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首页 The Britannica Guide to 100 Most Influential Lea…

The Britannica Guide to 100 Most Influential Leaders of All Time.pdf

The Britannica Guide to 100 Mos…

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2010-08-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《The Britannica Guide to 100 Most Influential Leaders of All Timepdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

PublishedinbyBritannicaEducationalPublishing(atrademarkofEncyclopædiaBritannica,Inc)inassociationwithRosenEducationalServices,LLCEaststStreet,NewYork,NYCopyright©EncyclopædiaBritannica,IncBritannica,EncyclopædiaBritannica,andtheThistlelogoareregisteredtrademarksofEncyclopædiaBritannica,IncAllrightsreservedRosenEducationalServicesmaterialscopyright©RosenEducationalServices,LLCAllrightsreservedDistributedexclusivelybyRosenEducationalServicesForalistingofadditionalBritannicaEducationalPublishingtitles,calltollfree()FirstEditionBritannicaEducationalPublishingMichaelILevy:ExecutiveEditorMarilynLBarton:SeniorCoordinator,ProductionControlStevenBosco:Director,EditorialTechnologiesLisaSBraucher:SeniorProducerandDataEditorYvetteCharboneau:SeniorCopyEditorKathyNakamura:Manager,MediaAcquisitionAmyMcKenna:SeniorEditor,GeographyandHistoryRosenEducationalServicesHopeLourieKillcoyne:SeniorEditorandProjectManagerNelsonSá:ArtDirectorMatthewCauli:DesignerIntroductionbyMichaelILevyLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataThemostinfluentialworldleadersofalltimeeditedbyAmyMcKenna,senioreditorpcm(TheBritannicaguidetotheworld’smostinfluentialpeople)“InassociationwithBritannicaEducationalPublishing,RosenEducationalServices”IncludesindexISBN(eBook)WorldhistoryBiographyHeadsofstateBiographyStatesmenBiographyPoliticiansBiographySocialreformersBiographyPoliticalactivistsBiographyReligiousleadersBiographyLeadershipCasestudiesInfluence(Psychology)CasestudiesITitle:OnehundredmostinfluentialworldleadersofalltimeDA'dcOnthecover:MarkinghisthdayasthethpresidentoftheUnitedStates,BarackObama,thefirstAfricanAmericantoholdtheoffice,speaksduringatownhallmeetingatFoxSeniorHighSchoolinArnold,Mo,April,SaulLoebAFPGettyImagesIntroductionMosesBuddhaGotamaConfuciusAlexandertheGreatShihuangdiJuliusCaesarCleopatraJesusChristConstantineIAttilaMuhammad‘AlīCharlemagneWilliamIUrbanIISaladinChinggisKhanHongwuJoanofArcMartinLutherHenryVIIIElizabethITokugawaIeyasuOliverCromwellLouisXIVPeterICatherineIIGeorgeWashingtonThomasJeffersonMaximiliendeRobespierreNapoleonISimónBolívarGiuseppeGaribaldiCONTENTSAbrahamLincolnOttovonBismarckFrederickDouglassVictoriaSittingBullTheodoreRooseveltMohandasKaramchandGandhiVladimirIlichLeninSirWinstonChurchillMohammedAliJinnahJosephStalinIbnSa‘ūdKemalAtatürkFranklinDRooseveltEamondeValeraBenitoMussoliniEleanorRooseveltDavidBenGurionChiangKaishekJeanMonnetandRobertSchumanAdolfHitlerJawaharlalNehruHoChiMinhCharlesdeGaulleJosipBrozTitoFranciscoFrancoMaoZedongJuan,Eva,andIsabelPerónRuhollahKhomeiniHirohitoSukarnoDengXiaopingDagHammarskjöldKwameNkrumahRonaldWReaganKimIlsungandKimJongIlRichardMNixonMenachemBeginWillyBrandtAugustoPinochetIndiraGandhiNelsonMandelaAnwarelSādātPierreElliottTrudeauJohnPaulIIJuliusNyerereJimmyCarterPolPotMargaretThatcherFidelCastroCheGuevaraMartinLutherKing,JrYāsir‘ArafātHelmutKohlMikhailGorbachevDalaiLamaXIVVáclavHavelS·addāmH·usseinKofiAnnanMuammaralQaddafiLechWałęsaAungSanSuuKyiVladimirPutinBenazirBhuttoHugoChávezOsamabinLadenBarackObamaGlossaryForFurtherReadingIndexINTRODUCTIONIntroductionWhatdoesitmeantobealeaderDoesitrequirethatapersonholdpoliticalofficeandrulemassesDoesitincludeonlythosewhomadeapositiveimpactonsocietyoralsothosewhowreakeddevastationanddestructionDohumanitariansoractivistswhoneverheldofficebutwhohadtheabilitytostirthousandsandmillionswithavisionofadifferent,betterworldmeritinclusionManyverydifferenttypesofleadersareprofiledinthisbook,whichisarrangedchronologicallybydateofbirthItendswithOsamabinLadenandBarackObamaOneisamastermindofterroristactsthathavekilledthousandsandanotherapoliticianwhoovercametheweightofhundredsofyearsofslaveryanddiscriminationagainstblackstobecomethefirstAfricanAmericanelectedpresidentofthemostpowerfulcountryintheworldTheyareoppositesinalmosteveryimaginablewayBinLadenleadsaglobaljihadagainstWesternvalues,andObama,thesymbolicleaderoftheWest,wastherecipientoftheNobelPeacePrizeTheyarelinked,however,intheirabilitytoinspireloyalfollowersinbinLaden’scasetocommitdestructionandinObama’stobelievethatordinarycitizens,actingtogether,canchangeasometimesseeminglybleakworldforthebetterandintheirlastingimpactontheworldinwhichtheyandfuturegenerationswillliveTheworldtodayhassomebillionpeople,mostofwhomadheretoonereligionoranotherInthethcenturyBCE,MosesdeliveredhispeoplefromEgyptianslaveryandreceivedtheTenCommandments,establishingJudaismastheworld’sfirstgreatmonotheisticreligionAlthoughJewsmakeupbutasmallfractionoftheworld’spopulationtoday,monotheismflourishes,withChristiansandMuslimstogetheraccountingformorethanhalftheworld’spopulationTheMostInfluentialWorldLeadersofAllTimeJesus’ChristianfollowerswereoncepersecutedbytheRomansuntilConstantineItheGreatbecamethefirstRomanemperortoconverttoChristianitynow,morethantwobillionpeoplecallthemselvesChristiansInthethcenturyMuhammadfoundedIslam,andheisconsideredbyMuslimstobethelastoftheGreatProphetshisnameisnowinvokedseveralbilliontimesadaybynearlybillionMuslimsaroundtheworldOthers,suchasConfuciusinth–thcenturyBCEChinaandBuddhaintheareaaroundNepalandIndiaaboutthesametime,haveinspiredhundredsofmillionsofpeople,andtheirteachingsremaincentraltothedailylivesofvastnumberstodayAnd,thoughthesefiguresstillhaverelevancethousandsofyearsaftertheirdeaths,theworldcontinuestoproducereligiousleadersMartinLutherandhisReformationinEurope,RuhollahKhomeiniandhisIslamicRevolutioninIran,JohnPaulIIandhismorethanyearleadershipasheadoftheRomanCatholicChurch,andtheDalaiLamawhohaverepresentedchallengestoexistingreligiousviewsorhavespreadthereachoftheirreligiousdoctrineWhilesomehavefoundedreligions,othershavefoundedcountriesGeorgeWashingtonisalmostuniversallyreveredintheUnitedStatesasthe“FatherofHisCountry,”securingindependenceonthebattlefieldandthenturningdownanoffertobecomekingTheAmericanRevolutionbegantheprocessofindependenceinthesocalledNewWorld,whichhadbeensubjecttocolonialdominationbyEuropeanpowersLessthanyearsaftertheAmericanRevolutionhadbeenwon,anotherAmericanrevolutionofsorts,ledbySimónBolívarinLatinAmerica,helpedthrowoffSpanishrulethereBolívar’snameisstillasymboltorevolutionaryleadersinLatinAmericaIndeed,HugoChávezleadshisown“BolivarianRevolution”inVenezuelatodayIntroductionInEurope,too,newcountrieswereformedinwhataregenerallythoughtofasancientlandsGiuseppeGaribaldihelpedcreateaunifiedKingdomofItalyin,whileOttovonBismarckhelpedforgeaGermanempireinOldempiresfellawayandwerereplacedwithmodernstatesinthethcenturyVladimirLeninestablishedinRussiatheworld’sfirstcommunistregime,onethat,thoughitcollapsednearlyyearslater,continuestohavealastinginfluenceonourworldOutoftheashesoftheOttomanEmpire,KemalAtatürkhelpedfoundmodernTurkeyEamondeValerawonIrishindependencefromGreatBritainIbnSa’ūdcreatedacountry,SaudiArabia,thatbearshisfamily’snameAnd,MaoZedongledayearstruggleinChina,creatingacommuniststateinthatyearslatercontinuestoruleovertheworld’slargestpopulationSometimesindividualshaveledpeacefulresistancemovementsthathavefreedtheirpeopleasMohandasGandhididinIndiaAfterWorldWarII,aspeoplesyearnedtobecomefree,DavidBenGurioninIsrael,KwameNkrumahinGhana,JuliusNyerereinTanzania,andHoChiMinhinVietnamfoughtforandachievedtheircountry’sindependenceindifferentwaysNelsonMandelainSouthAfricaisyetanotherstoryofresistancesometimesarmedandsometimespeacefulHewasjailedfromtobyhisapartheidgovernment,whichlegallydiscriminatedagainsttheoverwhelminglyblackpopulationinfavourofminoritywhites,beforebeingreleased,helpingendapartheid,usheringinapeacefultransitiontodemocracy,andbecomingthefirstblackpresidentofthenew,multiracialSouthAfricaSomeoftheworld’sgreatestleadershaveearnedtheirplaceherefromvictoriesanddefeatsonthebattlefieldAlexandertheGreatwonavastthcenturyBCEempirethateventuallystretchedfromEuropetoIndiaTheMostInfluentialWorldLeadersofAllTimeAttilacommandedtheHuns,leadingthemininvasionsagainsttheBalkans,Greece,andItalyHisempire,however,diedshortlyafterhedidinCECharlemagnehadhimselfcrownedHolyRomanemperorin,followingmilitaryconqueststhatexpandedhiskingdomoutwardfromwhatismoderndayGermanyAmillenniumlater,NapoleonledFrenchforcesinEuropetostunningvictories,buthisdefeatsinRussiaand,later,atWaterlooprovedhisdownfallOutsideofEurope,ChinggisKhanwasoneofthegreatestwarriorstheworldhaseverseen,leadinghisMongolsinamassinganempirethatstretchedfromMongoliatotheAdriaticSeaintheth–thcenturyAtaboutthesametime,Saladin,founderoftheAyyūbiddynasty,foughtintheMiddleEastagainstChristianCrusaders,capturingJerusalemtoendnearlyninedecadesofoccupationbyChristiansThethcenturybroughtadvancesintechnologymakingwarevenmoredevastatingthanitwasduringNapoleon’stimeItisestimatedthatsometomillionpeoplediedduringWorldWarII,andforthisreasontheleadersofthemajorcombatantsusuallytopanylistofinfluentialleadersItaly’sIlDuce,BenitoMussolini,theworld’sfirstfascistdictator,joinedanallianceinEuropewithGermany’sAdolfHitlerunderwhosedictatorialrulemostofEuropefellandsomesixmillionJewsdiedintheHolocaustTogether,HitlerandMussoliniformedtheAxiswithJapaninthePacificHirohito,emperorofJapan,thoughplayingalimitedpoliticalrole,wasthesymbolicleaderofhiscountryHisnationalradioaddressin,thefirsttimemanyJapanesehadheardhisvoice,announcedthecountry’ssurrender,andthenextyearherenouncedhisquasidivinestatus,helpingtoengineerJapanesedemocracyafterthewarFranklinDRoosevelt,thoughafflictedwithdebilitatingpolio,managedtowinIntroductionreelectiontofourtermsaspresidentoftheUnitedStatesandledtheAlliesHewasjoinedbyWinstonChurchill,whosesteelynerveshelpedcalmBritainduringrelentlessbombingbytheGermanLuftwaffe,whileCharlesdeGaulleledtheFreeFrenchagainstGermanoccupationAfourthallywasJosephStalin,whoseruleintheSovietUnionresultedinpurges,famine,andthedeathsofsomemillioninitiallysigningapactwithHitler,hejoinedtheAlliesfollowingHitler’sinvasionoftheSovietUnionFromtheashesofWorldWarIIcamedreamstobuildaEuropethatwouldbefreefromthetraditionalEnglishFrenchGermanrivalrythathadplungedthecontinentintotwoworldwarsJeanMonnetandRobertSchumanmayneverhaveledagovernment,buttheyhelpedfoundtheEuropeanCoalandSteelCommunity,theforerunneroftoday’sEuropeanUnionTheEUnowencompassescountriesfromPortugalinthewest,Maltainthesouth,Finlandinthenorth,andRomaniaintheeasthelpingtointegratethecontinentbothpoliticallyandeconomicallyandwardoffwarUpholdingtheEuropeanidealwasbutonewayinwhichstatesmenandactivistshaveinfluencedthearcofhistorywithouteverpossessingformalpowerFrederickDouglass,oneofthegreatesthumanrightsleadersofthethcentury,helpedleadtheAmericanabolitionmovementThoughslaveryhadbeenabolishedintheUnitedStatesin,AfricanAmericansstillsufferedfromdiscrimination,sointhenextcenturyMartinLutherKing,Jr,usednonviolentprotestandcivildisobedience,modeledonGandhi’smovementinIndia,toachievepoliticalequalitybeforehewasstruckdownbyanassassin’sbulletinEleanorRoosevelt,wifeofFranklin,wasatirelesscampaignerforhumanrights,playingamajorroleindraftingandgainingadoptionoftheUniversalDeclarationofTheMostInfluentialWorldLeadersofAllTimeHumanRightsconsideredhumanity’sMagnaCarta(GreatCharter)tomanyEleanorRooseveltwasbutonewomanwhoseimprinthasbeenmadeonasocietytraditionallydominatedbymenOneofherpredecessorsasfirstlady,AbigailAdams,wroteininalettertoherhusband,JohnAdams,thegreatrevolutionaryandthesecondpresidentoftheUnitedStates,“Idesireyouwouldremembertheladiesandbemoregenerousandfavorabletothemthanyourancestors”(NeitherAdamsnorherhusbandmadethelistof)Toooften,however,womenhavenotbeenrememberedinhistoryStill,theircontributionshavebeenenormousCleopatra,whoruledasqueenofEgyptfordecades,eventuallycommittedsuicide,andhistorywasrewrittentoportrayheraspredatoryandimmoralratherthanasthewomanshewas:strongandsmart,aphilosopherandascientistWomenwerealsodiscriminatedagainstinthehereditarymonarchiesofEurope,whichfavouredmalesindecidingwhowouldruleThoughherfather,HenryVIII,haddivorcedorhadkilledseveralwivestofindonewhowouldproduceamaleheir,ElizabethIeventuallybecamequeenofEngland,rulingforyearsandgivinghernametoanageCatherineIItheGreatofRussiawasempressformorethanthreedecades,andduringhertimeshebroughtRussiaintofullparticipationinthepoliticalandculturallifeofEuropeWhileElizabethandCatherineruledfrompalaces,JoanofArcearnedhermarkonthebattlefieldShediedatage,burnedatthestake,butbeforethensheledtheFrenchtowinimprobablebattles,mostlyduetotheconfidencethathermenhadinher,despiteheryouth,gender,andlackofmilitaryknowhowMargaretThatcher,the“IronLady,”becameBritain’sfirstwomanprimeministerinandhelpedwintheColdWarOtherstrongwomenhavereachedtheIntroductionpinnacleofpoweronlytobemurderedIndiraGandhiofIndiaservedfourtermsasprimeministeroftheworld’slargestdemocracybutthenwasassassinatedbyextremists,whileBenazirBhutto,inneighbouringPakistan,wasthefirstwomaninmodernhistoryelectedtoleadapredominantlyMuslimcountry,andwhilecampaigninginforwhatwouldmostlikelyhavebeenanothertermasprimeministerwaskilledbyanassassinToday,AungSanSuuKyi,winneroftheNobelPeacePrize,continuesthefightforfreedom,thefaceofhopeinanauthoritarianMyanmar(Burma)whoseleadershiphasmostlykeptherunderhousearrestSelectingthemostinfluentialanythingisinherentlyfraughtwithdifficulties,andchoosingthoseindividualswhohaveleftalastingimpressionontheworldbothduringtheirtimesandlongaftertheyperishedwasnearlyimpossibleThestoriesthatfollowrepresentboththebestandworstofhumanityandprovideajourneyacrosstimeandacrosstheglobeatrekthatwillprovidekeeninsightintotheartofleadershipandthecountlessfollowerswhoweredrawnintoacause,anupheaval,oranewdawnMosesmoses(flourishedth–thcenturyBCE)Moses,aHebrewprophet,teacher,andleader,deliveredhispeoplefromEgyptianslaveryandfoundedthereligiouscommunityknownasIsrael,basedonacovenantrelationshipwithGodAsthevehicleandinterpreteroftheCovenant,includingtheTenCommandments,heexertedalastinginfluenceonthereligiouslife,moralconcerns,andsocialethicsofWesterncivilizationAccordingtothebiblicalaccountinExodusandNumbers,MoseswhoseHebrewnameisMoshewasaHebrewfoundlingadoptedandrearedintheEgyptiancourtRaisedthere,accordingtothebiblicalaccount,byhisbiologicalmother,whowashiredtobehisnanny,MosescametoknowofhisHebrewlineageAsanadult,whileonaninspectiontour,MoseskilledanEgyptiantaskmasterwhowasbeatingaHebrewslaveFearingthewrathofthepharaoh,MosesfledtoMidian(mostlyinnorthwestArabia),wherehebecameashepherdandeventuallythesoninlawofaMidianitepriest,JethroWhiletendinghisflocks,hesawaburningbushthatremainedunconsumedbytheflamesandheardacallfromtheGodthereaftercalledYahwehofAbraham,Isaac,andJacobtofreehispeople,theHebrews,fromtheirbondageinEgyptBecauseMoseswasastammerer,hisbrotherAaronwastobehisspokesman,butMoseswouldbeYahweh’srepresentativeRamsesII,whoreigned–BCE,wasprobablythepharaohofEgyptatthetimeHerejectedthedemandofthisunknownGodandrespondedbyincreasingtheoppressionoftheHebrewsThebiblicaltextstatesthatMosesusedplaguessentbyYahwehtobendRamses’willWhethertheHebrewswerefinallypermittedtoleaveEgyptorsimplyfledisnotclearAccordingtothebiblicalaccount,thepharaoh’sforcespursuedthemeastwardtotheSeaofTheMostInfluentialWorldLeadersofAllTimeMosesShowingtheTablesoftheLawtothePeople,oilpaintingbyRembrandt,CourtesyofStaatlicheMuseenPreussischerKulturbesitzGemaldegalerie,BerlinMosesReeds,apapyruslake(nottheRedSea),whichtheHebrewscrossedsafelybutinwhichtheEgyptianswereengulfedMosesthenledthepeopletoMountSinai(Horeb),whichliesatthesoutherntipoftheSinaiPeninsulaYahwehappearedtoMosesthereinaterrificstorm,outofwhichcametheCovenantbetweenYahwehandthepeopleofIsrael,whichincludedtheTenCommandmentsMosesbeganissuingordinancesforspecificsituationsandinstitutedasystemofjudgesandhearingsofcivilcasesAfterleavingMountSinaiandcontinuingthejourneytowardCanaan,MosesfacedincreasingresistanceandfrustrationfromtheHebrewpeopleandoncegotsoangryatthemthat,accordingtotradition,YahwehaccounteditasalackoffaithanddeniedhimentranceintoCanaanAshislastofficialact,

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The Britannica Guide to 100 Most Influential Leaders of All Time

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