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首页 尼采和瓦格纳的朋友MALWIDA VON MEYSENBUG的回忆录:MALWIDA VON M…

尼采和瓦格纳的朋友MALWIDA VON MEYSENBUG的回忆录:MALWIDA VON MEYSENBUG'S MEMOIRS OF AN IDEALIST.pdf

尼采和瓦格纳的朋友MALWIDA VON MEYSENBUG的…

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简介:本文档为《尼采和瓦格纳的朋友MALWIDA VON MEYSENBUG的回忆录:MALWIDA VON MEYSENBUG'S MEMOIRS OF AN IDEALISTpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Thisthesisiscopyrightedmaterial,andisusedbywrittenpermissionoftheauthorFairusagelawsapplyThetextwaseditedandpreparedbyTaylorProfitaandKurtBuhanan,BrighamYoungUniversityMALWIDAVONMEYSENBUG'SMEMOIRSOFANIDEALISTTRANSLATIONOFMEMOIRENEINERIDEALISTINbyMonteGardinerAthesissubmittedtothefacultyofBrighamYoungUniversityinpartialfulfillmentoftherequirementsforthedegreeofMasterofArtsDepartmentofGermanicandSlavicLanguagesBrighamYoungUniversityAprilSophieJournalGardinerCopyright©MonteBGardinerAllRightsReservedSophieJournalGardinerBRIGHAMYOUNGUNIVERSITYGRADUATECOMMITTEEAPPROVALofathesissubmittedbyMonteBGardinerThisdissertationhasbeenreadbyeachmemberofthefollowinggraduatecommitteeandbymajorityvotehasbeenfoundtobesatisfactoryMarchSignatureDateScottAbbott,ChairMarchSignatureDateMichelleStottMarchSignatureDateHansWilhelmKellingSophieJournalGardinerBRIGHAMYOUNGUNIVERSITYFINALREADINGAPPROVALIhavereadthedissertationofMonteBGardinerinitsfinalformandhavefoundthat()itsformat,citations,andbibliographicalstyleareconsistentandacceptableandfulfilluniversityanddepartmentstylerequirements()itsillustrativematerialsincludingfigures,tablesandchartsareinplaceand()thefinalmanuscriptissatisfactorytothegraduatecommitteeandisreadyforsubmissiontotheuniversitylibraryMarchSignutureDateScottAbbottChair,GraduateCommitteeApprovedfortheDepartmentSignatureGaryBrowningChair,DeptofGermanicandSlavicLanguagesAcceptedfortheCollegeSignatureVanCGesselDean,CollegeofHumanitiesSophieJournalGardinerABSTRACTMALWIDAVONMEYSENBUG'SMEMOIRSOFANIDEALISTTRANSLATIONOFMEMOIRENEINERIDEALISTINMonteBGardinerGermanicandSlavicDepartmentMasterofArtsThefollowingtranslationisthefirstfulllengthrenderingofMalwidavonMeysenbug'stwovolumeautobiographyMemoireneinerIdealistinEineReisenachOstendeintoEnglishMeysenbug,whoboaststiestoNietzsche,Wagner,Herzen,andSaffi,wasforerunnertoalonglineoffemalesocialdemocratsShewasaneyewitnesstothetumultuouspoliticaleventssurroundingtheGermanRevolutionof,andisrememberedasapioneerineducationandgenderissuesMeysenbug'smemoirsdepictnineteenthcenturyEuropeinadynamicstateoftransformationThisisatimeofoppositionandcontradiction,whenemergingphilosophiesandpoliticalmovementsvieforpowerwithexistingstructuresEuropeangovernmentsareforcedtoimplementsocialreformsinanefforttoavertinsurrectionsandpoliticalcatastropheInGermany,theinfluenceoforganizedreligionbeginstowane,givingwaytoagenerationoffreethinkerswhocombineelementsoftheGermanSophieJournalGardinerclassicalandromanticperiodswithMarxistandothermaterialistworldviewsSophieJournalGardinerIntroductionSeveraldaysaftertheGermanNationalAssemblyconvenedinStPaul'sChurchinFrankfurtamMain,MalwidavonMeysenbugfoundherselfwatchingtheproceedingsfromaprecarioushidingplacePeeringoutfromherperchonthepulpit,shewatchedasFriedrichHecker,leaderoftheradicalrepublicans,"aChristfigurewithlong,blondhairandarapturous,enthusiasticexpression"endedhisformalboycottofthenegotiationsandenteredthechurchtoresumehispositiononthepodiumAsthespeechesanddebatescontinuedbelowher,theeuphoricMeysenbugwasawarethatherpresencewasincongruousfortworeasons:first,womenhadbeenexcludedfromtheassemblyandsecond,herenthusiasmfortheRevolutionofdirectlycontradictedheraristocraticandreligiousupbringingMeysenbug'smemoirsdescribethereligiousstrugglesofherformativeyearsandofferexplanationsfortheseapparentcontradictionsInalargersense,Meysenbug'spersonalevolutionisamicrocosmicreflectionofcataclysmicchangesintheworldaroundherandischaracterizedbyarejectionofChristianorthodoxyandmovementtowardabroadersearchformeaningIndrawinguponvariousphilosophicalsources(Kant,Goethe,Schiller,Hölderlin,Fichte,andMarx),shealignedherselfwiththesocialdemocraticmovement,whichpromisedsocialreformsinfavoroftheoppressedworkingclassesHercallingintoquestionofnineteenthcenturygenderperceptionsgainedherahostofenemiesamongmenandwomenalikewhowereSophieJournalGardinerrepulsedbyafemalewho"pretendedtohaveherownopinions"Meysenbugalsotookissuewithexistingnotionsofeducation,wasastaunchadvocateofFröbel'skindergartenmethod,andhelpedpioneerthefirstwomen'scollegeinGermanyShewasintimatelyacquaintedwithAlexanderHerzen,RichardWagner,FriedrichNietzsche,andmanyotherswhoplayedamajorroleinshapingourmodernageInherdealingsandcorrespondences,wetracethepoliticalandphilosophicaldevelopmentofafragmentedEuropeviolentlystrivingtoliberateitselffromcenturiesofabsolutistruleandinstitutionaloppressionInordertoavoidoffendingthepersonsnamedinherautobiography,MeysenbugfirstpublishedtheworkinSwitzerlandinFrenchEightyearslaterin,MemoireneinerIdealistinappearedinStuttgartSchusterLoefflerassumedpublicationrightsinThefollowingtranslationrepresentsthefirstfulllengthrenderingofthisworkintoEnglishSophieJournalGardinerPARTICHAPTERONEEARLIESTRECOLLECTIONSItwouldbedifficulttofindabettersituatedhouseinthemiddleofasizeablecity,thantheoneinwhichIwasbornandspentmyearlychildhoodThehousestoodinthecityofCasselandwasoneofanumberofhousesliningastreetthathadappropriatelybeendubbedBellevue,forontheoppositesidethereweren'tanyhousesinstead,onecouldtakeinthegloriousviewofbeautifulgardenandparkgroundsslopingterracelikeintoafruitfulplain,throughwhichtheFulda,oneofGermany'slargerrivers,flowsIwasthesecondyoungestoftenchildren,whowereallhealthyandsoundofmindMyparentswerestillyoungwhenIwasbornTheylivedinthehappymediumbetweenabundanceandnecessityinwhichmostoftheingredientsfordomestichappinesscanbefoundMychildhoodwasadecidedlyhappyone,thoughIvaguelyrecallitOnlythreedistinctmemoriesstandoutinmymindThefirstofthesememoriesismymother'sparlor,withitspaintedtapestriescontaininglandscapeswithpalmtrees,highreedsandexoticlookingbuildingsMychildhoodimaginationflourishedinthisfantasticworldInaddition,afriendofthefamilyusedtotellmefairytales:forexample,thatoneofthesewonderfullittlehouseswasthedwellingplaceofamagicianbythenameofBlumenbach,towhomnatureitselfwassubjectNearthehousewasagreatstork,withlong,stifflegs,itsheadandlongbeakloweredoveritsbreast"That'sBlumenbach'sservant,"myfriendwouldtellme,"hestandstheresteadfastlyandawaitsthecommandsofhismaster"Thesecondofthesememoriesisthatofaneveningonwhichmynursetoldmethatmylittlesister,bornnotalltoolongbefore,haddiedThoughmymotherhadforbiddenit,sheletmelookthroughaglassdoorintoaroom,whereinstoodablackboxInthisboxlaymylittlesistersleeping,whiteassnowandcoveredwithflowersThethirdmemoryisinconnectionwiththeoldprincewhoruledtheElectorateofHessen,thesmallGermanstatewhichIclaimasmyhomeHiscarriagedrovepastourhouseeachdaytworunnersdressedinliveryraninfrontofthecarriageInthecarriagesatanoldmanwearingauniformtailoredafterthemannerpopularinFredericktheGreat'sday,withathreecorneredhatonhisheadHiswhitehairwasbraidedinbackinapigtail,andahorribletumorcoveredhischeekThatwastheailmentwhichleadtohisdeathIdidnotattendhisfuneral,butmyoldnurserelatedadescriptionofittomeoncountlessoccasionsHewasnotburiedinhisancestralcryptInaccordancewithhiswish,hewasinterredinthechapelofhissummerresidenceatWilhelmshöhe,whichhehadcausedtobebuiltandwhichhadbeenhisfavoriteretreatThefuneraltookplaceatnightbytorchlight,inaccordancewithancientcustomAknightinblackarmoronablackhorsehadtoridedirectlybehindthefuneralcoachThisknightwasalwaysselectedoutoftheranksoftheupperaristocracy,buthadtopayforthishonor,aslegendhadit,withhislifeAndinthiscase,superstitionwasnotdisappointedTheplayerinthisnocturnaldramaayoungnoblemanfullofvigorandhealth,wassnatchedawaybyafeverSophieJournalGardinerthreeweeksafterthefuneralWasthisfevertheconsequenceofacoldcaughtintheicyironcladarmorduringthelongnocturnalprocessionTheVolkcouldnotconceiveofsuchapossibility,andmychildishimaginationsidedwithpopularbeliefAsecrettremblingtookpossessionofmewheneverIvisitedthatsummerresidencewithmyparentsandsaw,restingatopablackwoodenhorseinthearmory,theblackarmorwhichtheunfortunatecavalierhadwornonthatnightSophieJournalGardinerCHAPTERTWOPUBLICANDPERSONALRELATIONSHIPSThedeathoftheoldlordwasthecauseofgreatchanges,notmerelyinmyfamily,butsignaled,ifyouwill,theendofanentireepochinthehistoryofmylittlehomelandTherulingfamilytowhichhehadbelongedwasextremelyoldandincludedancestorswhohaddistinguishedthemselvesthroughtheirbraveryandgreatnessofcharacterButthemostrecentgenerationshaddegeneratedTheyhadincreasedtheirpersonalfortunesinashamelessmannerbysellingtheirsubjectstoforeignpowersforuseindistantwarsMistresseshadgovernedthelandforquitesometimeThelastregimehadbeensubjecttopeculiarvicissitudesTheoldprince'scharacterhadretainedacertaindignity,despiteallhisflaws:withthecomingoftheallpowerfulconquerorofourcentury,helefthisprincipalityvoluntarily,sincehemostlikelyforesawthathewaspowerlesstodefenditandwantedtoprotecthissubjectsfromunnecessarybloodshedHepreferredbanishmentanddisgracefulsubjugationtootherGermanprincesThecapitalcityofhissmallkingdombecamethecapitalofagreatkingdom,ofwhichtheConquerormadeagifttotheyoungestofhisbrothers,JérômeTheelegance,risquenature,andgullibilityofFrenchcustomssettledintotheabandonedhomesofthebluebloodedTheyoungkingcreatedaminiatureParisonGermansoilMyfather,whocouldnottakehisfamilyintoexile,remainedandwasemployedinthenewstateMymotherwasquiteyoungandverybeautifulthusitwasonlynatural,thatbothmovedaboutinthelively,happycirclesoftheroyalcourtHowoftenIpesteredmymothertotellagainandagainaboutthosedayswhichtranspiredlongbeforemybirth!HoweagerlyIlistenedtothedescriptionsofthesplendidpartiesandtheenchantingLadieswhohadcomewiththeirfamiliesfromFrancetogracethegallantking'sroyalcourtwiththeirbeauty!HowinquisitivelyIinvestigatedmymother'swardrobe,inwhichwerefoundsomanyremnantsofthosedays!Howtheseshepherdcostumes,theseTurkishdresses,theseantiquedraperiespleasedtheeye!MyimaginationracedwheneverIcontemplatedtheprematureendtoallthisbrillianceTheelegancehadvanishedlikeadreamTheRussiansstoodatthegatesofthecityandtheirballshadwhistledthroughthestreetsMyparentshadpackedtheirbestthingsandleftthehouse,whichwasexposedtoenemyattackTheoldauntthatlivedwithushadhiddenmanyitemsinbarrelsofflourAcannonballstruckthehouseandlodgeditselfinawallInlisteningtothesetales,Iregrettednothavinglivedinthosetimes,sothatIcouldhavesharedthedangerwithmyparentsIshouldhavelikedtohaveknownwhethertheCossackswouldhavefoundthethingsburiedinflour,hadthecityindeedbeenplunderedButthecity,aswellasmyparents,hadbeensavedfromruinTheoldprincereturnedtohiscountryAristocraticpigtailsandcorporalbatonsresumedthepositionsvacatedbytheFrenchgracesThecountrywasonceagainruledbyamistress,theattentivenurseofaninfirmmanCronieswhohadgottenrichwhileinexilewiththeirprincewereawardedthebestofficesinthegovernmentTheVolk,renownedamongstthevariousGermanicpeoplesforitsdevotiontotheroyalhouse,hadreceivedthereturningmonarchenthusiasticallyatfirstsoon,however,itwasrealizedthatthetiebetweentheSophieJournalGardinerpastandpresentwasdissolvedTherulersandthepeoplehadperceivedtheemergenceofthenationandthewarsofindependenceinverydifferentwaysTheoptimisticdreamsofsomanynobleheartsevaporated,andinsteadofthedawnoflibertyhopedforbyGermanyouth,anew,dismal,fogobscuredageunfoldedReturningagaintopowerandtakingtheirplacesontheoldthrones,therulingclassregardedtheinterludetothegreatcomedyofabsolutemonarchyashavingreachedanendThepeople'sbloodhadflownneedlesslyHistoryhadstoodstillOnlydeathhadnotstoodstillittooktheoldmanwiththepigtail,andfromthispointon,atleastpeople'shairstyleswerefreedfromtheshacklesofthepastSuperficially,alotofthingschangedunderthenewregimeMyfather,whohadbeentheboyhoodfriendofthethenheirtothethrone,wassummonedtotheprince'scourttotakeupaninfluentialpostinthegovernmentWeleftthehomewhichImentionedinthebeginningofthisaccount,inordertooccupyalargerandmorestatelyresidenceneartheroyalcastleSophieJournalGardinerCHAPTERTHREEFAMILYLIFEIhavetobelievethatfeelingsofrespectareinherenttome,forIwasneverforcedtoobserveanykindofritual,andyet,IalwaysrespectedmyparentsandoldersisterMysisterwasalreadygrownbythetimeIwasstilljustasmallgirlSheappearstomeinmemorylikeoneoftheMadonnasoftheoldGermanpainterswhichembodypurefemininebeautythatbeautywhichismoreanexpressionofheavenlypurityandgentlenessthanofsymmetryoffeaturesMyrespectforthissisterwassogreat,thatmymotherbecameabitjealousThatwasthefirstconflictinmychildhoodexistenceitendedwiththemarriageofmysister,whofollowedherhusbandbacktohishomelandThisfirstseparationcostmemanytearsAfterthis,myloveformymothertookonitsfullproportionsIstillrememberthedelightwithwhichIwatchedwhenevershe,stillverybeautiful,madeherselfupforapartyespeciallyapalaceballIwouldsitnearthewindowinadarkroom,fromwhichvantagepointIcouldseethelightfilledwindowsoftheroyalcastleIwaitedthereuntilsheenteredtheilluminated,magnificentroomsandslightlyopenedthecurtainsatoneofthewindowssothatIcouldlookinsideIsawtheladiesinelegantattireandthegentlemeningoldstitcheduniformspositionedonbothsidesofthehallIsawtheprinceandhisfamilyarriveandpassbythecolumnsofpeople,exchangingpleasantriesPeopleseemedtoplacegreatimportanceonthesewords,becauseitwasviewedastheheightofdisgrace,shouldapersonbepassedoverandnotaddressedHowproudIwas,wheneverIsawthatmymotherwasspokentolongerthantheothers!Ifirmlybelieved,thatthismustbeagreathonorWasnotaprinceamoreexaltedbeingthanallothersWhyelsewouldhebeaprinceIhadheardsomuchofthenoble,generouscharacterofHarunalRaschidinthefairytalesofAThousandandOneNights,IwassoconvincedoftheknightlyvirtueoftheEmperorFredericktheRedbeard,whositsintheKyffhaeuserfortressandawaitsthemomenttorestorethegloriousGermanEmpire,thatInevercalledtheinfallibilityofrulersintoquestionMyfather,whowasalwaysboggeddownwithhisaffairs,didnothavemuchsparetimeforhischildrenshouldhe,however,findthetimetobewithus,itwastrulyareasontocelebrate,foritwouldhavebeenimpossibletofindamoreupstanding,kindandtenderdispositionthantheonehepossessedItwasourmotherwhoconcernedherselfwithcultivatingourartisticsidesHerschoolofthoughtwashighlyinfluencedbythatgroupofmoderateswhichnumberedtheHumboldts,Rahel,Schleiermacher,theSchlegels,andotherfamouscontemporariesamongitsranksThismovement,simultaneouslyliberal,patrioticandphilosophical,wasmixedwithacuriouselementofmysticism,contributedbythethenflourishingromanticschoolTheseattitudes,alongwithmymother'sindependentnature,broughtherintofrequentconflictwiththesocietalconventionsinwhichmyfather'spositionforcedhertotakepartThiswasespeciallythecasewithherchoiceofindividualswhocametocomprisehermoreimmediatesocialcircleInsteadofselectingthemexclusivelyfromtheranksofthearistocracy,shechosethemonthebasisoftheirintellectualandsympatheticSophieJournalGardinerqualities,anddidnotconcernherselftheleastwiththeirsocialclassSheespeciallyrecruitedthemostcelebratedmembersofthetheater,whoseaccomplishmentsfilledherwithdelightandenjoyment,andwhomsheplacedonequalfootingwiththerestofherguestsAtthattime,thiswasquitescandalousbecausemembersofthetheaterwereviewedasaclasstobeshunned,asoutcasts,goodfordispellingtheboredomofothermortals,butbynomeansjustifiedinfancyingthemselvestheirequalsMymotherwasmuchreprovedonthisaccount,andevenmyfathercouldnotshareheropinioninthisregardHecamebutseldomtohersmallerfunctionsMyoldersistersandbrothers,however,whohadallbeeninstructedinantalentofonekindortheother,participatedinthem,andsplendidmusicalperformanceswerestagedquiteofteninourhomeMychildhoodpassedinthisintellectualandartisticenvironmentInourfamilylife,thechildrenwerenotquiteascutofffromadultlife,asisthecaseinEngland,forexampleMymotherwasoftheopinion,thatcontactwithdistinguishedpeoplecouldonlyhaveapositiveinfluenceontheintellectualdevelopmentofthechildren,andwouldnecessarilyhelptodeveloptheirjudgementandtasteIbelieveshewasquiteright,andthatsuchefforts,inasmuchastheyarepossible,aresomeofthemostimportantelementsinraisingchildrenTheGreeksevidentlyknewthis,andtheirlyceumsinwhichtheirphilosophersandwisemenconversedwiththechildrenprobablycontributedgreatlytomoldingthemintoapeople,thelikesofwhichhasneveragainbeenseenWedidnotreceiveanysocalledreligioustrainingIdonotrememberwhofirsttoldmeaboutGodandtaughtmealittleprayerWewerenevercompelledtoflauntourpietyinthepresenceoftheservantsorstrangers,ashappensinEnglandFormypart,IignorantlyfollowedChrist'scommandmentthatsaysoneshouldbealoneifhewants

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尼采和瓦格纳的朋友MALWIDA VON MEYSENBUG的回忆录:MALWIDA VON MEYSENBUG'S MEMOIRS OF AN IDEALIST

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