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首页 《形而上学》(英文)亚里士多德Metaphysics

《形而上学》(英文)亚里士多德Metaphysics.doc

《形而上学》(英文)亚里士多德Metaphysics

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2010-08-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《《形而上学》(英文)亚里士多德Metaphysicsdoc》,可适用于人文社科领域

MetaphysicsbyAristotleTranslatedbyWDRosseBooksAdelaideThiswebeditionpublishedbyeBooksAdelaideRenderedintoHTMLbySteveThomasLastupdatedWedApr::ThisworkislicensedunderaCreativeCommonsLicence(availableathttp:creativecommonsorglicensesbyncsaau)Youarefree:tocopy,distribute,display,andperformthework,andtomakederivativeworksunderthefollowingconditions:youmustattributetheworkinthemannerspecifiedbythelicensoryoumaynotusethisworkforcommercialpurposesifyoualter,transform,orbuilduponthiswork,youmaydistributetheresultingworkonlyunderalicenseidenticaltothisoneForanyreuseordistribution,youmustmakecleartoothersthelicensetermsofthisworkAnyoftheseconditionscanbewaivedifyougetpermissionfromthelicensorYourfairuseandotherrightsareinnowayaffectedbytheaboveForofflinereading,thecompletesetofpagesisavailablefordownloadfromhttp:etextlibraryadelaideeduauaaristotlemetaphysicsmetaphysicszipThecompleteworkisalsoavailableasasinglefile,athttp:etextlibraryadelaideeduauaaristotlemetaphysicscompletehtmlAMARCCataloguerecordforthiseditioncanbedownloadedfromhttp:etextlibraryadelaideeduauaaristotlemetaphysicsmarcbibeBooksAdelaideTheUniversityofAdelaideLibraryUniversityofAdelaideSouthAustraliaTableofContentsBookIBookIIBookIIIBookIVBookVBookVIBookVIIBookVIIIBookIXBookXBookXIBookXIIBookXIIIBookXIVBookIALLmenbynaturedesiretoknowAnindicationofthisisthedelightwetakeinoursensesforevenapartfromtheirusefulnesstheyarelovedforthemselvesandaboveallothersthesenseofsightFornotonlywithaviewtoaction,butevenwhenwearenotgoingtodoanything,wepreferseeing(onemightsay)toeverythingelseThereasonisthatthis,mostofallthesenses,makesusknowandbringstolightmanydifferencesbetweenthingsBynatureanimalsarebornwiththefacultyofsensation,andfromsensationmemoryisproducedinsomeofthem,thoughnotinothersAndthereforetheformeraremoreintelligentandaptatlearningthanthosewhichcannotrememberthosewhichareincapableofhearingsoundsareintelligentthoughtheycannotbetaught,egthebee,andanyotherraceofanimalsthatmaybelikeitandthosewhichbesidesmemoryhavethissenseofhearingcanbetaughtTheanimalsotherthanmanlivebyappearancesandmemories,andhavebutlittleofconnectedexperiencebutthehumanracelivesalsobyartandreasoningsNowfrommemoryexperienceisproducedinmenfortheseveralmemoriesofthesamethingproducefinallythecapacityforasingleexperienceAndexperienceseemsprettymuchlikescienceandart,butreallyscienceandartcometomenthroughexperiencefor‘experiencemadeart’,asPolussays,‘butinexperienceluck’NowartariseswhenfrommanynotionsgainedbyexperienceoneuniversaljudgementaboutaclassofobjectsisproducedFortohaveajudgementthatwhenCalliaswasillofthisdiseasethisdidhimgood,andsimilarlyinthecaseofSocratesandinmanyindividualcases,isamatterofexperiencebuttojudgethatithasdonegoodtoallpersonsofacertainconstitution,markedoffinoneclass,whentheywereillofthisdisease,egtophlegmaticorbiliouspeoplewhenburningwithfeversthisisamatterofartWithaviewtoactionexperienceseemsinnorespectinferiortoart,andmenofexperiencesucceedevenbetterthanthosewhohavetheorywithoutexperience(Thereasonisthatexperienceisknowledgeofindividuals,artofuniversals,andactionsandproductionsareallconcernedwiththeindividualforthephysiciandoesnotcureman,exceptinanincidentalway,butCalliasorSocratesorsomeothercalledbysomesuchindividualname,whohappenstobeamanIf,then,amanhasthetheorywithouttheexperience,andrecognizestheuniversalbutdoesnotknowtheindividualincludedinthis,hewilloftenfailtocureforitistheindividualthatistobecured)Butyetwethinkthatknowledgeandunderstandingbelongtoartratherthantoexperience,andwesupposeartiststobewiserthanmenofexperience(whichimpliesthatWisdomdependsinallcasesratheronknowledge)andthisbecausetheformerknowthecause,butthelatterdonotFormenofexperienceknowthatthethingisso,butdonotknowwhy,whiletheothersknowthe‘why’andthecauseHencewethinkalsothatthemasterworkersineachcraftaremorehonourableandknowinatruersenseandarewiserthanthemanualworkers,becausetheyknowthecausesofthethingsthataredone(wethinkthemanualworkersarelikecertainlifelessthingswhichactindeed,butactwithoutknowingwhattheydo,asfireburns,butwhilethelifelessthingsperformeachoftheirfunctionsbyanaturaltendency,thelabourersperformthemthroughhabit)thusweviewthemasbeingwisernotinvirtueofbeingabletoact,butofhavingthetheoryforthemselvesandknowingthecausesAndingeneralitisasignofthemanwhoknowsandofthemanwhodoesnotknow,thattheformercanteach,andthereforewethinkartmoretrulyknowledgethanexperienceisforartistscanteach,andmenofmereexperiencecannotAgain,wedonotregardanyofthesensesasWisdomyetsurelythesegivethemostauthoritativeknowledgeofparticularsButtheydonottellusthe‘why’ofanythingegwhyfireishottheyonlysaythatitishotAtfirsthewhoinventedanyartwhateverthatwentbeyondthecommonperceptionsofmanwasnaturallyadmiredbymen,notonlybecausetherewassomethingusefulintheinventions,butbecausehewasthoughtwiseandsuperiortotherestButasmoreartswereinvented,andsomeweredirectedtothenecessitiesoflife,otherstorecreation,theinventorsofthelatterwerenaturallyalwaysregardedaswiserthantheinventorsoftheformer,becausetheirbranchesofknowledgedidnotaimatutilityHencewhenallsuchinventionswerealreadyestablished,thescienceswhichdonotaimatgivingpleasureoratthenecessitiesoflifewerediscovered,andfirstintheplaceswheremenfirstbegantohaveleisureThisiswhythemathematicalartswerefoundedinEgyptfortherethepriestlycastewasallowedtobeatleisureWehavesaidintheEthicswhatthedifferenceisbetweenartandscienceandtheotherkindredfacultiesbutthepointofourpresentdiscussionisthis,thatallmensupposewhatiscalledWisdomtodealwiththefirstcausesandtheprinciplesofthingssothat,ashasbeensaidbefore,themanofexperienceisthoughttobewiserthanthepossessorsofanysenseperceptionwhatever,theartistwiserthanthemenofexperience,themasterworkerthanthemechanic,andthetheoreticalkindsofknowledgetobemoreofthenatureofWisdomthantheproductiveClearlythenWisdomisknowledgeaboutcertainprinciplesandcausesSinceweareseekingthisknowledge,wemustinquireofwhatkindarethecausesandtheprinciples,theknowledgeofwhichisWisdomIfoneweretotakethenotionswehaveaboutthewiseman,thismightperhapsmaketheanswermoreevidentWesupposefirst,then,thatthewisemanknowsallthings,asfaraspossible,althoughhehasnotknowledgeofeachofthemindetailsecondly,thathewhocanlearnthingsthataredifficult,andnoteasyformantoknow,iswise(senseperceptioniscommontoall,andthereforeeasyandnomarkofWisdom)again,thathewhoismoreexactandmorecapableofteachingthecausesiswiser,ineverybranchofknowledgeandthatofthesciences,also,thatwhichisdesirableonitsownaccountandforthesakeofknowingitismoreofthenatureofWisdomthanthatwhichisdesirableonaccountofitsresults,andthesuperiorscienceismoreofthenatureofWisdomthantheancillaryforthewisemanmustnotbeorderedbutmustorder,andhemustnotobeyanother,butthelesswisemustobeyhimSuchandsomanyarethenotions,then,whichwehaveaboutWisdomandthewiseNowofthesecharacteristicsthatofknowingallthingsmustbelongtohimwhohasinthehighestdegreeuniversalknowledgeforheknowsinasensealltheinstancesthatfallundertheuniversalAndthesethings,themostuniversal,areonthewholethehardestformentoknowfortheyarefarthestfromthesensesAndthemostexactofthesciencesarethosewhichdealmostwithfirstprinciplesforthosewhichinvolvefewerprinciplesaremoreexactthanthosewhichinvolveadditionalprinciples,egarithmeticthangeometryButthesciencewhichinvestigatescausesisalsoinstructive,inahigherdegree,forthepeoplewhoinstructusarethosewhotellthecausesofeachthingAndunderstandingandknowledgepursuedfortheirownsakearefoundmostintheknowledgeofthatwhichismostknowable(forhewhochoosestoknowforthesakeofknowingwillchoosemostreadilythatwhichismosttrulyknowledge,andsuchistheknowledgeofthatwhichismostknowable)andthefirstprinciplesandthecausesaremostknowableforbyreasonofthese,andfromthese,allotherthingscometobeknown,andnotthesebymeansofthethingssubordinatetothemAndthesciencewhichknowstowhatendeachthingmustbedoneisthemostauthoritativeofthesciences,andmoreauthoritativethananyancillaryscienceandthisendisthegoodofthatthing,andingeneralthesupremegoodinthewholeofnatureJudgedbyallthetestswehavementioned,then,thenameinquestionfallstothesamesciencethismustbeasciencethatinvestigatesthefirstprinciplesandcausesforthegood,ietheend,isoneofthecausesThatitisnotascienceofproductionisclearevenfromthehistoryoftheearliestphilosophersForitisowingtotheirwonderthatmenbothnowbeginandatfirstbegantophilosophizetheywonderedoriginallyattheobviousdifficulties,thenadvancedlittlebylittleandstateddifficultiesaboutthegreatermatters,egaboutthephenomenaofthemoonandthoseofthesunandofthestars,andaboutthegenesisoftheuniverseAndamanwhoispuzzledandwondersthinkshimselfignorant(whenceeventheloverofmythisinasensealoverofWisdom,forthemythiscomposedofwonders)thereforesincetheyphilosophizedordertoescapefromignorance,evidentlytheywerepursuingscienceinordertoknow,andnotforanyutilitarianendAndthisisconfirmedbythefactsforitwaswhenalmostallthenecessitiesoflifeandthethingsthatmakeforcomfortandrecreationhadbeensecured,thatsuchknowledgebegantobesoughtEvidentlythenwedonotseekitforthesakeofanyotheradvantagebutasthemanisfree,wesay,whoexistsforhisownsakeandnotforanother’s,sowepursuethisastheonlyfreescience,foritaloneexistsforitsownsakeHencealsothepossessionofitmightbejustlyregardedasbeyondhumanpowerforinmanywayshumannatureisinbondage,sothataccordingtoSimonides‘Godalonecanhavethisprivilege’,anditisunfittingthatmanshouldnotbecontenttoseektheknowledgethatissuitedtohimIf,then,thereissomethinginwhatthepoetssay,andjealousyisnaturaltothedivinepower,itwouldprobablyoccurinthiscaseaboveall,andallwhoexcelledinthisknowledgewouldbeunfortunateButthedivinepowercannotbejealous(nay,accordingtotheproverb,‘bardstellalie’),norshouldanyothersciencebethoughtmorehonourablethanoneofthissortForthemostdivinescienceisalsomosthonourableandthissciencealonemustbe,intwoways,mostdivineForthesciencewhichitwouldbemostmeetforGodtohaveisadivinescience,andsoisanysciencethatdealswithdivineobjectsandthissciencealonehasboththesequalitiesfor()Godisthoughttobeamongthecausesofallthingsandtobeafirstprinciple,and()suchascienceeitherGodalonecanhave,orGodaboveallothersAllthesciences,indeed,aremorenecessarythanthis,butnoneisbetterYettheacquisitionofitmustinasenseendinsomethingwhichistheoppositeofouroriginalinquiriesForallmenbegin,aswesaid,bywonderingthatthingsareastheyare,astheydoaboutselfmovingmarionettes,oraboutthesolsticesortheincommensurabilityofthediagonalofasquarewiththesideforitseemswonderfultoallwhohavenotyetseenthereason,thatthereisathingwhichcannotbemeasuredevenbythesmallestunitButwemustendinthecontraryand,accordingtotheproverb,thebetterstate,asisthecaseintheseinstancestoowhenmenlearnthecauseforthereisnothingwhichwouldsurpriseageometersomuchasifthediagonalturnedouttobecommensurableWehavestated,then,whatisthenatureofthesciencewearesearchingfor,andwhatisthemarkwhichoursearchandourwholeinvestigationmustreachEvidentlywehavetoacquireknowledgeoftheoriginalcauses(forwesayweknoweachthingonlywhenwethinkwerecognizeitsfirstcause),andcausesarespokenofinfoursensesInoneofthesewemeanthesubstance,ietheessence(forthe‘why’isreduciblefinallytothedefinition,andtheultimate‘why’isacauseandprinciple)inanotherthematterorsubstratum,inathirdthesourceofthechange,andinafourththecauseopposedtothis,thepurposeandthegood(forthisistheendofallgenerationandchange)Wehavestudiedthesecausessufficientlyinourworkonnature,butyetletuscalltoouraidthosewhohaveattackedtheinvestigationofbeingandphilosophizedaboutrealitybeforeusForobviouslytheytoospeakofcertainprinciplesandcausestogoovertheirviews,then,willbeofprofittothepresentinquiry,forweshalleitherfindanotherkindofcause,orbemoreconvincedofthecorrectnessofthosewhichwenowmaintainOfthefirstphilosophers,then,mostthoughttheprincipleswhichwereofthenatureofmatterweretheonlyprinciplesofallthingsThatofwhichallthingsthatareconsist,thefirstfromwhichtheycometobe,thelastintowhichtheyareresolved(thesubstanceremaining,butchanginginitsmodifications),thistheysayistheelementandthistheprincipleofthings,andthereforetheythinknothingiseithergeneratedordestroyed,sincethissortofentityisalwaysconserved,aswesaySocratesneithercomestobeabsolutelywhenhecomestobebeautifulormusical,norceasestobewhenlosesthesecharacteristics,becausethesubstratum,Socrateshimselfremainsjustsotheysaynothingelsecomestobeorceasestobefortheremustbesomeentityeitheroneormorethanonefromwhichallotherthingscometobe,itbeingconservedYettheydonotallagreeastothenumberandthenatureoftheseprinciplesThales,thefounderofthistypeofphilosophy,saystheprincipleiswater(forwhichreasonhedeclaredthattheearthrestsonwater),gettingthenotionperhapsfromseeingthatthenutrimentofallthingsismoist,andthatheatitselfisgeneratedfromthemoistandkeptalivebyit(andthatfromwhichtheycometobeisaprincipleofallthings)Hegothisnotionfromthisfact,andfromthefactthattheseedsofallthingshaveamoistnature,andthatwateristheoriginofthenatureofmoistthingsSomethinkthateventheancientswholivedlongbeforethepresentgeneration,andfirstframedaccountsofthegods,hadasimilarviewofnaturefortheymadeOceanandTethystheparentsofcreation,anddescribedtheoathofthegodsasbeingbywater,towhichtheygivethenameofStyxforwhatisoldestismosthonourable,andthemosthonourablethingisthatbywhichoneswearsItmayperhapsbeuncertainwhetherthisopinionaboutnatureisprimitiveandancient,butThalesatanyrateissaidtohavedeclaredhimselfthusaboutthefirstcauseHipponoonewouldthinkfittoincludeamongthesethinkers,becauseofthepaltrinessofhisthoughtAnaximenesandDiogenesmakeairpriortowater,andthemostprimaryofthesimplebodies,whileHippasusofMetapontiumandHeraclitusofEphesussaythisoffire,andEmpedoclessaysitofthefourelements(addingafourthearthtothosewhichhavebeennamed)forthese,hesays,alwaysremainanddonotcometobe,exceptthattheycometobemoreorfewer,beingaggregatedintooneandsegregatedoutofoneAnaxagorasofClazomenae,who,thougholderthanEmpedocles,waslaterinhisphilosophicalactivity,saystheprinciplesareinfiniteinnumberforhesaysalmostallthethingsthataremadeofpartslikethemselves,inthemannerofwaterorfire,aregeneratedanddestroyedinthisway,onlybyaggregationandsegregation,andarenotinanyothersensegeneratedordestroyed,butremaineternallyFromthesefactsonemightthinkthattheonlycauseisthesocalledmaterialcausebutasmenthusadvanced,theveryfactsopenedthewayforthemandjoinedinforcingthemtoinvestigatethesubjectHowevertrueitmaybethatallgenerationanddestructionproceedfromsomeoneor(forthatmatter)frommoreelements,whydoesthishappenandwhatisthecauseForatleastthesubstratumitselfdoesnotmakeitselfchangeegneitherthewoodnorthebronzecausesthechangeofeitherofthem,nordoesthewoodmanufactureabedandthebronzeastatue,butsomethingelseisthecauseofthechangeAndtoseekthisistoseekthesecondcause,asweshouldsay,thatfromwhichcomesthebeginningofthemovementNowthosewhoattheverybeginningsetthemselvestothiskindofinquiry,andsaidthesubstratumwasone,werenotatalldissatisfiedwiththemselvesbutsomeatleastofthosewhomaintainittobeoneasthoughdefeatedbythissearchforthesecondcausesaytheoneandnatureasawholeisunchangeablenotonlyinrespectofgenerationanddestruction(forthisisaprimitivebelief,andallagreedinit),butalsoofallotherchangeandthisviewispeculiartothemOfthosewhosaidtheuniversewasone,thennonesucceededindiscoveringacauseofthissort,exceptperhapsParmenides,andheonlyinasmuchashesupposesthatthereisnotonlyonebutalsoinsomesensetwocausesButforthosewhomakemoreelementsitismorepossibletostatethesecondcause,egforthosewhomakehotandcold,orfireandearth,theelementsfortheytreatfireashavinganaturewhichfitsittomovethings,andwaterandearthandsuchthingstheytreatinthecontrarywayWhenthesemenandtheprinciplesofthiskindhadhadtheirday,asthelatterwerefoundinadequatetogeneratethenatureofthingsmenwereagainforcedbythetruthitself,aswesaid,toinquireintothenextkindofcauseForitisnotlikelyeitherthatfireorearthoranysuchelementshouldbethereasonwhythingsmanifestgoodnessand,beautybothintheirbeingandintheircomingtobe,orthatthosethinkersshouldhavesupposeditwasnoragaincoulditberighttoentrustsogreatamattertospontaneityandchanceWhenonemansaid,then,thatreasonwaspresentasinanimals,sothroughoutnatureasthecauseoforderandofallarrangement,heseemedlikeasobermanincontrastwiththerandomtalkofhispredecessorsWeknowthatAnaxagorascertainlyadoptedtheseviews,butHermotimusofClazomenaeiscreditedwithexpressingthemearlierThosewhothoughtthusstatedthatthereisaprincipleofthingswhichisatthesametimethecauseofbeauty,andthatsortofcausefromwhichthingsacquiremovement

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《形而上学》(英文)亚里士多德Metaphysics

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