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首页 2000-2012年历年考研英语真题(2013考研英语)免费下载

2000-2012年历年考研英语真题(2013考研英语)免费下载.doc

2000-2012年历年考研英语真题(2013考研英语)免费下载

溪水湾里
2017-12-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《2000-2012年历年考研英语真题(2013考研英语)免费下载doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

年考研英语一真题及答案SectionIUseofEnglishDirections:AncientGreekphilosopherAristotleviewedlaughterasldquoabodilyexerciseprecioustohealthrdquoButshyshyshysomeclaimstothecontrary,laughingprobablyhaslittleinfluenceonphysicalfilnessLaughterdoesshorttermchangesinthefunctionoftheheartanditsbloodvessels,heartrateandoxygenconsumptionButbecausehardlaughterisdifficultto,agoodlaughisunlikelytohavebenefitstheway,say,walkingorjoggingdoes,insteadofstrainingmusclestobuildthem,asexercisedoes,laughterapparentlyaccomplishesthe,studiesdatingbacktothersquosindicatethatlaughtermuscles,SuchbodilyreactionmightconceivablyhelptheeffectsofpsychologicalstressAnyway,theactoflaughingprobablydoesproduceothertypesoffeedback,thatimproveanindividualrsquosemotionalstateoneclassicaltheoryofemotion,ourfeelingsarepartiallyrootedphysicalreactionsItwasarguedattheendofthethcenturythathumansdonotcrytheyaresadbuttheybecomesadwhentetearsbegintoflowAlthoughsadnessalsotears,evidencesuggeststhatemotionscanflowmuscularresponsesInanexperimentpublishedin,socialpsychologistFritz.AamongBexceptCdespiteDlike.AreflectBdemandCindicateDproduce.AstabilizingBboostingCimpairingDdetermining.AtransmitBsustainCevaluateDobserve.AmeasurableBmanageableCaffordableDrenewable.AInturnBInfactCInadditionDInbrief.AoppositeBimpossibleCaverageDexpected.AhardensBweakensCtightensDrelaxes.AaggravateBgenerateCmoderateDenhance.AphysicalBmentlCsubconsciousDinternal.AExceptforBAccordingtoCDuetoDAsfor.AwithBonCinDat.AunlessBuntilCifDbecause.AexhaustsBfollowsCprecedesDsuppresses.AintoBfromCtowardsDbeyond.AfetchBbiteCpickDhold.AdisappointedBexcitedCjoyfulDindifferent.AadaptedBcateredCturnedDreacted.AsuggestingBrequiringCmentioningDsupposing.AEventuallyBConsequentlyCSimilarlyDConverselySectionIIReadingComprehensionPartADirections:ReadthefollowingfourtextsAnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorDMarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET(points)TextThedecisionoftheNewYorkPhilharmonictohireAlanGilbertasitsnextmusicdirectorhasbeenthetalkoftheclassicalmusicworldeversincethesuddenannouncementofhisappointmentinForthemostpart,theresponsehasbeenfavorable,tosaytheleastldquoHooray!Atlast!rdquowroteAnthonyTommasini,asobersidedclassicalmusiccriticOneofthereasonswhytheappointmentcameassuchasurprise,however,isthatGilbertiscomparativelylittleknownEvenTommasini,whohadadvocatedGilbertrsquosappointmentintheTimes,callshimldquoanunpretentiousmusicianwithnoairoftheformidableconductorabouthimrdquoAsadescriptionofthenextmusicdirectorofanorchestrathathashithertobeenledbymusicianslikeGustavMahlerandPierreBoulez,thatseemslikelytohavestruckatleastsomeTimesreadersasfaintpraiseFormypart,IhavenoideawhetherGilbertisagreatconductororevenagoodoneTobesure,heperformsanimpressivevarietyofinterestingcompositions,butitisnotnecessaryformetovisitAveryFisherHall,oranywhereelse,tohearinterestingorchestralmusicAllIhavetodoistogotomyCDshelf,orbootupmycomputeranddownloadstillmorerecordedmusicfromiTunesDevotedconcertgoerswhoreplythatrecordingsarenosubstituteforliveperformancearemissingthepointForthetime,attention,andmoneyoftheartlovingpublic,classicalinstrumentalistsmustcompetenotonlywithoperahouses,dancetroupes,theatercompanies,andmuseums,butalsowiththerecordedperformancesofthegreatclassicalmusiciansofthethcenturyThererecordingsarecheap,availableeverywhere,andveryoftenmuchhigherinartisticqualitythantodayrsquosliveperformancesmoreover,theycanbeldquoconsumedrdquoatatimeandplaceofthelistenerrsquoschoosingThewidespreadavailabilityofsuchrecordingshasthusbroughtaboutacrisisintheinstitutionofthetraditionalclassicalconcertOnepossibleresponseisforclassicalperformerstoprogramattractivenewmusicthatisnotyetavailableonrecordGilbertrsquosowninterestinnewmusichasbeenwidelynoted:AlexRoss,aclassicalmusiccritic,hasdescribedhimasamanwhoiscapableofturningthePhilharmonicintoldquoamarkedlydifferent,morevibrantorganizationrdquoButwhatwillbethenatureofthatdifferenceMerelyexpandingtheorchestrarsquosrepertoirewillnotbeenoughIfGilbertandthePhilharmonicaretosucceed,theymustfirstchangetherelationshipbetweenAmericarsquosoldestorchestraandthenewaudienceithopstoattractWelearnfromParathatGilbertrsquosappointmenthasAincurredcriticismBraisedsuspicionCreceivedacclaimDarousedcuriosityTommasiniregardsGilbertasanartistwhoisAinfluentialBmodestCrespectableDtalentedTheauthorbelievesthatthedevotedconcertgoersAignoretheexpensesofliveperformancesBrejectmostkindsofrecordedperformancesCexaggeratethevarietyofliveperformancesDoverestimatethevalueofliveperformancesAccordingtothetext,whichofthefollowingistrueofrecordingsATheyareofteninferiortoliveconcertsinqualityBTheyareeasilyaccessibletothegeneralpublicCTheyhelpimprovethequalityofmusicDTheyhaveonlycoveredmasterpiecesRegardingGilbertrsquosroleinrevitalizingthePhilharmonic,theauthorfeelsAdoubtfulBenthusiasticCconfidentDpuzzledTextWhenLiamMcGeedepartedaspresidentofBankofAmericainAugust,hisexplanationwassurprisinglystraightupRatherthancloakinghisexitintheusualvagueexcuses,hecamerightoutandsaidhewasleavingldquotopursuemygoalofrunningacompanyrdquoBroadcastinghisambitionwasldquoverymuchmydecision,rdquoMcGeesaysWithintwoweeks,hewastalkingforthefirsttimewiththeboardofHartfordFinancialServicesGroup,whichnamedhimCEOandchairmanonSeptemberMcGeesaysleavingwithoutapositionlinedupgavehimtimetoreflectonwhatkindofcompanyhewantedtorunItalsosentaclearmessagetotheoutsideworldabouthisaspirationsAndMcGeeisnrsquotaloneInrecentweekstheNoexecutivesatAvonandAmericanExpressquitwiththeexplanationthattheywerelookingforaCEOpostAsboardsscrutinizesuccessionplansinresponsetoshareholderpressure,executiveswhodonrsquotgetthenodalsomaywishtomoveonAturbulentbusinessenvironmentalsohasseniormanagerscautiousoflettingvaguepronouncementscloudtheirreputationsAsthefirstsignsofrecoverybegintotakehold,deputychiefsmaybemorewillingtomakethejumpwithoutanetInthethirdquarter,CEOturnoverwasdownfromayearagoasnervousboardsstuckwiththeleaderstheyhad,accordingtoLiberumResearchAstheeconomypicksup,opportunitieswillaboundforaspiringleadersThedecisiontoquitaseniorpositiontolookforabetteroneisunconventionalForyearsexecutivesandheadhuntershaveadheredtotherulethatthemostattractiveCEOcandidatesaretheoneswhomustbepoachedSaysKornFerryseniorpartnerDennisCarey:rdquoIcanrsquotthinkofasinglesearchIrsquovedonewhereaboardhasnotinstructedmetolookatsittingCEOsfirstrdquoThosewhojumpedwithoutajobhavenrsquotalwayslandedintoppositionsquicklyEllenMarramquitaschiefofTropicanaadecadeage,sayingshewantedtobeaCEOItwasayearbeforeshebecameheadofatinyInternetbasedcommoditiesexchangeRobertWillumstadleftCitigroupinwithambitionstobeaCEOHefinallytookthatpostatamajorfinancialinstitutionthreeyearslaterManyrecruiterssaytheolddisgraceisfadingfortopperformersThefinancialcrisishasmadeitmoreacceptabletobebetweenjobsortoleaveabadoneldquoThetraditionalrulewasitrsquossafertostaywhereyouare,butthatrsquosbeenfundamentallyinverted,rdquosaysoneheadhunterldquoThepeoplewhorsquovebeenhurttheworstarethosewhorsquovestayedtoolongrdquoWhenMcGeeannouncedhisdeparture,hismannercanbestbedescribedasbeingAarrogantBfrankCselfcenteredDimpulsiveAccordingtoParagraph,seniorexecutivesrsquoquittingmaybespurredbyAtheirexpectationofbetterfinancialstatusBtheirneedtoreflectontheirprivatelifeCtheirstrainedrelationswiththeboardsDtheirpursuitofnewcareergoalsThewordldquopoachedrdquo(Line,Paragraph)mostprobablymeansAapprovedofBattendedtoChuntedforDguardedagainstItcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphthatAtopperformersusedtoclingtotheirpostsBloyaltyoftopperformersisgettingoutdatedCtopperformerscaremoreaboutreputationsDitrsquossafertosticktothetraditionalrulesWhichofthefollowingisthebesttitleforthetextACEOs:WheretoGoBCEOs:AlltheWayUpCTopManagersJumpwithoutaNetDTheOnlyWayOorTopPerformersTextTheroughguidetomarketingsuccessusedtobethatyougotwhatyoupaidforNolongerWhiletraditionalldquopaidrdquomediandashsuchastelevisioncommercialsandprintadvertisementsndashstillplayamajorrole,companiestodaycanexploitmanyalternativeformsofmediaConsumerspassionateaboutaproductmaycreateldquoownedrdquomediabysendingemailalertsaboutproductsandsalestocustomersregisteredwithitsWebsiteThewayconsumersnowapproachthebroadrangeoffactorsbeyondconventionalpaidmediaPaidandownedmediaarecontrolledbymarketerspromotingtheirownproductsForearnedmedia,suchmarketersactastheinitiatorforusersrsquoresponsesButinsomecases,onemarketerrsquosownedmediabecomeanothermarketerrsquospaidmediandashforinstance,whenanecommerceretailersellsadspaceonitsWebsiteWedefinesuchsoldmediaasownedmediawhosetrafficissostrongthatotherorganizationsplacetheircontentorecommerceengineswithinthatenvironmentThistrend,whichwebelieveisstillinitsinfancy,effectivelybeganwithretailersandtravelproviderssuchasairlinesandhotelsandwillnodoubtgofurtherJohnsonJohnson,forexample,hascreatedBabyCenter,astandalonemediapropertythatpromotescomplementaryandevencompetitiveproductsBesidesgeneratingincome,thepresenceofothermarketersmakesthesiteseemobjective,givescompaniesopportunitiestolearnvaluableinformationabouttheappealofothercompaniesrsquomarketing,andmayhelpexpandusertrafficforallcompaniesconcernedThesamedramatictechnologicalchangesthathaveprovidedmarketerswithmore(andmorediverse)communicationschoiceshavealsoincreasedtheriskthatpassionateconsumerswillvoicetheiropinionsinquicker,morevisible,andmuchmoredamagingwaysSuchhijackedmediaaretheoppositeofearnedmedia:anassetorcampaignbecomeshostagetoconsumers,otherstakeholders,oractivistswhomakenegativeallegationsaboutabrandorproductMembersofsocialnetworks,forinstance,arelearningthattheycanhijackmediatoapplypressureonthebusinessesthatoriginallycreatedthemIfthathappens,passionateconsumerswouldtrytopersuadeotherstoboycottproducts,puttingthereputationofthetargetcompanyatriskInsuchacase,thecompanyrsquosresponsemaynotbesufficientlyquickorthoughtful,andthelearningcurvehasbeensteepToyotaMotor,forexample,alleviatedsomeofthedamagefromitsrecallcrisisearlierthisyearwitharelativelyquickandwellorchestratedsocialmediaresponsecampaign,whichincludedeffortstoengagewithconsumersdirectlyonsitessuchasTwitterandthesocialnewssiteDiggConsumersmaycreateldquoearnedrdquomediawhentheyareAobscssedwithonlineshoppingatcertainWebsitesBinspiredbyproductpromotingemailssenttothemCeagertohelptheirfriendspromotequalityproductsDenthusiasticaboutrecommendingtheirfavoriteproductsAccordingtoParagraph,soldmediafeatureAasafebusinessenvironmentBrandomcompetitionCstrongusertrafficDflexibilityinorganizationTheauthorindicatesinParagraphthatearnedmediaAinviteconstantconflictswithpassionateconsumersBcanbeusedtoproducenegativeeffectsinmarketingCmayberesponsibleforfiercercompetitionDdeserveallthenegativecommentsaboutthemToyotaMotorrsquosexperienceiscitedasanexampleofArespondingeffectivelytohijackedmediaBpersuadingcustomersintoboycottingproductsCcooperatingwithsupportiveconsumersDtakingadvantageofhijackedmediaWhichofthefollowingisthetextmainlyaboutAAlternativestoconventionalpaidmediaBConflictbetweenhijackedandearnedmediaCDominanceofhijackedmediaDPopularityofownedmediaTextItrsquosnosurprisethatJenniferSeniorrsquosinsightful,provocativemagazinecoverstory,ldquoIloveMyChildren,IHateMyLife,rdquoisarousingmuchchatterndashnothinggetspeopletalkinglikethesuggestionthatchildrearingisanythinglessthanacompletelyfulfilling,lifeenrichingexperienceRatherthanconcludingthatchildrenmakeparentseitherhappyormiserable,Seniorsuggestsweneedtoredefinehappiness:insteadofthinkingofitassomethingthatcanbemeasuredbymomenttomomentjoy,weshouldconsiderbeinghappyasapasttenseconditionEventhoughthedaytodayexperienceofraisingkidscanbesoulcrushinglyhard,SeniorwritesthatldquotheverythingsthatinthemomentdampenourmoodscanlaterbesourcesofintensegratificationanddelightrdquoThemagazinecovershowinganattractivemotherholdingacutebabyishardlytheonlyMadonnaandchildimageonnewsstandsthisweekTherearealsostoriesaboutnewlyadoptivendashandnewlysinglendashmomSandraBullock,aswellastheusualldquoJenniferAnistonispregnantrdquonewsPracticallyeveryweekfeaturesatleastonecelebritymom,ormomtobe,smilingonthenewsstandsInasocietythatsopersistentlycelebratesprocreation,isitanywonderthatadmittingyouregrethavingchildrenisequivalenttoadmittingyousupportkittenkillingItdoesnrsquotseemquitefair,then,tocomparetheregretsofparentstotheregretsofthechildrenUnhappyparentsrarelyareprovokedtowonderiftheyshouldnrsquothavehadkids,butunhappychildlessfolksarebotheredwiththemessagethatchildrenarethesinglemostimportantthingintheworld:obviouslytheirmiserymustbeadirectresultofthegapingbabysizeholesintheirlivesOfcourse,theimageofparenthoodthatcelebritymagazineslikeUsWeeklyandPeoplepresentishugelyunrealistic,especiallywhentheparentsaresinglemotherslikeBullockAccordingtoseveralstudiesconcludingthatparentsarelesshappythanchildlesscouples,singleparentsaretheleasthappyofallNoshockthere,consideringhowmuchworkitistoraiseakidwithoutapartnertoleanonyettohearSandraandBritneytellit,raisingakidontheirldquoownrdquo(read:withroundtheclockhelp)isapieceofcakeItrsquoshardtoimaginethatmanypeoplearedumbenoughtowantchildrenjustbecauseReeseandAngelinamakeitlooksoglamorous:mostadultsunderstandthatababyisnotahaircutButitrsquosinterestingtowonderiftheimagesweseeeveryweekofstressfree,happinessenhancingparenthoodarenrsquotinsomesmall,subconsciouswaycontributingtoourowndissatisfactionswiththeactualexperience,inthesamewaythatasmallpartofushopedgettingldquotheRachelrdquomightmakeuslookjustalittlebitlikeJenniferAnistonJenniferSeniorsuggestsinherarticlethatraisingachildcanbringAtemporarydelightBenjoymentinprogressChappinessinretrospectDlastingrewardWelearnfromParagraphthatAcelebritymomsareapermanentsourceforgossipBsinglemotherswithbabiesdeservegreaterattentionCnewsaboutpregnantcelebritiesisentertainingDhavingchildrenishighlyvaluedbythepublicItissuggestedinParagraphthatchildlessfolksAareconstantlyexposedtocriticismBarelargelyignoredbythemediaCfailtofulfilltheirsocialresponsibilitiesDarelesslikelytobesatisfiedwiththeirlifeAccordingtoParagraph,themessageconveyedbycelebritymagazinesisAsoothingBambiguousCcompensatoryDmisleadingWhichofthefollowingcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphAHavingchildrencontributeslittletotheglamourofcelebritymomsBCelebritymomshaveinfluencedourattitudetowardschildrearingCHavingchildrenintensifiesourdissatisfactionwithlifeDWesometimesneglectthehappinessfromchildrearingPartBDirections:ThefollowingparagrapharegiveninawrongorderForQuestions,youarerequiredtoreorganizetheseparagraphsintoacoherenttextbychoosingfromthelistAGtofillingthemintothenumberedboxesParagraphsEandGhavebeencorrectlyplacedMarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET(points)ANodisciplineshaveseizedonprofessionalismwithasmuchenthusiasmasthehumanitiesYoucan,MrMenandpointsout,becamealawyerinthreeyearsandamedicaldoctorinfourButtheregulartimeittakestogetadoctoraldegreeinthehumanitiesisnineyearsNotsurprisingly,uptohalfofalldoctoralstudentsinEnglishdropoutbeforegettingtheirdegreesBHisconcernismainlywiththehumanities:Literature,languages,philosophyandsoonThesearedisciplinesthataregoingoutofstyle:ofAmericancollegegraduatesnowmajorinbusinesscomparedwithonlyinhistoryandinEnglishHowever,manyleadingAmericanuniversitieswanttheirundergraduatestohaveagroundinginthebasiccanonofideasthateveryeducatedpersonshouldpossesButmostfinditdifficulttoagreeonwhataldquogeneraleducationrdquoshouldlooklikeAtHarvard,MrMenandnotes,ldquothegreatbooksarereadbecausetheyhavebeenreadrdquotheyformasortofsocialglueCEquallyunsurprisingly,onlyabouthalfendupwithprofessorshipsforwhichtheyenteredgraduateschoolTherearesimplytoofewpostsThisispartlybecauseuniversitiescontinuetoproduceevermorePhDsBewerstudentswanttostudyhumanitiessubjects:EnglishdepartmentsawardedmorebachelorrsquosdegreesinthantheydidyearslaterFewerstudentsrequiresfewerteachersSo,attheendofadecadeoftheseswriting,manyhumanitiesstudentsleavetheprofessiontodosomethingforwhichtheyhavenotbeentrainedDOnereasonwhyitishardtodesignandteachsuchcoursesisthattheycancutacrosstheinsistencebytopAmericanuniversitiesthatliberalartseducationsandprofessionaleducationshouldbekeptseparate,taughtindifferentschoolsManystudentsexperiencebothvarietiesAlthoughmorethanhalfofHarvardundergraduatesendupinlaw,medicineorbusiness,futuredoctorsandlawyersmuststudyanonspecialistliberalartsdegreebeforeembarkingonaprofessionalqualificationEBesidesprofessionalizingtheprofessionsbythisseparation,topAmericanuniversitieshaveprofessionalisedtheprofessorThegrowthinpublicmoneyforacademicresearchhasspeededtheprocess:federalresearchgrantsrosefourfoldbetweenand,bacultyteachinghoursfellbyhalfasresearchtookitstollProfessionalismhasturnedtheacquisitionofadoctoraldegreeintoaprerequisiteforasuccessfulacademiccareer:aslateasathirdofAmericanprofessorsdidnotpossessoneButthekeyideabehindprofessionalisation,arguesMrMenand,isthatldquotheknowledgeandskillsneededforaparticularspecializationaretransmissiblebutnottransferablerdquoSodisciplinesacquireamonopolynotjustovertheproductionofknowledge,butalsoovertheproductionoftheproducersofknowledgeFThekeytoreforminghighereducation,concludesMrMenand,istoalterthewayinwhichldquotheproducersofknowledgeareproducedrdquoOtherwise,academicswillcontinuetothinkdangerouslyalike,increasinglydetachedfromthesocietieswhichtheystudy,investigateandcriticizerdquoAcademicinquiry,atleastinsomefields,mayneedtobecomelessexclusionaryandmoreholisticrdquoYetquitehowthathappens,MrMenanddosenotsayGThesubtleandintelligentlittlebookTheMarketplaceofIdeas:ReformandResistanceintheAmericanUniversityshouldbereadbyeverystudentthinkingofapplyingtotakeadoctoraldegreeTheymaythendecidetogoelsewhereForsomethingcurioushasbeenhappeninginAmericanUniversities,andLouisMenand,aprofessorofEnglishatHarvardUniversity,captureditskillfullyGrarrrarrrarrErarrrarrrarrPartCDirections:ReadthefollowingtextcarefullyandthentranslatetheunderlinedsegmentsintoChineseYourtranslationshouldbewrittencarefullyonANSWERSHEET(points)WithitsthemethatldquoMindisthemasterweaver,rdquocreatingourinnercharacterandoutercircumstances,thebookAsaManThinkingbyJamesAllenisanindepthexplorationofthecentralideaofselfhelpwriting()AllenrsquoscontributionwastotakeanassumptionweallsharethatbecausewearenotrobotswethereforecontrolourthoughtsandrevealitserroneousnatureBecausemostofusbelievethatmindisseparatefrommatter,wethinkthatthoughtscanbehiddenandmadepowerlessthisallowsustothinkonewayandactanotherHowever,Allenbelievedthattheunconsciousmindgeneratesasmuchactionastheconsciousmind,and()whilewemaybeabletosustaintheillusionofcontrolthroughtheconsciousmindalone,inrealitywearecontinuallyfacedwithaquestion:ldquoWhycannotImakemyselfdothisorachievethatrdquoSincedesireandwillaredamagedbythepresenceofthoughtsthatdonotaccordwithdesire,Allenconcluded:ldquoWedonotattractwhatwewant,butwhatwearerdquoAchievementhappensbecauseyouasapersonembodytheexternalachievementyoudonrsquotldquogetrdquosuccessbutbecomeitThereisnogapbetweenmindandmatterPartofthefameofAllenrsquosbookisitscontentionthatldquoCircumstancesdonotmakeaperson,theyrevealhimrdquo()Thisseemsajustificationforneglectofthoseinneed,andarationalizationofexploitation,ofthesuperiorityofthoseatthetopandtheinferiorityofth

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