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首页 英文原版-联盟&敌对:世界依靠细菌

英文原版-联盟&敌对:世界依靠细菌.pdf

英文原版-联盟&敌对:世界依靠细菌

dawncoming
2010-08-26 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英文原版-联盟&敌对:世界依靠细菌pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ptgptgAlliesandEnemiesptgThispageintentionallyleftblankptgAlliesandEnemiesHowtheWorldDependsonBacteriaAnneMaczulakptgVicePresident,Publisher:TimMooreAssociatePublisherandDirectorofMarketing:AmyNeidlingerAcquisitionsEditor:KirkJensenEditorialAssistant:PamelaBolandOperationsManager:GinaKanouseSeniorMarketingManager:JuliePhiferPublicityManager:LauraCzajaAssistantMarketingManager:MeganColvinCoverDesigner:AlanClementsManagingEditor:KristyHartSeniorProjectEditor:LoriLyonsCopyEditor:GeneilBreezeProofreader:ApostropheEditingServicesSeniorIndexer:CherylLenserCompositor:NonieRatcliffSeniorManufacturingBuyer:DanUhrig©byPearsonEducation,IncPublishingasFTPressUpperSaddleRiver,NewJerseyFTPressoffersexcellentdiscountsonthisbookwhenorderedinquantityforbulkpurchasesorspecialsalesFormoreinformation,pleasecontactUSCorporateandGovernmentSales,,corpsalespearsontechgroupcomForsalesoutsidetheUS,pleasecontactInternationalSalesatinternationalpearsoncomCompanyandproductnamesmentionedhereinarethetrademarksorregisteredtrademarksoftheirrespectiveownersAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereproduced,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaFirstPrintingJulyISBN:ISBN:PearsonEducationLTDPearsonEducationAustraliaPTY,LimitedPearsonEducationSingapore,PteLtdPearsonEducationNorthAsia,LtdPearsonEducationCanada,LtdPearsonEducacióndeMexico,SAdeCVPearsonEducationJapanPearsonEducationMalaysia,PteLtdLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMaczulak,AnneE(AnneElizabeth),Alliesandenemies:howtheworlddependsonbacteriaAnneEMaczulakpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:(hardback:alkpaper)ISBN:(hardback:alkpaper)BacteriaPopularworksMicrobialbiotechnologyPopularworksMicrobiologyPopularworksITitleDNLM:BacteriaBacterialPhysiologicalPhenomenaBacteriologyhistoryQWMaQRMdcptgContentsAcknowledgmentsviiiAbouttheAuthorixIntroductionChapterWhytheworldneedsbacteriaTricksinbacterialsurvivalBacterialcommunitiesUnderthemicroscopeThesizeoflifeThebacteriaofthehumanbodyTheoriginsofourbacteriaOneplanetChapterBacteriainhistoryTheancientsThelegacyofbacterialpathogensTheplagueMicrobiologistssavethedayUnheraldedheroesofbacteriologyOnthefrontChapter“Humansdefeatgerms!”(butnotforlong)WhatisanantibioticInventingdrugsislikemakingsausageMutantwarsBacteriasharetheirDNATheopportunistsptgChapterBacteriainpopularcultureBacteriaandartBacteriaintheperformingartsFriendsandenemiesDobacteriadevourartChapterAnentireindustryfromasinglecellEcoliThepowerofcloningAchainreactionBacteriaonthestreetAnthraxWhywewillalwaysneedbacteriaChapterTheinvisibleuniverseVersatilitybegetsdiversityCyanobacteriaBacterialproteinfactoriesHowtobuildanecosystemFeedbackandecosystemmaintenanceMacrobiologyChapterClimate,bacteria,andabarrelofoilThestoryofoilBacteriapowerHowisacowlikeacockroachMicroscopicpowerplantsThewasteproblemBacteriaonMarsShapingtheplanetEpilogueHowmicrobiologistsgrowbacteriaSerialdilutionCountingbacteriaLogarithmsvialliesandenemiesptgAnaerobicmicrobiologyAseptictechniqueAppendixResourcesforlearningmoreaboutbacteriaInternetresourcesonbacteriaBookresourcesonbacteriaClassicreadingonbacteriaBacteriarulereferencesIndexcontentsviiptgAcknowledgmentsIbecameamicrobiologistinBurkADehority’slaboratoryinstudyinganaerobesincattle,sheep,andhorsesFromthatpointonIhavemetorworkedwithsomeofthemostrespectedresearchersinthefieldsofanaerobic,environmental,andwatermicrobiologyI’msuretheyhaveforgottenmoremicrobiologythanIeverlearned,butwecollectivelymustadmitthatbacteriastillholdavastworldofunknownsIthankallofmyprofessorsofmicrobiologyattheOhioStateUniversityandtheUniversityofKentuckyForthisbookIowethankstoBonnieDeClark,DanaJohnson,PriscillaRoyal,SheldonSiegel,MegStiefvater,andJanetWallacefortheiradviceonchaptercontentSpecialgratitudeisdueDennisKunkelandRichardDanielsonwhoalwaysseemtoofferencouragementwhenitisneededthemostThanksareduetoAmandaMoranandKirkJensenfortheirvaluableguidance,andtoJodieRhodesfortirelessencouragementandsupportptgAbouttheAuthorAnneMaczulakgrewupinWatchung,NewJersey,withaplantobecomeeitherawriterorabiologistShecompletedundergraduateandmaster’sstudiesinanimalnutritionatTheOhioStateUniversity,herdoctoratenutritionandmicrobiologyfromtheUniversityofKentucky,andconductedpostdoctoralstudiesattheNewYorkStateDepartmentofHealthShealsoholdsanMBAfromGoldenGateUniversityinSanFranciscoAnnebeganhertrainingasamicrobiologiststudyingthebacteriaandprotozoaofhumanandanimaldigestivetractsSheisoneofarelativelysmallgroupofmicrobiologistswhoweretrainedintheHungatemethodofculturinganaerobicmicrobes,meaningmicrobesthatcannotliveifexposedtooxygenInindustry,AnneworkedinmicrobiologylaboratoriesatFortunecompanies,developingantidandruffshampoos,deodorants,waterpurifiers,drainopeners,septictankcleaners,anddisinfectantsallproductsthatrelatetotheworldofmicrobesSheconductedresearchintheUniversityofCaliforniaSanFrancisco’sdermatologygroup,testingwoundhealingmedications,antimicrobialsoaps,andfootfungustreatmentsIngraduateschool,otherstudentsandafewprofessorshadseemednonplussedwhenAnnefilledherelectiveschedulewithliteraturecoursesAnnewasequallysurprisedtolearnthatsomanyofherpeersinsciencefoundpursuitoftheartstobefollyIn,withmorethanadecadeof“growingbugs”onherresume,shepackedupanddrovefromtheeastcoasttoCaliforniatobeginanewcareerasawriterwhilekeepingmicrobiologyherdayjobAndyes,itwaspossibletobebothawriterandascientistWhiletoilingeveningsonamysterynovelsetinamicrobiologylab,AnnecontinuedworkingonvariouslaboratoryprojectsintendedeithertoutilizegoodmicrobesoreliminatedeadlyonesAdecadelater,AnnebeganhercareerasanindependentconsultantandhassuccessfullyblendedwritingwithbiologyAlthoughthemysterynovelnevermadeitofftheground,AnnehassincepublishedtenbooksonmicrobesandptgenvironmentalscienceShefocusesonmakinghighlytechnicalsubjectseasytounderstandFromheruniqueperspective,Anneinspiresheraudiencesintowantingtoknowmoreaboutmicrobes,andperhapsevenlikethemxalliesandenemiesptgIntroductionInthemids,Europe’spopulationhadbeendecimatedbythreecenturiesofbubonicplaguesThedeadliesthadbeentheBlackDeath,killingonethirdofthepopulationbetweenandBetweeneachepidemicEuropeancitiesrepopulatedandrebuilttheircommerceInAmsterdam,theDutchhadcededdominanceoftheseastoEnglandbutretainedacentralroleinEuropeanfinanceandthetraderoutesGlass,textiles,andspicesmovedbythetonthroughtheNetherlands’portsAfterapprenticinginAmsterdam,clothmerchantAntonivanLeeuwenhoekreturnedtohisbirthplaceDelfttostarthisownbusinessandcapitalizeonthegrowingeconomyNeedingawaytoassessfabricqualityandcompetewithestablishedclothiers,vanLeeuwenhoekexperimentedwithglasslensesofvariousthicknessestomagnifyindividualthreadsMorethanyearsearlier,eyeglassmakersZachariasJanssenandhisfather,Hans,hadputmultiplelensesinsequencetoamplifymagnificationandindoingsoinventedthefirstcompoundmicroscopeVanLeeuwenhoekusedmainlysinglelenses,butheformedthemwithprecision,enablinghimtoobservethemicroscopicworldasnoonehadbeforeVanLeeuwenhoekcontinuedtinkeringwithnewmicroscopeassembliesandwordspreadoftheclevernewinventionMoreforhobbythanforscience,hestudiedvariousitemsfromnatureUsingamagnificationoftimes,vanLeeuwenhoekspiedtinyobjectsmovingaboutinrainwater,meltedsnow,andtheplaquesampledfromteethHedescribedthemicroscopicspheresandrodsinsuchdetailthatscientistsreadinghisnotesthreecenturieslaterwouldrecognizethemVanLeeuwenhoekcalledtheminutecreatures“animalcules”ptgalliesandenemiesandintroducedthefirststudiesofthemicroscopicworldTheanimalculeswouldsomedaybeknownasbacteria,andvanLeeuwenhoekwouldbecreditedwithcreatingthesciencecalledmicrobiologyBacteriaareselfsufficientpacketsoflife,thesmallestindependentlylivingcreaturesonEarthAlthoughbacteriaderiveclearbenefitsfromlivingincommunities,theydowellinafreelivingformcalledtheplanktoniccellBacteriaasagrouparenotboundbytheconstraintsthatmarryprotozoatoaqueousplaces,algaetosunshine,andfungitothesoilThekeytounderstandingmicrobesistounderstandthecellAcellisthesimplestcollectionofmoleculesthatcanliveLifecanbehardertodefineLifehasabeginning,anagingprocess,andanend,andduringthisspanitinvolvesreproduction,metabolism,andsomesortofresponsetotheenvironmentBiologiststhinkofcellsasthemostbasicunitoflifeinthewaythatanatomisthebasicunitofchemistryMicrobiologyencompassesallbiologicalthingstoosmalltobeseenwiththeunaidedeyeMoldspores,protozoa,andalgaejoinbacteriainthisworld,eachwithattributesthatwouldappeartogivethemadvantagesovertheothermicrobesMoldspores,forinstance,arehardy,littlespikedballsthatwithstanddroughtandfrostandtravelformilesonabreezeManybacteriadosomethingsimilarbyformingathickwalledendosporethatcanoutlastamoldsporebycenturiesProtozoameanwhilestalktheirnutrition,whichoftencomesintheformofbacteriaWhyhuntahundreddifferentnutrientswhenyoucanswallowonebacterialcellfordinnerButbacteriarollouttheirownversionofpredationCertainbacteriaformcooperativepacksthatconserveenergyastheyroamtheirenvironment,searchingforotherbacteriatoeatFinally,algaeappeartoholdanacebecausetheyproducetheirownfoodbyabsorbingsolarenergyandusingittopowerphotosynthesisButbacteriarisetothechallengehere,tooSomebacterialivecheekbyjowlwithalgaeatthewater’ssurfaceandcarryoutthesamephotosynthesisOtherbacteriaexistatgreaterdepthsandusethescarcelightraysthatfilterthroughthewater’ssurfacelayerGivebacteriathepowerofspeechandtheymightsay,“AnythingyoucandoIcandobetter”Bacteriaasagroupliveeverywhere,reproduceontheirownwithouttheneedforamate,anddependonnoothercellsfortheirptgIntroductionsurvivalUnlikeanyothertypeofcellinbiology,bacteriadothesethingsusingthesimplestcellinbiologyWhataboutviruses,whichareoftendescribedasthesimplestbiologicalbeingsinexistenceThescienceofmicrobiologyhasadoptedvirusesmainlybecausevirusesaremicroscopicandbiologicalButvirusescannotperformallthefunctionsthatwouldmakethemalivingthing:alifecycle,metabolism,andinteractionwiththeenvironmentVirusesdependentirelyonlivingcellsfortheirsurvivalAsinglevirusparticledroppedintoeventhemostcomfortableenvironmentwouldbealifelessspeckwithnocapabilitiesofitsownVarioustheorieshavebeenputforthtoexplaintheoriginofvirusesinrelationtobacteriaVirusesmayhavedescendedfromaprimitiveformofnucleicacid,meaningdeoxyribonucleicacid(DNA)orribonucleicacid(RNA)RNAcarriesinformationinsidecellsjustasDNAcarriesgenesRNAinterpretsthecodeinDNA’sgenesandusesthisinformationtoassemblecellularcomponentsRNAwouldbealikelycandidatefororiginatingvirusesbecauseitsstructureissimplerthanDNA’sDNAcontainstwolongchainsthatmakeupitsmoleculeandRNAhasonlyonechainPerhapsancientRNAdirectedtheearlyprocessesofbuildingmorecomplexmoleculessuchasanucleicacidwrappedinprotein,thebasicstructureofavirus(Aproteinisalongstrandofaminoacidsfoldedintoaspecificshape)AsecondcontrastingtheoryviewsvirusesasselfreplicatingpiecesofRNAorDNAcastoutfromearlybacteriaThepiecessomehowbecameenvelopedinproteinandthusturnedintothefirstvirusMicrobiologistshavealsoconsideredascenarioinwhichevolutionreversedandbacterialcellsregressedbysheddingmuchoftheircellularstructureuntilonlynucleicacidsurroundedbyproteinremainedThetheoriesfallintoandoutoffavor,butonethingiscertain:bacteriaandvirusesshareaverylonghistoryonEarthFungi,protozoa,algae,plants,andallanimallife,includinghumans,belongtotheDomainEukaryaThecellsthatmakeupeukaryoteshaveinternalstructurescalledorganellesTheorganellesgiveeukaryoticcellsanorderlinessthatbacterialackandhelprefinethebasicactivitiesofthecell:buildingcompounds,breakingdowncompounds,andcommunicatingwithothercellsButmanagingalotofinfrastructurealsorequiresextraworkDuringcellreproduction,eachorganellemustbeallocatedtothetwonewcellsInsexualptgalliesandenemiesreproduction,aeukaryoteneedsanothereukaryoticcelltopropagatethespeciesMembersofDomainBacteriaandbacterialikemicrobesinDomainArchaeasplitinhalfbybinaryfissionwithouttheworriesofmanagingorganelles,whichbacteriaandarchaealack(Archaeaareindistinguishablefrombacteriainamicroscope,andmanyscientists,evenmicrobiologists,lumpthetwotypesofmicrobestogether)Beforepeopleknewoftheexistenceofbacteria,theyputbacteriatoworkmakingorpreservingfoodsanddecomposingwasteAlthoughhumanity’srelationshipwithbacteriaextendstohumans’earliesthistory,studiesofthesecellsbeganinearnestonlyyearsago,andthemajordiscoveriesinbacterialevolutionemergedinthepastyearsBacterialgeneticsbloomedinwhenJamesWatson,FrancisCrick,andRosalindFranklinstudiedathick,mucuslikesubstancefromEscherichiacoliandthusdeterminedthestructureofDNABacteriologyrequiredmicroscopestoimprovebeforethissciencecouldadvanceVanLeeuwenhoekprovidedastartingpoint,butothersrefinedtheinstrument,particularlyvanLeeuwenhoek’sBritishcontemporaryRobertHookeHookeinventedawaytofocuslightonspecimenstomakethemagnifiedimageeasiertostudyBythes,microbeshadcapturedtheimaginationofscientistsandmicrobiologywouldenteraperiodfromtotheearlythcenturycalledtheGoldenAgeofMicrobiologyBythecloseoftheGoldenAge,microbiologistshadsolvedanumberofhealthandindustryproblemsrelatedtobacteriaMicrobiology’seminentLouisPasteurwouldraisethestatureofmicrobiologiststoveritableheroesTheemergenceofelectronmicroscopyinthesenabledmicrobiologiststoseeinsideindividualbacterialcellsThisachievementplusthestudiesonDNAstructureandreplicationlaunchedanewgoldenperiod,thistimeinvolvingcellulargeneticsBylearninghowbacteriacontrolandsharegenes,geneticistsmovedbeyondsimplycrossingredfloweringplantswithwhiteGeneticsreachedthemolecularlevelSomeelectronmicroscopesnowproduceimagesofatoms,thesmallestunitofmatterWiththeseabilities,scientistshaveuncoveredthefinepointsofcellreproductionGeneticengineering,biotechnology,andgenetherapyowetheirdevelopmenttothefirstmicroscopicstudiesoncellorganizationptgIntroductionMicrobiologistsalsopeeroutwardfrombacterialcellstoentireecosystemsEcologistshavediscoveredbacteriainplacesnoonethoughtacreaturecouldlive,andthebacteriadonotmerelytoleratetheseplaces,theythriveManyofthesurpriseshavecomefromextremophilesthatliveinenvironmentsofextr

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英文原版-联盟&敌对:世界依靠细菌

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