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首页 外研八年级上册英语语法复习

外研八年级上册英语语法复习.ppt

外研八年级上册英语语法复习

一米阳光
2019-03-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《外研八年级上册英语语法复习ppt》,可适用于综合领域

一般将来时态、一般过去时态、现在完成时态、过去进行时态、反意疑问句、动词不定式一)一般将来时一般将来时表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或者存在的状态。通常与表示将来的时间状语连用tomorrow,thedayaftertomorrow,nextyear,nextmonth,nextweek,inyears等。begoingtodo(动词原形)结构:表示打算、准备做的事情或者肯定要发生的事情。如:Itisgoingtorainwill结构表示将来的用法:表示预见DoyouthinkitwillrainYouwillfeelbetterafteragoodrest表示意图IwillborrowabookfromourschoollibrarytomorrowWhatwillshedotomorrow根据例句用will改写下列各句例:Idonrsquotfeelwelltoday(bebettertomorrow)IrsquollbebettertomorrowGinahassixclassestoday(havealotofhomeworktonight)Irsquomtirednow(sleeplater)Wecanrsquotleaverightnow(leavealittlelater)Theweatherisawfultoday(bebettertomorrow)答案:ShersquollhavealotofhomeworktonightIrsquollsleeplaterWersquollleavealittlelaterMaybeitrsquollbebettertomorrow.一般过去时的用法:  a主要用于过去某个时间发生的动作或状态。  MyfatherworkedinShanghailastyear  b表示过去经常或反复发生的动作常与oftenalways等表示频度的时间状语连用。  Ioftenwenttoschoolonfoot  c与when等连词引导的状语从句连用。  Whenhegothomehehadashortrest.一般过去时的时间状语:amomentago(刚才)yesterdaymorninglastnightweekthedaybeforeyesterday(前天)justnow(刚才)in,threedaysago等过去式的构成规则ldquo直rdquo一般情况下在动词原形后直接加ed如:wantmdashwantedldquo去rdquo以不发音的字母e结尾的动词去掉e再加ed如:hopemdashhopedldquo双rdquo重读闭音节单词需双写最后一个辅音字母再加ed如:stopmdashstoppedldquo改rdquo以辅音字母y结尾的动词改y为i再加ed如:studymdashstudied注意:不规则动词变化要逐一熟记。.实义动词过去式的句式。  ①肯定式:主语动词过去式其它。  如:Theyhadagoodtimeyesterday②否定式:主语didnot(didnrsquot)动词原形其它。如:TheydidnrsquotwatchTVlastnight③一般疑问句:Did主语动词原形其它?肯定回答:Yes主语did否定回答:No主语didnrsquot  如:Didtheyhaveameetingtwodaysago?YestheydidNotheydidnrsquot④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词did主语动词原形其它?如:Whattimedidyoufinishyourhomework?用所给动词的正确形式填空I(go)toschoolyesterdayShe(play)footballlastweekLook!Jack(sing)nowYou(read)thenewpaperthedaybeforeyesterdayI(see)JackinthezoolastweekendI(do)myhomeworklastnightShe(open)themailboxthedayaftertomorrowI(help)thelittlebabydrinkthemilkthenextmorningThefarmers(work)onthefarmnextweekMyparents(watch)TVlastMondaywentplayedissingingreadsawdidwillopenwillhelpwillworkwatched句型转换IwenttothepartylastFriday(改为一般疑问句)youtothepartylastFridayIhadanicetimelastSunday(改为一般疑问句)younicetimelastSundayWewenttoLondontwoyearsago(对划线部分提问)youtoLondonHedidhishomeworkinthemorning(改为否定句)HehishomeworkinthemorningDidgoDidhaveWhendidgodidnrsquotdo谓语构成:助动词havehas动词的过去分词用法()表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果常与already(已经),ever(曾经),yet,just(刚刚),before(以前)等词连用。()表示过去发生的动作持续到了现在常与for或since引导的时间状语连用。