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首页 Current Trends in Optical MEMS

Current Trends in Optical MEMS.pdf

Current Trends in Optical MEMS

xiao_20141220
2010-08-27 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Current Trends in Optical MEMSpdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

MingWuOFCCurrentTrendsinOpticalMEMSCurrentTrendsinOpticalMEMSMingCWuUniversityofCalifornia,BerkeleyEECSDepartmentBerkeleySensorandActuatorCenter(BSAC)wueecsberkeleyeduOFCTutorialMingWuOFCAcknowledgmentAcknowledgment•Providingviewgraphs–ThomasDucellier(Metconnex)–LiFan(Formfactor)–AndresFernandez(Glimmerglass)–RogerHelkey,OlivierJerphagnon(Calient)–DanMarom(Lucent)–KatsuOkamoto(OkamotoLab)–OlavSolgaard(StanfordUniversity)–RodTucker(UnivMelborne)•GraduatestudentsandPostdocsatBerkeleyandUCLA–WSS:JC“Ted”Tsai,DooyoungHah,SophiaHuang–PhCswitch:MC“Mark”Lee–MEMSMicrodisk:MC“Mark”Lee,JinYao–MEMSPLCswitch:JoshCHChi,JinYaoMingWuOFCOUTLINEOUTLINE•Introduction•Opticaldesignconsiderations•Spacedivisionswitches–DMEMSopticalswitches–DMEMSopticalswitches•Spectraldomainprocessors–Wavelengthselectiveswitches•Planarlightwavecircuits(PLC)MEMSIntegration•DiffractiveopticalMEMS•Newdirections•SummaryMingWuOFCYearsofOpticalMEMSYearsofOpticalMEMSScanningMirror(Petersen,IBM)DigitalMicromirrorDevice(DMD,TI)TI’sTI’sDMDDMDFreeSpaceOpticalBench(UCLABerkeley)DMEMSSwitchesMicromotoers(Berkeley)GratingLightValve(GLV,Stanford)DMEMSSwitches(TokyoU)TITISiliconLightMachineSiliconLightMachineMingWuOFCBulkMicromachiningBulkMicromachining•Anisotropicwetchemicaletching(restrictedtofixedcrystallineorientations)<><><><>VerticalSidewall•Deepreactiveionetching(DRIEorICPRIE)•Combinewithsilicononinsulator(SOI)orIIIVepiwafer•Suspendedstructureinonestepetchingreleasing•Multilayerstructurebyadditionalwaferbonding•Highaspectratio(>:)•Independentofcrystalorientation•Moreefficientuseofrealestateofsubstrate(eg,canproducecloselyspacedstructures)MingWuOFCSurfaceSurfaceMicromachiningMicromachining::““StandardStandard””FoundryProcessFoundryProcessMUMPsMUMPsSUMMiTSUMMiTPolyPolyumPolyumPolyPolyPolyPolyumumCMPCMPumPoly•MEMSCAP•SandiaNationalLab•Fairchild(SUMMiT)SiSubstrateSiSubstrateMingWuOFCMEMSTechnologiesandOpticalElementSizeMEMSTechnologiesandOpticalElementSizeElectromagneticActuationElectrostaticActuationcmmmµmµmµmScanningdisplayImagingDMEMSOXCDiffractiveMEMSDMEMSSwitchxSwitchesVOAProjectiondisplayOpticalElementSizeApplicationsMainActuationMechanismsMicroresonatorsPhotonicCrystalsBulkMicromachining(SingleCrystallineSi,DRIE,WaferBonding)SurfaceMicromachining(PolySi,Al)MainFabricationTechnologiesMirrorbasedVOAOADMWSSGainequalizerDispersioncompensatorMingWuOFCOpticalDesignsOpticalDesignsMingWuOFCDirectCouplingWithoutLensesDirectCouplingWithoutLensesInsertionLoss(dB)Distance(um)SingleModeFiber(SMF)ThermallyExpandedCore(TEC)FiberSMFTECAirAirIndexMatchingFluid