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首页 RF MEMS Circuit Design for Wireless Communicatio…

RF MEMS Circuit Design for Wireless Communications.pdf

RF MEMS Circuit Design for Wire…

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2010-08-27 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《RF MEMS Circuit Design for Wireless Communicationspdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

RFMEMSCircuitDesignforWirelessCommunicationsForalistingofrecenttitlesintheArtechHouseMicroelectromechanicalSystems(MEMS)Series,turntothebackofthisbookRFMEMSCircuitDesignforWirelessCommunicationsHØctorJDeLosSantosArtechHouseBoston•LondonwwwartechhousecomLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDeLosSantos,HØctorJRFMEMScircuitdesignforwirelesscommunicationsHØctorJDeLosSantospcm—(ArtechHousemicroelectromechanicalsystemslibrary)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(alkpaper)Wirelesscommunicationsystems—EquipmentandsuppliesRadiocircuitsMicroelectromechanicalsystemsITitleIISeriesTKS—dcBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDeLosSantos,HØctorJRFMEMScircuitdesignforwirelesscommunications—(ArtechHousemicroelectromechanicalsystemsseries)ElectroniccircuitdesignRadiofrequencyMicroelectromechanicalsystemsITitle’ISBNCoverdesignbyIgorValdman'HØctorJDeLosSantosAllrightsreservedPrintedandboundintheUnitedStatesofAmericaNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,orbyanyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherAlltermsmentionedinthisbookthatareknowntobetrademarksorservicemarkshavebeenappropriatelycapitalizedArtechHousecannotattesttotheaccuracyofthisinformationUseofaterminthisbookshouldnotberegardedasaffectingthevalidityofanytrademarkorservicemarkInternationalStandardBookNumber:LibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:Estelibrolodedicoamisqueridospadresyamisqueridos,Violeta,Mara,Hectorcito,yJosephYsabemosquealosqueamanaDiostodosloscosaslasayudanabien,estoes,alosqueconformeasupropósitosonllamadosRomanos:ContentsPrefacexiiiAcknowledgmentsxviiWirelessSystems—ACircuitsPerspectiveIntroductionSpheresofWirelessActivity—TechnicalIssuesTheHomeandtheOfficeTheGroundFixedMobilePlatformTheSpacePlatformWirelessStandards,Systems,andArchitecturesWirelessStandardsConceptualWirelessSystemsWirelessTransceiverArchitecturesPowerandBandwidthEfficientWirelessSystems—ChallengesviiMEMSBasedWirelessAppliancesEnableUbiquitousConnectivitySummaryReferencesElementsofRFCircuitDesignIntroductionPhysicalAspectsofRFCircuitDesignSkinEffectTransmissionLinesonThinSubstratesSelfResonanceFrequencyQualityFactorModing(Packaging)PracticalAspectsofRFCircuitDesigndcBiasingImpedanceMismatchEffectsinRFMEMSProblemsSummaryReferencesRFMEMS–EnabledCircuitElementsandModelsIntroductionRFMicrowaveSubstratePropertiesMicromachinedEnhancedElementsCapacitorsInductorsVaractorsMEMSwitchesShuntMEMSwitchLowVoltageHingedMEMSwitchApproachesviiiRFMEMSCircuitDesignforWirelessCommunicationsPushPullSeriesSwitchFoldedBeamSpringsSuspensionSeriesSwitchResonatorsTransmissionLinePlanarResonatorsCavityResonatorsMicromechanicalResonatorsFilmBulkAcousticWaveResonatorsMEMSModelingMEMSMechanicalModelingMEMSElectromagneticModelingSummaryReferencesNovelRFMEMS–EnabledCircuitsIntroductionReconfigurableCircuitElementsTheResonantMEMSSwitchCapacitorsInductorsTunableCPWResonatorMEMSMicroswitchArraysReconfigurableCircuitsDoubleStubTunerNthStubTunerFiltersResonatorTuningSystemMassivelyParallelSwitchableRFFrontEndsTrueTimeDelayDigitalPhaseShiftersReconfigurableAntennasTunableDipoleAntennasTunableMicrostripPatchArrayAntennasContentsixSummaryReferencesRFMEMS–BasedCircuitDesign—CaseStudiesIntroductionPhaseShiftersPhaseShifterFundamentalsXBandRFMEMSPhaseShifterforPhasedArrayApplications—CaseStudyKaBandRFMEMSPhaseShifterforPhasedArrayApplications—CaseStudyKaBandRFMEMSPhaseShifterforRadarSystemsApplications—CaseStudyFilmBulkAcousticWaveFiltersFBARFilterFundamentalsFBARFilterforPCSApplications—CaseStudyRFMEMSFiltersAKaBandMillimeterWaveMicromachinedTunableFilter—CaseStudyAHighQMHzMEMResonatorFilter—CaseStudyRFMEMSOscillatorsRFMEMSOscillatorFundamentalsAMHzMEMOscillator—CaseStudyAKaBandMicromachinedCavityOscillator—CaseStudyAGHzMEMSBasedVoltageControlledOscillator—CaseStudySummaryReferencesxRFMEMSCircuitDesignforWirelessCommunicationsAppendixA:GSMRadioTransmissionandReceptionSpecificationsAOutputPowerAMobileStationABaseStationAOutputRFSpectrumASpectrumDuetoModulationandWidebandNoiseASpectrumDuetoSwitchingTransientsASpuriousEmissionsAPrincipleoftheSpecificationABaseTransceiverStationAMobileStationARadioFrequencyToleranceAOutputLevelDynamicOperationABaseTransceiverStationAMobileStationAModulationAccuracyAGMSKModulationAPSKModulationAIntermodulationAttenuationABaseTransceiverStationAIntraBTSIntermodulationAttenuationAIntermodulationBetweenMS(DCSPCSOnly)AMobilePBX(GSMOnly)AReceiverCharacteristicsABlockingCharacteristicsAAMSuppressionCharacteristicsContentsxiAIntermodulationCharacteristicsASpuriousEmissionsListofAcronymsAbouttheAuthorIndexxiiRFMEMSCircuitDesignforWirelessCommunicationsPrefaceThisbookexaminestherecentprogressmadeintheemergingfieldofmicroelectromechanicalsystems(MEMS)technologyinthecontextofitsimminentinsertionanddeploymentinradiofrequency(RF)andmicrowavewirelessapplicationsInparticular,asthepotentialofRFMEMStoenabletheimplementationofsophisticated,yetlowpower,portableappliancesthatwillfueltheupcomingwirelessrevolutiongainswiderecognition,itisimperativethattheknowledgebaserequiredtoquicklyadoptandgainfullyexploitthistechnologybereadilyavailableInaddition,thematerialpresentedhereinwillaidresearchersinmappingouttheterrainandidentifyingnewresearchdirectionsinRFMEMSAccordingly,thisbookgoesbeyondanintroductiontoMEMSforRFandmicrowaveswhichwasthethemeofourpreviousbookIntroductiontoMicroelectromechanical(MEM)MicrowaveSystems(ArtechHouse,)andprovidesathoroughexaminationofRFMEMSdevices,models,andcircuitsthatareamenableforexploitationinRFmicrowavewirelesscircuitdesignThisbook,whichassumesbasic,BSlevelpreparationinphysicsorelectricalengineering,isintendedforseniorundergraduateorbeginninggraduatestudents,practicingRFandmicrowaveengineers,andMEMSdeviceresearcherswhoarealreadyfamiliarwiththefundamentalsofbothRFMEMSandtraditionalRFandmicrowavecircuitdesignChapterofRFMEMSCircuitDesignforWirelessCommunicationsstartsbyclearlystatingtheubiquitouswirelesscommunicationsproblem,inparticular,asitrelatestothetechnicalchallengesinmeetingtheextremexiiilevelsofappliancefunctionality(inthecontextoflowpowerconsumption)demandedbyconsumersintheirquestforconnectivityathome,whileonthemove,oronaglobalbasisThechaptercontinueswithareviewofthewirelessstandards,systems,andtraditionalarchitectures,aswellastheirlimitations,which,inturn,areimposedbythoseoftheconventionalRFtechnologiestheyutilizeFinally,itpositstherealprospectofRFMEMSasthetechnologythatcanovercometheselimitationsandthusenabletheubiquitousconnectivityparadigmChapterprovidesareviewofthosesalientpointsinthedisciplineofRFcircuitdesignthatarekeytoitssuccessfulpracticeandareintimatelyrelatedtothesuccessfulexploitationofRFMEMSdevicesincircuitsInparticular,thesubjectsofskineffect,theperformanceoftransmissionlinesonthinsubstrates,selfresonancefrequency,qualityfactor,moding(packaging),DCbiasing,andimpedancemismatcharediscussedChapterprovidesanindepthexaminationofthearsenalofMEMSbaseddevicesonwhichRFMEMScircuitdesignwillbepredicated—namely,capacitors,inductors,varactors,switches,andresonators,includingpertinentinformationontheiroperation,models,andfabricationThechapterconcludeswithadiscussionofaparadigmformodelingRFMEMSdevicesusingthreedimensional(D)mechanicalandfullwaveelectromagnetictools,inthecontextofselfconsistentmechanicalandmicrowavedesignChapter,viaamostlyqualitativetreatment,providesasampleofthemanynoveldevicesandcircuitsthathavebeenenabledbyexploitingthedegreesofdesignfreedomaffordedbyRFMEMSfabricationtechniques—inparticular,reconfigurablecircuitelements,suchasinductors,capacitors,LCresonators,anddistributedmatchingnetworksreconfigurablecircuits,suchasstubtuners,filters,oscillatortuningsystems,RFfrontends,andphaseshiftersandreconfigurableantennas,suchastunabledipoleandtunablemicrostrippatcharrayantennasChapterintegratesallthematerialpresenteduptothatpointasitexaminesperhapsthemostimportantRFMEMScircuits—namely,phaseshifters,filters,andoscillators—viaanumberofcasestudiesTheseincludeXbandandKabandphaseshiftersforphasedarraysandradarapplications,filmbulkacoustic(FBAR)filtersforPCScommunications,MEMresonatorbasedfilters,micromachinedcavityandMEMresonatorbasedoscillators,andaMEMvaractorbasedvoltagecontrolledoscillator(VCO)EachcasestudyprovidesanexaminationoftheparticularcircuitintermsofxivRFMEMSCircuitDesignforWirelessCommunicationsitsspecificationandtopology,itscircuitdesignandimplementation,itscircuitpackagingandperformance,andanepilogueonlessonslearnedPrefacexvAcknowledgmentsTheauthorthanksthemanagementofCoventor,inparticular,MrRRichards,MrJHilbert,andMrGHarder,forallowinghimtoundertakethisprojectSpecialthanksareduetothemanycolleagueswhorespondedratherpromptlytohisrequestfororiginalartwork:DrAMuller(IMTBucharest),DrYanlingSun(AgereSystems),DrJBYoon(KAIST),DrGWDahlmann(ImperialCollege,London),DrsREMihailovich,JDeNatale,andYHKaoLin(RockwellScientificCorporation),MrMStickelandProfGVEleftheriades(UniversityofToronto),MrHMaekoba(Coventor),DrFDeFlaviisandMrJQian(UniversityofCalifornia,Irvine),ProfTWellerandMrTKetterl(UniversityofSouthFlorida),DrKatiaGrenier(AgereSystems),DrYKwon(SeoulNationalUniversity),andMrJKiihamäki(VTTElectronics)SpecialthanksgoalsotoDrCMJackson(DitransCorporation)forloaningtotheauthorpartofhispersonaltechnicallibrarycollectionMrJRepke(Coventor)isthankedforprovidingusefullinkstowirelessstandardsTheauthoralsogratefullyacknowledgesthecooperationofMsJHanssonandMrWJHagen,bothoftheIEEEIntellectualPropertyRightsDepartment,forexpeditingthegrantingofanumberofpermissionrequestsofMsMCarlier,MrSTronchon,andMrKHeinzRosenbrock,alloftheEuropeanTelecommunicationsStandardsInstitute(ETSI),fortheirassistanceinobtainingthepermissiontoreprintexcerptsoftheGSMstandardandofMsAEssenpreisoftheRightsandPermissionsxviiDepartment,SpringerVerlag,forherassistanceinobtainingvariouspermissionrequestsTheunknownrevieweristhankedforprovidingusefulsuggestionsonmanuscriptcontentandorganizationTheassistanceofthestaffatArtechHouseisgratefullyacknowledged,inparticular,MrMarkWalsh,senioracquisitionseditor,forfacilitatingtheopportunitytoworkonthisproject,MsBarbaraLovenvirth,assistanteditor,forherassistancethroughoutmanuscriptdevelopment,andMsJudiStone,executiveeditor,forherassistancewiththeartworkduringtheproductionstageFinally,theauthorgratefullyacknowledgestheunfailingandgenerousassistanceofhiswife,Violeta,incuttingandpastingartworkthroughoutthepreparationthemanuscriptxviiiRFMEMSCircuitDesignforWirelessCommunicationsWirelessSystems—ACircuitsPerspectiveIntroductionConsumerexigencyforubiquitousconnectivityiswidelyrecognizedasthedemandwhosefulfillmentwillunleashthenextindustrialrevolutionbeginninginthefirstdecadeofthetwentyfirstcenturySucharevolutionwillbepredicateduponthepromisetoendowtheseconsumerswiththeabilitytoachieveuniversalaccesstoinformationTheconsumersdemandingthisconnectivity,aswellastheirinformationneeds,areratherdiverseOntheonehand,thereareindividuals,whoexploitwirelessaccessforsuchthingsaslocationdetermination,conversation,personalinformationmanagement(eg,calendarofappointments,contactlist,addressbook),checkingbankbalances,bookingmovietickets,findingoutabouttheweather,andmoneymanagementOntheother,therearebusinesses,whoseinformationneedsmayincludefleetlocation,eventsandstatusnotification,informationmanagement,schedulinganddispatch,realtimeinventorycontrol,andorderandresourcemanagementUntilrecently,itwasstraightforwardtoassociateasinglewirelessappliancewitheachoneofthevarioustypesofinformationsources(seeFigure)Forinstance,cellphoneswereassociatedwithvoice,digitalcameraswithvideo,laptopcomputerswithbroadbanddata,pagerswithmessaging,globalpositioningreceivers(GPS)withnavigation,andWebapplianceswiththeInternetTheevolutioninwirelessstandardselicitedbythegrowthinconsumerdemands,however,indicatesthatexpectationsfromthesewirelessappliancesaregettingmoreandmoreexacting(seeTable)Forexample,whiletheappliancesofthefirstgeneration(G)providedsinglebandanalogcellularconnectivitycapabilities,thoseofthesecondgeneration(G)hadtoprovidedualmode,dualbanddigitalvoiceplusdata,andnowthoseofthethird(G)andfourth(G)generationshavetoprovidemultimode(ie,analogdigital),multiband(ie,variousfrequencies),andmultistandardperformancecapabilities(VariousstandardsincludeGlobalSystemforMobileCommunications(GSM)—aleadingdigitalcellularsystemthatallowseightsimultaneouscallsonthesameradiofrequencyDigitalEuropeanCordlessTelecommunications(DECT)—asystemforthetransmissionofintegratedvoiceanddataintherangeoftoGHzcellulardigitalpacketdata(CDPD)—adatatransmissiontechnologythatusesunusedcellularchannelstotransmitdatainpacketsintherangeoftoMHzGeneralPacketRadioService(GPRS)—astandardforwirelesscommunicationsthatrunsatKbpsandcodedivisionmultipleaccess(CDMA)—aNorthAmericanstandardforwirelesscommunicationsthatusesspreadspectrumtechnologytoencodeeachchannelwithapseudorandomdigitalsequence)Thekeyquestionthenbecomes:WillitbepossibletorealizethewirelessappliancesRFMEMSCircuitDesignforWirelessCommunicationsInformation•Voice•Broadbanddata•Messaging•Navigation•DBS•Internet•Video•Cellphones•Laptops••GPSreceivers•Television•DigitalcamerasWirelessappliances•Webappliance•••••••••••••TwowaypagersFigureTraditionalinformationsourcewirelessappliancerelationshipembodyingthisconvergenceoffunctionsandinteroperability(Figure)giventhepowerandbandwidthlimitationsimposedbyconventionalRFcircuittechnology,inthecontextofubiquitousconnectivityWiththisquestioninmind,wenowexaminethespheresofinfluenceinwhichthesewirelessappliancesfunction,aswellaspertinenttechnicalissues,thechallengestoenablingpowerbandwidthefficientwirelessappliances,andthepotentialofMEMStechnologytoenablewirelessappliancescapableoffulfillingtheubiquitousconnectivityvisionSpheresofWirelessActivity—TechnicalIssuesInordertoachievethisoverarchinggoalofubiquitousconnectivitybywayofallencompassingandinteroperablewirelessappliances,itwillbenecessarytoenableseamless,efficient,secure,andcosteffectiveconnectivityforWirelessSystems—ACircuitsPerspectiveTableWirelessStandards—TheEvolutionBlueprintGGGGAnalogcellular(singleband)Digital(dualmode,dualband)Mulitmode,multibandsoftwaredefinedradioMultistandardmultibandVoicetelecomonlyVoicedatatelecomNewservicesmarketbeyondtraditionaltelecom:higherspeeddata,improvedvoice,multimediamobilityMacrocellonlyMacromicropicocellDatanetworks,Internet,VPN,WINternetOutdoorcoverageSeamlessindooroutdoorcoverageDistinctfromPSTNComplementarytofixedPSTNBusinesscustomerfocusBusinessconsumerTotalcommunicationssubscriber:virtualpersonalnetworkingSource:http:wwwuwccorginformationappliancesoperatingwithinandamongthevariousspheresofconsumeractivity(Figure):()thehomeandtheoffice,()thegroundfixedmobileplatform,and()thespaceplatformRFMEMSCircuitDesignforWirelessCommunicationsInformation•Voice•Broadbanddata•Messaging•Navigation•DBS•Internet•VideoWirelessappliances•••••••PowerBandwidth••••••••Cellphones•Laptops•Twowaypagers•GPSreceivers•Television•Digitalcameras•Webappliance•••••••FigureEvolutiontowardstotalconvergenceandinteroperabilitywirelessappliancesHomeofficeGroundmobileSpaceFigureSpheresofwirelessactivityWithmobilityandportabilityasthecommonthemes,theplansfortheseGmobilewirelesstelecommunicationsservicescallforsupportingmobileandfixeduserswhoemployawidevarietyofdevices,includingsmallpocketterminals,handheldtelephones,laptopcomputers,andfixedreceiverappliancesoperatingatfrequenciesthattakeadvantageoftheexcellentpropertiesofradiowavesbelowGHzCompletesuccessinbringingthisvisiontofruition,however,maywelldependonourabilitytoharnesstwoscarcecurrencies,namely,powerandbandwidthPowerisessentialduetotheovertconflictbetwe

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