标志词()justnevereveralreadyyet等()for+一段时间since+点时间或引导时间状语从句(一般多为过去时)()sofar(到目前为止)inthepastlast+表示一段时间的词语各种句式结构肯定式:主语havehas过去分词其他否定式:主语havenrsquothasnrsquot过去分词其他一般疑问句:HaveHas主语过去分词其他?特殊疑问句:疑问词havehas主语过去分词其他?IhavelivedherefortenyearsLucyhaslivedheresinceTheyhavenrsquothadbreakfastyetHaveyoueverbeentoBeijingHowlonghashelivedhere、seemdash、hearmdash、studymdash、stopmdash、writemdash、teachmdash、catchmdash、gomdash、playmdash、livemdash、makemdash、forgetmdashseenheardstudiedstoppedwrittentaughtcaughtgoneplayedlivedmadeforgotten(一)考查现在完成时的一般用法().mdashmdashKitty,willyougotoseethefilmColdMountainthiseveningmdashmdashNoIwonrsquot.Iitalready.A.sawB.haveseenC.seeD.willsee()GonewiththeWindisawellmdashknownnovel.Sheittwice.A.readB.isreadingC.readsD.hasread().mdashmdashHowlongyouheremdashmdashForabouttwoyearssofar.AhavestudiedBdidliveCdostayDhavechangedABD(二)考查非延续性动词与一段时间连用的表达方式().mdashmdashOh.Mrs.king,yourdresslooksnice.IsitnewmdashmdashNoIitsincetwoyearsagoA.hadB.havehadC.boughtD.havebought().Jeffborrowedahistorybookfromhisfriend.Heitforaweek.A.hasborrowedBhaslentChaskeptD.lend()Thestudentsaresorrytohearthatthefamoussingerforhalfanhour.A.hasleftB.hasgoneChasbeenawayDhasgoneawayBCC(三)考查have/hasbeentohave/hasgoneto与have/hasbeenin的区别().mdashmdashWhere#syourfathermdashmdashHeShanghai.Hersquollbebacknextweek.A.hasgonetoB.hasbeentoC.havegonetoD.havebeento().mdashmdashWhereisDavidmdashmdashHetoEnglandonbusiness.A.isgoingB.hasgoneC.hasbeenD.goes()mdashmdashyouevertotheUnitedStatesmdashYes,twice.A.HavegoneB.HavebeenC.DogoD.WeregoingABB(四)考查for与since接时间状语时的区别().mdashmdashWhatanicedog!Howlonghaveyouhadittwoyears.A.ForB.SinceCIn().MissGaohastaughtinthisschool.AforB.atC.inD.since(五)考查现在完成时与一般过去时的区别().HehasalreadygonetoEngland.WhenhethereA.willgoB.isgoingC.didgoD.hasgone().mdashHaveyoureadthisbookmdashyes,Iittwoweeksago.A.amreadingB.havereadC.willreadD.readADCD(六)现在完成时在特定语境下的使用().mdashmdashHelenItoldyoutodoyourhomeworkascarefullyasyoucanmdashmdashYesbutImdashmdashfewermistakesthanIusuallydo.A.wasmakingB.havemadeC.willmakeD.hadmade().mdashmdashHasthematchstartedmdashmdashStartedFinished!GuoYue.A.iswinningB.winsC.willwinD.haswon()XiaoWangEnglishforthirteenyearsSohecanspeakquitegoodEnglishAhadlearnedBhaslearnedCwillbelearningDlearnsBDB()ThefilmforhalfanhourAhasbegunBhasbeenbegunChasbeenonDbegan()YoudonrsquothavetodescribeherIherseveraltimesAhadmetBhavemetCmeetDmet()MissYangisnotathomeShetotheschoollibraryAwentBhasbeenCgoesDhasgone()HehasnevervisitedtheGreatHallofthePeopleAhasnrsquotheBhasheCdoesheDdoesnrsquotheBCDB谓语构成:waswere现在分词Ving用法:表示在过去的某一时间正在进行的动作或存在的状态时间状语:atthistimeyesterday(昨天这个时候)atthattimelastweek(上周那个时候)atnineyesterdayevening(昨晚九点时)fromseventotenlastnight(昨晚从七点到十点)等when或while引导时间状语从句的主、从复合句。Iwasreadinganewspaperwhenhecamein.他进来时我正在看报。