•Shortpropagationdistance•MaybeusedforsmallswitchesorVOAsdMingWuOFCExample:xSwitchExample:xSwitchMarxer,etal,JMEMS,vol,pCrossStateBarStateMingWuOFCFreeFreeSpaceOptics:SpaceOptics:GaussianGaussianBeamBeam•LargerbeamwaistÆLongcollimationlength•Systemsize~b•Mirrordiameter~aw,a~toλπwb=ww⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎣⎡⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛=)(bzwzw(ConfocalParameter)bMingWuOFCSpaceDivisionSwitches:SpaceDivisionSwitches:()DMEMSOpticalSwitches()DMEMSOpticalSwitchesMingWuOFCScalingofDMEMSOpticalSwitchesScalingofDMEMSOpticalSwitchesInputChannelsOutputChannels“ADD”Channels“DROP”ChannelsCollimatorArraysDMEMSSwitchChipNaLwaNawRPRwbNPLPN⋅⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛=≈⇒===≈=πηλλπηηλπ~a(vertical)RadiusMirror:rMicromirroofFactorFill:LengthChip:PitchFiber:CountPort:PL=bwwbMingWuOFCPortCountofDMEMSSwitchesPortCountofDMEMSSwitcheseBeamWaist(µm)MaximumPortCountFillFactor=eBeamWaist(µm)LossduetoMirrorTilt(dB)MirrorTilt=°°°PortCountvsBeamSizeLossDuetoMirrorTilt•Accuracyanduniformityofmirroranglesimposealosspenalty,whichlimitthemaximumportcountNaLwaN⋅⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛=≈πηλλπη:SizeChip:CountPorteBeamWaist(µm)eBeamWaist(µm)MaximumPortCountLossduetoMirrorTilt(dB)MingWuOFCSurfaceSurfaceMicromachinedMicromachinedDMEMSOpticalSwitches(x)DMEMSOpticalSwitches(x)LFan,etal,OFCxSwitchLFan,etal,OFCMirrorAngle(degree)NumberAbsoluteangularuniformity~±°MingWuOFCScalingofDMEMSOXCScalingofDMEMSOXCww()()WaistBeam:)~(RadiusMirror:AngleScanMechanical::LengthPathOpticalsizeSystem:CountPort~waawRwbLNaLaLN=∆==⋅⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛∆=∆=θλπθπλλθπ~LInputCollimatorsInputCollimatorsDArrayofAxisMicromirrorsOutputCollimatorsDArrayofAxisMicromirrorsOutputCollimatorsDArrayofAxisMicromirrorsMingWuOFCCalientNetworkproprietaryandconfidentialDonotcopyordistributewithoutpermissionEvolutionaryNetworkingRevolutionaryTechnologyASICVoltagedriversMEMSmirrorarrayCollimatorarrayInsertionLoss(dB)NumberofConnectionsCumulativePercentagexconnectionsbelowdBTransparentfromtonmTypicalWavelengthDependentLossNote:thehigherlosspeakaroundnmisduetoOHwaterabsortionandcanvaryWavelength(nm)InsertionLoss(dB)PXOESCLTransparentfromnmDMEMSSwitchingTechnology©GlimmerglassGlimmerglassDMEMSSwitchesxtoxOEMModulextoxUChassisxtoxUChassisDMEMSArchitecture”x”x”MEMSMirrorArrayCollimatorArray©GlimmerglassGlimmerglassMEMSModuleElectrostaticActuationElectrodeGimbaledMirrorMirrorWaferMultiLayerCeramicSnapGuardWaferV•SnapGuardPreventsElectrostaticSnapDownFailure•MirrorMaterialIsHighlyReliableSingleCrystalSilicononInsulator(SOI)•CeramicSubstrateContainsElectrodes,Routing,AndHermeticSealRingSPIEVol,pp(ScanAngle~º~V)MingWuOFCWavelengthWavelengthSelectiveSwitches(WSS)SelectiveSwitches(WSS)MingWuOFCFourierTransformPulseShaperFourierTransformPulseShaper•ShapingfemtosecondpulsesbymodulatingthephasesandamplitudesoftheirspectralcomponentsAMWeiner,JPHeritage,andEMKirschner,JOptSocAmMingWuOFCDynamicWDMFunctionsDynamicWDMFunctionsffGratingCollimatorsFemtosecondpulseshaperPistonMirrorsTunabledispersioncompensatorDeformablemirrorsWavelengthSelectiveSwitch(WSS)xNanalogmicromirrorsOpticaladddropmultiplexer(OADM)xDigitalmicromirrorsSpectral(orgain)equalizerVariablereflectivitymirrorWavelengthblockerONOFFreflectorsDynamicWDMFunctionsMEMSSpatialLightModulatorArrayMEMSSpatialLightModulatorArrayMingWuOFCxWavelengthxWavelengthSelectiveSwitch(WSS)SelectiveSwitch(WSS)ffGratingYXCollimatorsAnalogMicromirrorArrayMingWuOFCxWSSxWSS•DMarometal(Lucent),OFC–xWSS–Channelspacing:orGHz–MEMSperformance:°(>V)•TDucellieretal(JDSU),ECOC–xWSS–Channelspacing:GHz–MEMSperformance:±°MingWuOFCWSSprovides:•Portswitching•Widepassbands•dBDSE•Blocking•Lowinsertloss•LowPDL,DGDChannel,WavelengthSelective×Switch(DMarom)FreeSpaceImplementationMingWuOFCAnalogMicromirrorArray(UCLA)AnalogMicromirrorArray(UCLA)FixedfingersMovablefingersHiddenspringsMirrorAnchorzyx°(mechanical)ScanAngles±dBSystem(hr)±°Stability(hr)kHzResFreqFillFactorVVoltageRotationAngle(deg)AppliedVoltage(V)µmµmµmµmDMDLikeCombFingerSpacing•Hah,etal(UCLA)JMEMS,,p•Tsai,etal(UCLA)IEEEPTL,pMingWuOFCScalingofWSSScalingofWSSGratingspatial⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛∂∂⋅=∆λθλπλ#ffNCollMEMSwfw⋅⋅=πλ•Systemsize~f•Totalcapacity(NspatialxNλ)isconstant–ProportionaltofCollimatorsffAnalogMicromirrorArrayCollwMEMSwGratingspatial⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛∂∂⋅⋅=⋅λθλπλλ#ffBWNNMingWuOFCApproachforIncreasingPortCount()ApproachforIncreasingPortCount()•UseanamorphicprismpairtocompresslateralbeamsizeonMEMSmicromirrors•EllipticalbeamsonMEMSmirrorsÆRectangularmicromirrorDMarom(Lucent)MingWuOFCApproachforIncreasingPortCount()ApproachforIncreasingPortCount()•xNWSS:–Dcollimatorarray–Darrayofaxismicromirrorarray•PortcountisincreasedfromNtoN–Nisthediffractionlimitedlinearportcount•HighportcountWSS–xWSShasbeendemonstratedffGratingResolutionlensYX•JCTsai,etal,(UCLA)ECOC,PaperTuMingWuOFCHighHighFillFactorFillFactorAxisMicromirrorArrayAxisMicromirrorArrayDOFmirrorjointMirrorLeverVerticalcombdriveactuators•Gimballess–HighFillfactor(>)•Largescanangle–xleverage–PowerfulverticalcombdriveactuatorsxyOriginalmirrorpositionTsai,Fan,Hah,Wu,OpticalMEMSMingWuOFCSEMofSEMofGimbalGimballesslessAxisAnalogMicromirrorAxisAnalogMicromirrorArrayArray•SUMMiTVlayersurfacemicromachiningprocess•Mirrorpitch:um•Largescanangles:±º(mechanically)V•Fillfactor:•Resonantfrequency=kHzMingWuOFCPlanarLightwaveCircuit(PLC)MEMSPlanarLightwaveCircuit(PLC)MEMSMingWuOFC(a)ConfigurationofchGHzOADM(b)PhotographofOADMKOkamotoetal,ElectronLett,vol,pp,DropMainoutputportportMainAddinputportportReconfigurableReconfigurableOpticalAddDropOpticalAddDropMultiplexerMultiplexer(ROADM