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Antonio Gramsci.pdf

Antonio Gramsci.pdf

上传者: 紫睿 2010-08-29 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Antonio Gramscipdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含ANTONIOGRAMSCIIspowersimplyamatterofdominationandresistanceOrcanarulingpow符等。

ANTONIOGRAMSCIIspowersimplyamatterofdominationandresistanceOrcanarulingpowerbevulnerablecansubordinatesfindtheirresistanceneutralizedandwhatistheroleofcultureinthisGramsci’sworkinvitespeopletothinkbeyondsimplisticoppositionsbyrecastingideologicaldominationashegemony:theabilityofarulingpower’svaluestoliveinthemindsandlivesofitssubalternsasaspontaneousexpressionoftheirowninterestsTargetingreadersencounteringGramsciforthefirsttime,SteveJonescoverskeyelementsofhisthoughtthroughdetaileddiscussionof:•culture•hegemony•intellectuals•crisis•AmericanizationIndoingso,AntonioGramscistudiesthehistoricalcontextofthetheorist’sthought,offersexamplesofputtingGramsci’sideasintopracticeintheanalysisofcontemporaryculture,andevaluatesresponsestohisworkSteveJonesisseniorlecturerinMediaandCulturalStudiesatNottinghamTrentUniversityHeteachesandresearchesintheareasofnationalidentityandmaterialcultureandiscoauthorofFoodandCulturalStudies()ROUTLEDGECRITICALTHINKERSSeriesEditor:RobertEaglestone,RoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondonRoutledgeCriticalThinkersisaseriesofaccessibleintroductionstokeyfiguresincontemporarycriticalthoughtWithauniquefocusonhistoricalandintellectualcontexts,eachvolumeexaminesakeytheorist’s:•significance•motivation•keyideasandtheirsources•impactonotherthinkersConcludingwithextensivelyannotatedguidestofurtherreading,RoutledgeCriticalThinkersarethestudent’spassporttotoday’smostexcitingcriticalthoughtForfurtherdetailsonthisseries,seewwwroutledgecomliteratureAlreadyavailable:LouisAlthusserbyLukeFerretterRolandBarthesbyGrahamAllenJeanBaudrillardbyRichardJLaneSimonedeBeauvoirbyUrsulaTiddMauriceBlanchotbyUllrichHaaseandWilliamLargeJudithButlerbySaraSalihGillesDeleuzebyClaireColebrookJacquesDerridabyNicholasRoyleMichelFoucaultbySaraMillsSigmundFreudbyPamelaThurschwellStuartHallbyJamesProcterMartinHeideggerbyTimothyClarkFredricJamesonbyAdamRobertsJeanFrançoisLyotardbySimonMalpasJacquesLacanbySeanHomerJuliaKristevabyNoëlleMcAfeePauldeManbyMartinMcQuillanFriedrichNietzschebyLeeSpinksPaulRicoeurbyKarlSimmsEdwardSaidbyBillAshcroftandPalAhluwaliaGayatriChakravortySpivakbyStephenMortonSlavojZizekbyTonyMyersANTONIOGRAMSCISteveJonesFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxonOXRNSimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeMadisonAve,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup,aninformabusinessSteveJonesAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordforthisbookhasbeenrequestedISBN:–––ISBN:––––(hbk)ISBN:–––XISBN:––––(pbk)ISBN:–––ISBN:––––(ebk)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”ISBNMasterebookISBNCONTENTSSerieseditor’sprefaceviiAcknowledgementsxiWHYGRAMSCIKEYIDEASGramsci’spoliticalandintellectualdevelopmentCultureHegemonyHegemonyinpractice:identityHegemonyinpractice:representationsandinstitutionsIntellectualsCrisisAmericanismandFordismAFTERGRAMSCIFURTHERREADINGWorkscitedIndexSERIESEDITOR’SPREFACEThebooksinthisseriesofferintroductionstomajorcriticalthinkerswhohaveinfluencedliterarystudiesandthehumanitiesTheRoutledgeCriticalThinkersseriesprovidesthebooksyoucanturntofirstwhenanewnameorconceptappearsinyourstudiesEachbookwillequipyoutoapproachakeythinker’soriginaltextsbyexplainingherorhiskeyideas,puttingthemintocontextand,perhapsmostimportantly,showingyouwhythisthinkerisconsideredtobesignificantTheemphasisisonconcise,clearlywrittenguideswhichdonotpresupposeaspecialistknowledgeAlthoughthefocusisonparticularfigures,theseriesstressesthatnocriticalthinkereverexistedinavacuumbut,instead,emergedfromabroaderintellectual,culturalandsocialhistoryFinally,thesebookswillactasabridgebetweenyouandthethinker’soriginaltexts:notreplacingthembutrathercomplementingwhatsheorhewroteThesebooksarenecessaryforanumberofreasonsInhisautobiography,NotEntitled,theliterarycriticFrankKermodewroteofatimeinthes:Onbeautifulsummerlawns,youngpeoplelaytogetherallnight,recoveringfromtheirdaytimeexertionsandlisteningtoatroupeofBalinesemusiciansUndertheirblanketsortheirsleepingbags,theywouldchatdrowsilyaboutthegurusofthetimeWhattheyrepeatedwaslargelyhearsayhencemylunchtimesuggestion,quiteimpromptu,foraseriesofshort,verycheapbooksofferingauthoritativebutintelligibleintroductionstosuchfiguresThereisstillaneedfor‘authoritativeandintelligibleintroductions’ButthisseriesreflectsadifferentworldfromthesNewthinkershaveemergedandthereputationsofothershaverisenandfallen,asnewresearchhasdevelopedNewmethodologiesandchallengingideashavespreadthroughtheartsandhumanitiesThestudyofliteratureisnolonger–ifiteverwas–simplythestudyandevaluationofpoems,novelsandplaysItisalsothestudyoftheideas,issuesanddifficultieswhichariseinanyliterarytextandinitsinterpretationOtherartsandhumanitiessubjectshavechangedinanalogouswaysWiththesechanges,newproblemshaveemergedTheideasandissuesbehindtheseradicalchangesinthehumanitiesareoftenpresentedwithoutreferencetowidercontextsorastheorieswhichyoucansimply‘addon’tothetextsyoureadCertainly,there’snothingwrongwithpickingoutselectedideasorusingwhatcomestohand–indeed,somethinkershavearguedthatthisis,infact,allwecandoHowever,itissometimesforgottenthateachnewideacomesfromthepatternanddevelopmentofsomebody’sthoughtanditisimportanttostudytherangeandcontextoftheirideasAgainsttheories‘floatinginspace’,theRoutledgeCriticalThinkersseriesplaceskeythinkersandtheirideasfirmlybackintheircontextsMorethanthis,thesebooksreflecttheneedtogobacktothethinker’sowntextsandideasEveryinterpretationofanidea,eventhemostseeminglyinnocentone,offersitsown‘spin’,implicitlyorexplicitlyToreadonlybooksonathinker,ratherthantextsbythatthinker,istodenyyourselfachanceofmakingupyourownmindSometimeswhatmakesasignificantfigure’sworkhardtoapproachisnotsomuchitsstyleorcontentasthefeelingofnotknowingwheretostartThepurposeofthesebooksistogiveyoua‘wayin’byofferinganaccessibleoverviewofthesethinkers’ideasandworksandbyguidingyourfurtherreading,startingwitheachthinker’sowntextsTouseametaphorfromthephilosopherLudwigWittgenstein(–),thesebooksareladders,tobethrownawayafteryouhaveclimbedtothenextlevelNotonly,then,dotheyequipyoutoapproachnewideas,butalsotheyempoweryou,byleadingyoubacktoatheorist’sowntextsandencouragingyoutodevelopyourowninformedopinionsFinally,thesebooksarenecessarybecause,justasintellectualneedshavechanged,theeducationsystemsaroundtheworld–thecontextsinwhichviiiSERIESEDITOR’SPREFACEintroductorybooksareusuallyread–havechangedradicallytooWhatwassuitablefortheminorityhighereducationsystemofthesisnotsuitableforthelarger,wider,morediverse,hightechnologyeducationsystemsofthetwentyfirstcenturyThesechangescallnotjustfornew,uptodateintroductionsbutnewmethodsofpresentationThepresentationalaspectsofRoutledgeCriticalThinkershavebeendevelopedwithtoday’sstudentsinmindEachbookintheserieshasasimilarstructureTheybeginwithasectionofferinganoverviewofthelifeandideasofeachthinkerandexplainwhysheorheisimportantThecentralsectionofeachbookdiscussesthethinker’skeyideas,theircontext,evolutionandreceptionEachbookconcludeswithasurveyofthethinker’simpact,outlininghowtheirideashavebeentakenupanddevelopedbyothersInaddition,thereisadetailedfinalsectionsuggestinganddescribingbooksforfurtherreadingThisisnota‘tackedon’sectionbutanintegralpartofeachvolumeInthefirstpartofthissectionyouwillfindbriefdescriptionsofthethinker’skeyworks,then,followingthis,informationonthemostusefulcriticalworksand,insomecases,onrelevantwebsitesThissectionwillguideyouinyourreading,enablingyoutofollowyourinterestsanddevelopyourownprojectsThroughouteachbook,referencesaregiveninwhatisknownastheHarvardsystem(theauthorandthedateofaworkcitedaregiveninthetextandyoucanlookupthefulldetailsinthebibliographyattheback)ThisoffersalotofinformationinverylittlespaceThebooksalsoexplaintechnicaltermsanduseshadedboxestodescribeeventsorideasinmoredetail,awayfromthemainemphasisofthediscussionBoxesarealsousedattimestohighlightdefinitionsoftermsfrequentlyusedorcoinedbyathinkerInthisway,theboxesserveasakindofglossary,easilyidentifiedwhenflickingthroughthebookThethinkersintheseriesare‘critical’forthreereasonsFirst,theyareexaminedinthelightofsubjectsthatinvolvecriticism:principallyLiteraryStudiesorEnglishandCulturalStudies,butalsootherdisciplinesthatrelyonthecriticismofbooks,ideas,theoriesandunquestionedassumptionsSecond,theyarecriticalbecausestudyingtheirworkwillprovideyouwitha‘toolkit’foryourowninformedcriticalreadingandthought,whichwillmakeyoucriticalThird,thesethinkersarecriticalbecausetheyarecruciallyimportant:theydealwithideasandquestionswhichcanoverturnconventionalunderstandingsoftheworld,oftexts,ofeverythingwetakeforgranted,leavinguswithadeeperunderstandingofwhatwealreadyknewandwithnewideasSERIESEDITOR’SPREFACEixNointroductioncantellyoueverythingHowever,byofferingawayintocriticalthinking,thisserieshopestobegintoengageyouinanactivitywhichisproductive,constructiveandpotentiallylifechangingxSERIESEDITOR’SPREFACEACKNOWLEDGEMENTSIwouldliketothankthefollowingpeoplefortheirhelp:KateAhlandKatrinaChandleratRoutledge,BobEaglestoneforinitiatingtheprojectandbeingathoughtfuleditorthroughout,andfriendsandcolleaguesatNottinghamTrentUniversityThisbookisforAnnaTaylorandourson,Billy,andformymumanddad,JuneandDerekJonesToyouall,‘atenderhug’WHYGRAMSCITALKINGCOMMONSENSERatherthanbeginthisbookwithapottedexplanationofAntonioGramsci’sthought,Iwantyouanswerthequestion‘WhyGramsci’yourself,by‘doing’someGramsciananalysis,albeitanalysisofaculturalformwithwhichGramscihimselfwouldhavebeenentirelyunfamiliarTakeapieceofparticipatorymedia(whatissometimescalled‘openaccess’or‘talkback’media–oneoftheeverwideningrangeofbroadcastsinwhichpanelsofexpertsandmembersofthepublicdiscussanddebatetheissuesoftheday)Thiscouldbeawebsitemessageboard,aradiophonein,atelevisiondiscussionprogrammeoranewsiteminwhichjournalistsinterviewmembersofthepubliconthestreetYourchosenprogrammemightdealwithanobviouslypoliticalissue(foreignpolicy,say,orthehealthsystem),butitwillnotbeapointlessexerciseifitdealswithsomethingthatseemsmorepersonaloreveryday–perhapsadiscussionofobesity,aprogrammeaboutrelationships,orasportsphoneinWhatIwanttosuggestisthat,despitetheheterogeneityofvoicestakingpartintheseprogrammes–theirapparentvarietyanddiversity–certainvalueswillbesharedamongsttheprogrammemakers,theparticipantsandtheaudience,notleastthebeliefsthatheterogeneousopinionisitselftobeapplauded,andthatthebroadcastmediaprovideaneutralforumforitsdisplayIwanttosuggestfurtherthatthewaysinwhichthesevaluesarenegotiatedindicatetheequilibriumthatisconstantlybeingestablishedbetweendifferentsocialandpoliticalgroupsInparticular,IwantyoutonotefourfeaturesoftheprogrammeFirst,whatisitscontextWhyisitbeingbroadcastnowratherthanatsomeothertimeSuchprogrammesarefrequentlymotivatedbyanewsworthyevent,orbyapronouncementmadebyaprominentfigureIsyourchosentextaproductofsucharecentandsingularoccurrence,ormighttherebeabroader‘climate’inwhichitisbeingtransmitted(aheightenedsensethatparentalauthorityiswaning,say,orafeelingthattheinstitutionofmarriageisinjeopardy)Second,whatconstitutesthe‘reasonablecentre’ofthedebate,forwhichtherewillbealargegroundswellofsupportAretherecommonsenseassumptionsthatgounchallenged(orareenthusiasticallysupported)bythegreatmajorityoftheparticipantsAndaretherepositionswithinthedebatethatarenoisilysilenced,oropinionsthatarenotheardatallWhichwisdomsareusedtoconcludethedebateAthirdthingtolookforistheroleofexpertsinyourchosendiscussionDoestheformatallowforasingleexpert,ordoesitreproducetheprincipleofdiversityandheterogeneitybyofferinganumberofexpertswithdifferingpositionsonatopicDoestheprogramme’shosthavearoleinmediatingorchoosingbetweenthesecompetingpositionsIsthehostcastintheroleofexperthimorherselfDoexpertsprovideatouchstoneofauthorityforthediscussion,towhichnonexpertswillalwaysdeferOraretheycharacterizedasoutoftouchwithcommonsense,andnoisilysilenced(DuringaradiodebateonthemorninginwhichIwrotethis,acriminologistwhoarguedthatcrimestatisticsintheUKdonotjustifytoughnewpolicemeasureswascastinthisunfortunaterole)Fourth,IwantyouthinkabouthowthedebateconstructsthemeaningofthingsspatiallyDoestheprogrammefashionanimageofthenation(as,perhaps,beingunderthreatfromimmigrants,orasanationofcouchpotatoes),orisitsspatialframeofreferencemorelocal(thiswill,ofcourse,beparticularlytrueofregionalprogramming,butfiercelocalloyaltiesmaysurfaceinotherformatsin,say,discussionsofsport,work,healthorfoodpolicy)Whatkindsofdiscussionmightleadparticipantstothinkbeyondtheseboundaries,todescribethemselvesas,forexample,goodEuropeans,globalcitizens,ormembersofworldreligions,anddootherparticipantsreadilyaccepttheseidentificationsWHYGRAMSCIEXERCISE:Studyapieceofparticipatorymedia,notingyourresponsestothevariousissuesraisedaboveArethereanyfurtherissuesthatthediscussionbringsintofocusGRAMSCI’SNUANCEDACCOUNTOFPOWERWhilewecanreadilyidentifythemotifsandconventionsthattypifythiskindofprogramming,themostdifficultthingtodoistodecidewhoseintereststhedebateservesDoesthediscussionultimatelyreproducewhatwemightthinkofas‘dominant’values(youmightaskyourselfwhatarethedominantvaluesinyoursociety)ordoesitchallengethem(perhapsyoufeelthat,withinyourprogramme,ordinarypeopleinvertthenormaloperationsofpowerbycriticizingtheirsocialandpoliticalsuperiors)Perhapsitdoesneither(youmightfeelthistobethecaseinthoseformatsthatdealextensivelywithpersonalnarratives),orboth(whereapparentlyopposingvaluesseemtocanceloneanotherout)Ormaybepowerliesoutsidetheprogrammeitself,beinginvestedinitsresearchersandproducers,inthebroadcastauthoritieswhocommissionandscheduleitandinthegovermentthatlegislatesfor,scrutinizesandlicensesthebroadcastmediaThatthereisnosimpleorsingleanswertothisquestionisindicatedbySoniaLivingstoneandPeterLunt’s()studyoftelevisiontalk,inwhichtheysuggestthatalongsideitstraditionalrolesofactingonbehalfof,andcriticizing,thegovernment,discussionprogrammesnowcarryoutthreefurtherroles:Theycanactasspokesmenforthepeopletobothgovernmentandexperts,conveyingopinions,experiences,informationandcriticism‘upwards’totheeliteTheycanallowthepublictoholdpoliticiansandexpertstoaccountdirectly,ratherthanbyproxyAndtheycanprovideasocialspaceforcommunicationamongthelaypublicitself,bothintheformofthestudioaudienceandintherelationbetweenstudioandhomeaudiences,andthusgiveeverydayexperiencesandopinionsanewandpowerfullegitimation(LivingstoneandLunt:)Itisthiscomplex,multilayeredunderstandingofthewebofpowerthatprovidesananswertothequestion‘WhyGramsci’posedatthebeginningofthischapterAntonioGramsci(–)recognizedthatsocialpowerisnotasimplematterofdominationontheonehandandsubordinationorresistanceontheotherRatherthanimposingtheirwill,‘dominant’groups(or,moreprecisely,dominantalliances,coalitionsorblocs)withindemocraticsocietiesgenerallygovernwithagooddegreeofconsentfromthepeopletheyrule,andthemaintenanceofthatconsentisdependentuponanincessantrepositioningoftherelationshipbetweenrulersandruledInordertomaintainitsauthority,arulingpowermustbesufficientlyflexibletorespondtoWHYGRAMSCInewcircumstancesandtothechangingwishesofthoseitrulesItmustbeabletoreachintothemindsandlivesofitssubordinates,exercisingitspoweraswhatappearstobeafreeexpressionoftheirowninterestsanddesiresIntheprocess,therulingcoalitionwillhavetotakeonatleastsomeofthevaluesofthoseitattemptstolead,therebyreshapingitsownidealsandimperativesBecauseofthisincessantactivity,GramscirejectsthenotionthatpowerissomethingthatcanbeachievedonceandforallInsteadheconceivesofitasanongoingprocess,operativeevenatthosemomentswhenarulingclassorgroupcannolongergenerateconsentIntheprocess,societybecomessaturatedwithattemptstopolicetheboundarybetweenthedesiresofthedominantandthedemandsofthesubjugatedGramsci’shighlyoriginalunderstandingofpowerseesitassomethingactivelylivedbytheoppressedasaformofcommonsense(hencemysuggestionthatyoulookatadiscussionprogramme,abroadcastforminwhichcommonsenseiscentral)AstheBritishculturaltheoristRaymondWilliamsnotes,thiswasahugeadvanceonthosecriticalpositionsthatas

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