WhileIwaswalkinghome,ImetMrGreen我步行回家时遇到了格林先生Myfatherwasreadinganewspaperwhilemymotherwascooking妈妈做饭时爸爸在看报。注:while引导时间状语从句的主、从复合句两个过去进行时并用表示动作同时发生。各种句式结构肯定式:否定式:Hewassleepingwhenshearrived她到达时他正在睡觉。Theywerenrsquotplantingtreesatnineyesterday昨天早上九点他们不在植树。一般疑问句:Was/Were主语ving其它主语waswereving其它主语was/werenotving其它Washeplayingfootballwhenyourangme你打电话给我时.他正在踢足球吗特殊疑问句:疑问词was/were主语ving其它WhatwasPeterdoingatthistimelastweek上周这个时候彼特在于什么用waswere填空:、I___listeningtothemusic、She___playingthepiano、They__lookingattheflowers、We___havingapicnic、Lingling___watchingTV、Twoboys___readingbook、Youruncleandaunt__visitingtheGreatWall、Everyone___havinglunch、People__workingonthefarm、Somewomen__singingpopmusicwaswaswaswaswerewerewerewerewerewere用所给动词的适当形式填空。You(have)ameetingatlastMondaymorning.They(play)footballwhenIpassed.She(take)awalkwhenwehadatalk.they(try)todrawhorsesontheblackboardwhentheteachercameinThestudents(isten)totheteachercarefullywhilehewasteaching。werehavingwereplayingwastakingWeretryingwerelistening反意疑问句意义概念回答规律构成当我们陈述一个事实而又不是很有把握就可以在陈述句后加一个简短问句称为反意疑问句。helliphelliphellip,对吧是吧陈述句简短问句〖助动词系动词be情态动词主语(代词)〗陈述句是肯定的简短问句用否定形式而陈述句是否定的简短问句就用肯定形式(前肯后否前否后肯)按事实回答一、祈使句用于反意疑问句中这种类型较特殊前一部分是祈使句后一部分是肯定疑问形式。句型:Letrsquos动词原形其它shallwe例:Letrsquosgoforawalk,shallwe而Letusgoforawalk,willyou句型:其它形式的祈使句willyouComeintotheclassroom,willyouPleasebecareful,willyouDonrsquotpanic,willyou二、含be(is,are,was,were)动词的反意疑问句需用be的适当形式①YouarefromAmerica,aren#tyouYes,IamNo,I#mnot②TheGreenweren#tathomelastnight,weretheymdashYes,theywereNo,theywerenrsquot注意:陈述部分主、谓语是Iam时反意疑问句用arenlsquotI而不是amnotI例如:I#mworkingnow,arenrsquotI我在工作是吗?二、行为动词的一般现在时的反意疑问句,需用dodoes的适当形式。①YouoftenwatchTVintheevening,don#tyouYes,IdoNo,Idon#t②Thefirstclassbeginsateight,doesn#titYes,itdoesNo,itdoesn#t三、行为动词的一般过去时的反意疑问句需用did的是适当形式。①Therainstopped,didn#titYes,itdidNo,itdidn#t②Jimrsquosparentsdidn#tgotoHongKonglastmonth,didtheyYes,theydidNo,theydidn#t四、一般将来时的反意疑问句需用will的适当形式。①Theboyswillplaygames,won#ttheyYes,theywillNo,theywon#t②Itwon#tstopraining,willitYes,itwillNo,itwon#t五、现在完成时的反意疑问句需用have、has的适当形式。①YouhavebeentoShanghaibefore,haven#tyouYesIhaveNo,Ihaven#t②Jackhasn#tdonehishomework,hasheYes,hehasNo,hehasn#t六、陈述部分的主语是everything,nothing,anything或something时反意疑问句的主语应用代词it。例如:Somethingiswrongwithmyradio,isn#tit我的收音机出毛病了是吧?七、陈述部分的主语是everybody,everyone,anybody,anyone,somebody,someone,nobody,noone,none,neither时,其反意疑问句的主语需用复数代词they。例如:Everyoneishere,aren#tthey大家都到了是吗?Nooneknowsaboutit,dothey没有人知道这件事对吗?八、陈述部分的主语是指示代词this或that时反意疑问句的主语用it当陈述部分的主语是指示代词these或those时其反意疑问句的主语用they。例如:Thisisaplane,isn#tit这是一架飞机是吗?Thesearegrapesaren#tthey这些是葡萄是吗?