)(ROADM)(VGcourtesyofKOkamoto)MingWuOFCPLCxWSSPLCxWSS•xWSS•Thermalopticswitch–mWswitch–Totalpower~W•Loss~dB•Isolation>dBInputOutputOutputOutputOutputOutputxCRDoerr,etal(Lucent),OFCPostdeadlinePaper,FAMingWuOFCxMEMSxMEMSWaveguideWaveguideWSXCWSXCDTFuchs,etal(Lucent)IEEEPTL,Jan•GHzchannelspacing•dBinsertionloss•dBextinctionratio•diffractionordersbyAWG•Opticalphasesof(,,)ordersmodulatedbyMEMSpistonmirrors•Chip~xmmMingWuOFCChannel,WavelengthSelective×Switch(DMarom)PortInputPortCylindricalcollimatorsPLCandPLCFourierlensMEMSmicromirrorarrayHybridPLCandFreeSpaceImplementationλλ<λλ>λSwitchtoPortSwitchtoPortHybridWSSprovides:•SamebenefitsasfreespaceWSS•Compactimplementation•IntegrationofadditionalfunctionalityMingWuOFCCompactSpectralPulseShaper(DMarom)HybridPLCandFreeSpaceImplementationPulseShaperprovides:•Spectraldomainprocessing•Polarizationindependent•GatewaytoopticalarbitrarywaveformsynthesisVoltagePhaseπMEMSpistonmotionmicromirrorarray•>πphasemodulation•PolarizationinsensitiveInputPulseThrushaperDispersionCompensatedShapedsignalMingWuOFCDarrangementofportsforscalablexDarrangementofportsforscalablexWSSWSSArrayofWaveguideDispersiveElementsCollimatingFocusinglensesMEMSmirrorlineararrayMingWuOFCInterleavedspectrumswitchedtoallInterleavedspectrumswitchedtoalloutputportsoutputportsMingWuOFCxPLCMEMSOpticalSwitchesxPLCMEMSOpticalSwitchesSlabCoreCladdingCladding•Theoreticalloss~dB,primarilyduetoverticaldiffractionloss•Compact,nobulkopticalelementsCHChi,etal(UCLAandOkamotoLab),OFCmmmmFiberRibbonLowLossButtCouplingDeepEtchedCylindricalMicrolensMicromirrorFanShapedWaveguideArrayFreePropagationSlabRegionumMingWuOFCTunableTunableFabryFabryPerotFiltersPerotFiltersMingWuOFCTunableTunableFabryFabryPerot(FP)FiltersPerot(FP)FiltersFixedMirrorMovableMirrorFreeSpectralRange(FSR)Frequency,Transmissionf∆fdTuningEfficientnmGHzTunableBroadlynm~dFor⇒=∆∆⇒=dfFSRλddcddffmdcfmkdddcFSR∆=∆=∆⇒⋅=⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛⇒⋅===λπππλ:ConditionResonanceh)wavelengt(infreq)(inFinesseFSRfdB=MingWuOFCTunableFPFiltersTunableFPFilters•Hasbeendemonstratedinmanymaterialsystems–IIIV–Dielectric(eg,SiSiO)–Semiconductor–AirgapDBR•Variousactuationmechanisms–Electrostatic(parallelplateactuators)–Thermalactuators–PiezoelectricactuatorsMingWuOFCNonlinearOpticalResponseNonlinearOpticalResponseOpticalPowerVGcourtesyofProfRodTucker(UnivMelbourne)DatasuppliedbyCoreTekMingWuOFCkxFEPoutcRPFoutR)(−=KeffxFEPoutdfdGRcFSRPkkineff•−−=)(λFilterResponseSlopeλPoutEffectiveSpringConstantduetoEffectiveSpringConstantduetoRadiationPressureRadiationPressureVGcourtesyofProfRodTucker(UnivMelbourne)MingWuOFCDiffractiveOpticalMEMSDiffractiveOpticalMEMSMingWuOFCGratingLightValveGratingLightValve•Applications–Projectiondisplay–Variableopticalattenuators(VOA)–Gainequalizers–Wavelengthblockers•Companies–Siliconlightmachine(Cypress),Lightconnect,Polychromix,KodakNitridewithAlcoatingIncidentLightReflectedIncidentLightDiffractedOSolgaard,FSASandejas,DMBloom,"Adeformablegratingopticalmodulator",OpticsLetters,vol,no,pp,MayPolychromixSiliconLightMachineMingWuOFCTelecommunicationsApplicationsTelecommunicationsApplicationsDynamicSpectralEqualizer(DSE)ReconfigurableChannelBlockingFilterDynamicGainEqualizerMingWuOFCMEMSMEMSSwitchableSwitchableWDMWDMDeinterleaverDeinterleaverBasedonBasedonGiresGiresTournoisTournoisInterferometerInterferometerFocusingLensOutputFiberArrayPowerDetectorPowerDetectorTunableLaserTunableLaserMEMSMirrorArrayBeamSplitterInputfiberOlavSolgaard,StanfordUniversityhttp:wdmstanfordedusnrckyoungsikpptMingWuOFCNanophotonicMEMSNanophotonicMEMSMingWuOFCONDefectDandDDandDPhotonicPhotonicCrystalSwitchesCrystalSwitchesDPhotonicCrystal:ONOFFSwitchDPhotonicCrystal:xSwitch(ÆNxNSwitch)OFFWaveguideWaveguideLeftPathRightPathMingWuOFCDMEMSDMEMSPhotonicPhotonicSwitchSwitchFDTDTransferMatrixWavelength(μm)TransmittanceFDTDTransferMatrixWavelength(μm)TransmittanceFDTDTransferMatrixWavelength(μm)TransmittanceFDTDTransferMatrixWavelength(μm)TransmittanceTransmissionStateReflectionStateMingWuOFCExperimentalResultsExperimentalResults•nmwidebeamwith<nmtolerance•ONOFFswitchingwithdBextinctionratio•msswitchingtimeWavelength(μm)Transmittance(dB)TransmissionReflectiondBWavelength(μm)Transmittance(dB)TransmissionReflectionWavelength(μm)Transmittance(dB)Wavelength(μm)Transmittance(dB)TransmissionReflectiondBMCLee,etal(UCLA)OFCAnchorPCSliderActuatorVWaveguide(WG)Waveguide(WG)LightwaveAnchorPCSliderActuatorVWaveguide(WG)Waveguide(WG)LightwaveAnchorPCSliderActuatorVVWaveguide(WG)Waveguide(WG)LightwaveMingWuOFCMicroringResonatorMicroringResonatorBasedPICBasedPICSTChu,BELittle,VVan,JVHryniewicz,PPAbsil,FGJohnson,DGill,OKing,FSeiferth,MTrakaloandJShanton(LittleOptics)OFCThermallyTunedwithVernierArchitectureµmMingWuOFCMEMSTunableMicroresonatorsMEMSTunableMicroresonators•Changeresonantwavelength–Thermaltuning–Freecarrierinjection•ChangeeffectiveQ–Increasecavityloss(eg,electroabsorption)–Changewaveguidediskcoupling•Changeresonantwavelength–Movemirror•ChangeeffectiveQ–Increasemedialoss–Tunemirrorreflectivity(Hard)FabryPerotResonatorsλλλMicrodiskResonatorsInputDropDropInputMingWuOFCMicrodiskResonatorwithMEMSTunableMicrodiskResonatorwithMEMSTunableCouplersCouplersMicrodiskWaveguidesMicrodiskWaveguidesVVVVVVVVMCMLeeandMCWu,OpticalMEMSMingWuOFCDynamicOpticalAddDynamicOpticalAddDropMultiplexersDropMultiplexersGapSpacing(um)TransmittanceThroughPortDropPortInputThroughAddDropMingWuOFCSpoilingQbyMEMSMetalMembraneSpoilingQbyMEMSMetalMembrane•UseametalmembranetospoiltheQofmicroringresonator–LowlossÆresonantwavelengthsentto“Drop”port–HighlossÆallwavelengthstransmittedto“Through”portEnableresonanceDisabledresonanceGregoryNNielson,etal,(MIT)“MEMSbasedwavelengthse

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