eg,Debatsetal,ZikaChamberlain,)Theinvestigationofpotentialcorrelates,antecedents,andconsequencesofmeaninginlifeishamperedifitemsareincludedinmeaningmeasuresthattaptheserelatedconstructsFurthermore,thefactorstructuresofmeaningmeasureshavebeensomewhatproblematicEmpiricaltestinghasrevealedstructuresdifferentfromthosetheorizedforallofthemeasuresofmeaningthathavebeenexamined(see,eg,ChamberlainZika,bMcGregorLittle,)Inaddition,thefactorstructuresofoftenusedmeaningmeasuressuchasthePILandLRIhavevariedfromstudytostudy(eg,compareChamberlainZika,a,withRekerCousins,,andMcGregorLittle,),possiblyowingtothepresenceofmultiplecontentdomainsFinally,giventhatFranklrsquos()work,particularlyManrsquosSearchforMeaning,hasbeengivencreditfortheemergenceofmeaningasanimportantvariable(WongFry,),itissurprisingthatthesearchformeaninginlifehasbeenallbutneglectedMaddi()alsoarguedthatthesearchformeaningisafundamentalhumanmotivationCrumbaugh()designedtheSeekingofNoeticGoalsScaletoassesstheldquowilltomeaning,rdquobutcriticismofthatmeasurehasbeensevere(eg,Dyck,Moreland,),andithasgonealmostcompletelyunusedWesoughttoaddresstheseconcernsbydevelopinganewmeasureofmeaninginlifeWedefinedmeaninginlifeasthesensemadeof,andsignificancefeltregarding,thenatureofonersquosbeingandexistenceThisdefinitionrepresentsanefforttoencompassallofthemajordefinitionsofmeaningandallowsrespondentstousetheirowncriteriaformeaningBattistaandAlmond()arguedforaldquorelativisticrdquotheoryofmeaninginlife,inwhichnopredeterminedconstraintsareplacedonhowpeoplemaydefinemeaningintheirlivesThistheorywasinsomewaysaresponsetoconcernsthatthePILhadincorporatedavarietyofvaluesinthemeasurementofmeaning,suchasexcitementandresponsibility,thatpredicatedhavingmeaningonendorsingthesevaluesOurapproachwasalsoconsistentwithargumentsthateachindividualuniquelyconstructshisorherownlifersquosmeaning(eg,Frankl,)Asimilarmethodhasbeenusedsuccessfullyintheassessmentofsubjectivewellbeing(see,eg,Diener,Emmons,Larsen,Griffin,LyubomirskyLepper,)InStudiesandwetestedtheitempoolandassessedthestructural,convergent,anddiscriminantvalidityoftheMeaninginLifeQuestionnaire(MLQ)InStudyweusedamultitraitndashmultimethodmatrixdesigntomorerigorouslyassesstheconvergentanddiscriminantvalidityoftheMLQStudyalsoprovidesacomparisonoftheMLQwiththetwomostusedmeaningmeasuresStudyaThepurposeofStudywastocreateandtestanitempoolfortheconstructionofameasureofmeaninginlifeStudyaprovidedASSESSINGMEANINGINLIFEtheinitialtestingofitemsandfactorstructureStudybrefinedtheitemsusingconfirmatoryfactoranalyses(CFA)EffortsfirstweremadetofullysamplethecontentdomainofmeaninginlifethroughareviewoftheoriesandexistingmeasuresofmeaninginlifeandthesearchformeaningItemswerewrittentooversamplecontentrelevanttomeaninginlife(eg,ClarkWatson,Reise,Waller,Comrey,)andwereevaluatedwithregardtoclarity(eg,notaskingtwoquestionsinanitemsee,eg,Dawis,Visser,Krosnick,Lavrakas,)andcontentspecificity(eg,notreferringtopositiveornegativeaffectsee,eg,ClarkWatson,)EightythreeitemswereinitiallygeneratedTwooftheauthorsandtwotrainedresearchassistantsevaluatedtheseitemswithregardtotheabovecriteria,andwereretainedTheseitemswereadministeredtoasampleofundergraduatestudentstoobtaindataforfactoranalysesandscalerevisionInaddition,weexaminedtheconvergentvalidityofthenewmeaningscalebyassessingcorrelationswithmeasuresoflifesatisfaction,positiveaffect,personality(extraversionandagreeableness),andintrinsicreligiosity,andweassesseddiscriminantvalidityviacorrelationswithmeasuresofsocialdesirability,extrinsicreligiosity,andvaluesWefurtherhypothesizednegativecorrelationswithneuroticismanddepressionMethodParticipantsandProcedureTheparticipantsinthisstudywereundergraduateintroductorypsychologystudentsTheirmeanagewasyears(SD)ParticipantswerefemalemostwereCaucasian(),followedbyAsian(),AfricanAmerican(),NativeAmerican(),AsianAmerican(),andHispanic(),withofparticipantsendorsingldquootherrdquoParticipantswereadministeredtheitemsthatmettheabovecriteriaandcompletedadditionalselfreportinventories,asreportedbelowMeasuresInadditiontoassessmentofdemographicvariables,severalmeasuresweredistributedwiththeMLQitemstoasubsetoftheparticipantstoobtainevidenceofconvergentanddiscriminantvalidityfortheMLQasameasureofthepresenceofmeaninginlifeasscaleconstructionproceeded(seeClarkWatson,)Allofthemeasuresused,exceptforthevaluesmeasure,wereselectedbecauseofdemonstratedvalidityandreliabilityinpreviousstudiesResultsofconvergentanddiscriminantvalidityanalysesarepresentedattheendofStudybTheSatisfactionWithLifeScale(SWLSDieneretal,)isawidelyusedandwellvalidatedmeasureoflifesatisfactionSatisfactionwithliferepresentsthecognitiveaspectofsubjectivewellbeing(Lucas,Diener,Suh,)RespondentsuseapointscalerangingfromstronglydisagreetostronglyagreetoratethescalersquosfiveitemsTheSWLShasdemonstratedgoodreliability,aswellasconvergentanddiscriminantvalidity(forareview,seePavotDiener,)Internalconsistencyinthepresentsamplewasgood()TheLongTermAffectScale(LTASDiener,Smith,Fujita,)wasusedtoassesstheaffectivecomponentofsubjectivewellbeingTheLTASconsistsofaffectiveadjectivesthatmakeuptwopositive(Joy,Love)andfournegative(Shame,Fear,Anger,andSadness)affectscalesAdjectivesareratedonpointscales,onwhichparticipantsindicatehowoftentheyfelteachemotioninthepastmonth,fromalwaystoneverDieneretalhaveestablishedtheinternalconsistencyandconvergentanddiscriminantvalidityoftheLTASExtraversion(),conscientiousness(),openness(),agreeableness(),andneuroticism()weremeasuredusingeightitemseachfromSaucierrsquos()MiniMarkersSaucierpresentedvalidityinformationintheformofprincipalcomponentsanalysisthatmappedontothepervasivefivefactortheoryofpersonalityParticipantsalsocompletedtheBriefSymptomInventory(BSIDerogatisSpencer,)DepressionsubscaleTheBSIisashortversionoftheSymptomCheckList,whichassessesselfreportsofpsychologicaldistress()Participantsindicatedthedegreetowhichtheyexperiencedsixdepressionsymptoms(eg,feelingblue)overthepastmonthResponsesweremadeonapointscale(notatalltoextremely)DerogatishaspresentedresearchsupportingthereliabilityandvalidityoftheBSIasameasureofpsychologicaldistressTheitemIntrinsicExtrinsicReligiosityScale(GorsuchMcPherson,)wasusedtoassesstheextenttowhichindividualsengageinreligiouscommitmentsforthesakeoffaithitself(IntrinsicReligiosity,)versususingreligionasaninstrumentalmeanstootherends(ExtrinsicReligiosity,)Eightitemsassessintrinsicreligiosityonascalefrom(stronglydisagree)to(stronglyagree),andsixitemsassessextrinsicreligiosityonthesamescaleConsistentwithotherresearchersinterestedinavoidingthepotentialChristianbiasinsomeitems(eg,Bouchard,McGue,Lykken,Tellegen,),thetermldquochurchrdquowasreplacedwithldquoreligiousservicesrdquoTheIntrinsicExtrinsicReligiosityScalehasbeenrecommendedasthebestavailableinstrumentforresearchinreligion(VanWicklin,)ParticipantscompletedtheitemMarlowendashCrowneSocialDesirabilityScale(CrowneMarlowe,),awidelyusedinventorythatassessestheneedtoobtainsocialapprovalusingaseriesofstatementsconcerningsociallydesirableopinionsorbehaviorsthatmostpeoplecannottruthfullyclaimtoadheretoatalltimes,aswellasstatementsofsociallyundesirableopinionsorbehaviorsthathavebeentrueformostpeopleatleastsomeofthetime()ThosewhorespondtruetomanyofthesociallydesirableandfalsetomanyofthesociallyundesirablestatementshaveahighneedforsocialapprovalthatispresumedtoaffecttheirresponsestopsychologicalmeasuresFinally,valuesweremeasuredbyhavingparticipantsrankinorderofimportancedescriptorsofthevaluetypes(security,power,achievement,hedonism,stimulation,selfdirection,universalism,benevolence,tradition,andconformity)proposedbySchwartzandSagiv()Thus,analyseswereoftherelationbetweenscoresonMLQscalesandtherelativeimportanceofeachvalueindividually,ratherthanwithafullscalescoreSchwartzrsquosvaluesscalehasreceivedconsiderableattention,anditspsychometricpropertieshavebeensupportedinnumerousstudiesApairwisecomparisonformofthesevalueshasbeenusedsuccessfullyinthepast(ie,Oishi,Diener,Suh,Lucas,)ResultsandDiscussionThecorrelationmatrixoftheitemswasfirstsubjectedtoaprincipalaxisfactoranalysis(PFA)withoblique,directobliminrotation(deltas)PFAwaschosenoverprincipalcomponentsanalysisbecauseprincipalcomponentsanalysisintroducesmorespuriouscommonvarianceintosolutions(Comrey,),assumesperfectmeasurement(FinchWest,),andismoreappropriatefordatareductionthanlatentvariableidentification(FloydWidaman,)PFAwillgenerallyproduceresultssimilartothoseofmaximumlikelihoodextraction(whichwasthecaseinthesestudieswhenduplicateanalyseswereperformed)andislesssensitivetononnormality(FinchWest,)Screeplotanalysisindicatedthatasmanyassixfactorscouldbepresentinthedata,witheigenvaluesof,,,,,and,butstronglysuggestedtheexistenceoftwodominantfactorsTheoverallaimofscaledevelopmentistocreateSTEGER,FRAZIER,OISHI,ANDKALERindicesoftheoreticallyinterestingandinterpretableconstructsTherefore,weexaminedtherotatedpatternmatrixoftheinitialitempoolwithaneyeforwhetherthefactorsfocusedonimportantmeaninginliferelatedconstructsorwhethertheyappearedtofocusonextraneouscontentThefirstfactorclearlytappedthepresenceofmeaningorpurposeinapersonrsquoslifeThesecondfactorcapturedthesearchformeaningThesetwofactorswereofsubstantialtheoreticalinterestgivenpreviousresearchonthepresenceofmeaninginpeoplersquoslivesandtheemphasisonthesearchformeaning(eg,Frankl,Maddi,)Factors,,andappearedeithertoberedundantwiththepresenceofmeaningfactor,centeraroundskepticismregardingtheexistenceofanldquoultimatemeaningoflife,rdquoorassessgoaldirectednessThesixthfactorconsistedofoneitemthatloadedmorehighlyontheredundantmeaninginlifefactorNext,thetwoprincipalfactorsdescribedabove(labeledPresenceandSearch)wereextractedfromtheitemsandobliquelyrotatedTocreateindependencebetweenthescales,weusedacriterionoffactorloadingsaboveontheintendedfactorandbelowontheotherfactorforitemretention(seeWatson,Clark,Tellegen,)Seventeenitemsmetthiscriterion(onthePresencesubscale,ontheSearchsubscale)TheseitemsweretestedandfurtherrefinedusingCFAinStudybStudybWeusedCFAtofurtherrefinetheitempoolforassessingthePresenceandSearchfactorsThemodificationindicesandempiricaltestsofmodelfitavailableinCFAprovideexcellentinformationforrefiningandrevisingscales(FloydWidaman,)However,asmodificationindicesfromtheCFAswereusedtorevisethescales,replicationinindependentsamplesisespeciallyimportant(FloydWidaman,Reiseetal,)ThisreplicationwasdoneinStudiesandMethodParticipantswererecruitedfromundergraduateintroductorypsychologyclassesTheparticipantswereonaverageyearsofage(SD)andmostlyfemale()mostwereCaucasian(),followedbyAsian(),NativeAmerican(),AfricanAmerican(),AsianAmerican(),andHispanic(),withendorsingldquootherrdquoTheitemsloadingonthePresenceandSearchfactorsretainedinStudyaweresubjectedtoCFA,usingthestructuralequationmodelingprogramAMOS(Arbuckle,)ResultsandDiscussionWeassessedgoodnessoffitwithavarietyoffitindices,asiswidelyrecommended(scoresbelow

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