九、注意:Therebe句型﹒Thereisanoldpictureonthewall,isnrsquotthereTherearenrsquotanychildrenintheroom,arethereTherewasnrsquotatelephonecallforme,wasthere.Therewereenoughpeopletopickapples,werenrsquotthere.Therewillbeabasketballmatchtomorrow,wonrsquotthere★值得注意的是有时英语的谓语动词并不用否定式(即没加上not)而是用上了ldquonever,little,few,hardly,nothing,nobodyrdquo等表否定意义的词后半部分应用肯定疑问式。①YouhaveneverbeentoBeijing,haveyou②MrFathasfewfriendshere,doeshe③Thereislittlemilkinthebottle,isthere④Hecoulddonothing,couldhe完成下列反意疑问句:Marylistenedtopopmusic,HehasneverbeentoShanghaiHehasfewfriendsatschool,Themusicsoundsbeautiful,Youcanrsquotdancetojazz,Theywerenrsquotattheconcert,Letrsquosstopwriting,Donrsquotbelate,didnrsquotshehashedoeshedoesnrsquotitcanyouwerethereshallwewillyou动词不定式动词不定式是初中英语的语法重点之一也是每年中考英语试题的考点之一。它是动词的一种非谓语形式没有人称和数的变化不能单独作句子的谓语。其构成形式为"to动词原形"to为动词不定式的符号本身无意义。动词不定式具有两大特点:具有动词的特点因此后面可以跟表语、宾语或状语构成动词不定式短语。具有名词、形容词或副词的特点可以在句子中用作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、状语、定语、表语及同位语等。  一、动词不定式作主语 () It#shardforusEnglishwell AlearnBlearnsCtolearnDlearning ()It#sveryniceyoutogetmetwoticketstheWorldCup  AforofBofforCtoforDofto[简析]动词不定式作主语时可以直接放在谓语动词前面的主语位置也可以用先行词it作形式主语而将真正的主语(不定式)置于后面。常见的句式有:()Itis形容词(ofsb)todosth()Itis形容词(forsb)todosth()Ittakessbsometimetodosth()Itis名词短语(forsb)todosthCD句式()中常用nicekindclevergoodrightwrongfoolishcareless等形容词与介词of搭配这些形容词常表述不定式逻辑主语的属性或性质句式()中常用harddifficulteasyimportant等形容词与介词for搭配表示不定式表示的动作、行为的性质。二、动词不定式作宾语()HewantssomevegetablesAbuyBbuyingCtobuyDbuys()Don#tforgetyourhomeworkwithyouwhenyoucometoschooltobringBbringingCtotakeDtaking  ()HefounditverydifficultAsleepingBsleepsCsleptDtofallasleep[简析]在wantlikeagreehopewishlearnbeginstartdecidehatechooseforgetremember等动词后面可以接不定式作宾语。如果其后接形容词补足语时则可以用it作形式宾语而把作真正宾语的不定式放到后面。CAD三、动词不定式作宾语补足语()RobertoftenasksushisChinese,sohisChineseismuchbetterthanbeforehelphimBtohelphimwithCtohelpwithDhelpshimwith()MrLioftenteacheshisJapanesefriendsChinesefoodAcookBcooksCtocookDcooked    [简析]不定式可以用作宾语补足语。后面可以接不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:askteachexpecttellallow等。BC四、动词不定式作状语()ShewentherteacherAtoseeBlooksCsawDseeing  ()MeimeilikesEnglishverymuchShedoesherbestEnglishwellAlearnBlearningCtolearnDlearns  [简析]gocometrydotryone#sbest等动词或短语动词作谓语时其后常常可以接不定式作目的状语。AC()I#msorrythatAhearsBhearingChearDtohear()I#msorryyouAtroubleBtotroubleCtroublingDtroubled()MymotherwasverygladheroldfriendAtomeetBmeetCmetDmeets    [简析]"be形容词todosth"结构中的不定式作状语常表示原因或方式。DBA五、动词不定式作定语()WouldyoulikesomethingAdrinkBdrinkingCtodrinkDdrinks()IhavealotofhomeworkAdoBdoingCdidDtodo()HeisnotaneasymanAgetonBtogetonCgetonwithDtogetonwith    [简析]不定式作定语时常放在被修饰的词语之后与被修饰的词语为逻辑上的主谓关系或动宾关系如果不定式的动词是不及物动词其后要加上必要的介词或副词构成的短语动词相当于及物动词。CDD六、不带to的动词不定式()WesawhimthebuildingandgoupstairsAtoenterBenterCenteringDentered()SomuchworkusuallymakesthemverytiredAtofeelBfeelsCfeelingDfeel()YourfatherissleepingYou#dbetterAnotwakeuphimBnottowakeuphimCnotwakehimupDnottowakehimupBDC[简析]在seewatchhearfeel等感官动词和makehavelet等使役动词后面作宾语补足语的不定式不带to三眼二耳一注意三个小使役半个help要注意。在"hadbetter"后面接不带to的不定式。七、动词不定式的否定形式()TheoldmantoldthechildnoisyAnotbeBnottobeCtonotbeDbenot()ThereisgoingtoanimportantmeetingtomorrowPleasetrylateAhavenottobeBhavenotbeCbenottobeDbenotbe    [简析]动词不定式的否定形式通常是在不定式符号to的前面加上not如果是不带to的不定式就直接在动词原形前面加上notBC八、某些动词后面接不定式和接动词ing形式的区别()PleasestoparestifyoufeeltiredAtohaveBhavingChaveDhas  ()mdashmdashWhydidn#tyoubuysomebreadonyourwayhome mdashmdashSorry,IforgotsomemoneywithmeAtakeBtakingCtotakeDtook()mdashmdashLet#shavearest,shallwemdashmdashNotnow,Ican#tstopthelettersAwriteBtowriteCwritingDandwriteJimwasbadlyhurt,sohehadtostop(walk)ACCwalking双宾语用法要点 此结构由主语及物谓语动词间接宾语(人)直接宾语(事物)组成。如HebringsmecookieseverydayShemademeabeautifuldress但若要先说出直接宾语(事物)后说间接宾语(人)则要借助于介词to或for,如HebringscookiestomeeverydayShemadeabeautifuldressforme用to侧重指动作的方向表示朝着向着对着某人。用for侧重指动作的受益者表示为了某人替某人。常跟双宾语的动词有:(需借助to的)bring,give,lend,hand,offer,pass,pay,return,send,show,teach,等。(需借助for的)buy,call,cook,choose,draw,get,make,sing,等。带双宾语的及物动词,如果把直接宾语置于间接宾语之前,必须在变换时加ldquotordquo或ldquoforrdquo。这个及物动词可以概括为下边两句话,读起来妙趣横生,效果很好。ldquo七给rdquoldquo一带rdquoto不少,ldquo买rdquoldquo画rdquoldquo制作rdquofor来了。①ldquo七给rdquo(give,pass,lend,write,show,send,hand)和ldquo带rdquo(bring)个及物动词,在直接宾语前置时,必须在后面加上ldquotordquo。即ldquovtsthtosbrdquo如:Helentsomemoneytome巧记带双宾语的动词②ldquobuyrdquo(买)ldquodrawrdquo(画)ldquomakerdquo(制作)三个动词,在直接宾语前置时,则必须在后边加ldquoforrdquo,构成ldquovtsthforsbrdquo。如:MotherboughtanewdressformeExercises:CanyouexplainAthisproblemtomeBmethisproblemCtomeproblemDmeproblemHemadeanewdresshiswifeandgaveitheronherbirthdayAtoforBfortoCforforDtotoABMrSmithapologizedtheladywhathersonhaddoneAtotoBtoforCfortoDforforReadtheletterandhimApassitontoBpassonittoCpassitforDpassitonBA学习向别人提建议的几种句式:()Ithinkyoushouldhellip()Well,youcouldhellip()Maybeyoushouldhellip()Whydonrsquotyouhellip()Whataboutdoingsth()Yoursquodbetterdosth用should或shouldnrsquot填空IcanrsquotsleepthenightbeforeexamsYoutakeawarmshowerbeforeyougotobedGoodfriendsargueeachotherThereislittlemilkintheglassWebuysomeIamalittlebitoverweightSoIthinkIdoexerciseseveryday答案:shouldshouldnrsquotshouldshould直接引语变成间接引语时几个主要时态的变化规律直接引语间接引语一般现在时一般过去时一般将来时过去将来时现在进行时过去进行时直接引语变成间接引语时一些词汇的变化规律直接引语amisarehavehaswillcanmay间接引语waswerehadwouldcouldmight用括号中所给动词的适当形式填空。ShesaidI(be)hardworkingPetertoldmehe(be)boredyesterdayShesaidshe(go)swimminglastSundayBobbysaidhe(may)callmelaterAntoniotoldmehe(read)abookthen答案:waswaswentmightwasreading

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