关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 【放射化学系列】钛的放射化学.pdf

【放射化学系列】钛的放射化学.pdf

【放射化学系列】钛的放射化学.pdf

aidaoguangci 2010-08-07 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《【放射化学系列】钛的放射化学pdf》,可适用于自然科学领域,主题内容包含NAsNs(Revm)ROFTITANIUMNUCLEARSCIENCESERIESNationalAcademyofSciencesNationa符等。

NAsNs(Revm)ROFTITANIUMNUCLEARSCIENCESERIESNationalAcademyofSciencesNationalResearchCouncilPublishedbyUSAtomicEnergyCommissionCOMMITTEEONNUCLEARSCIENCEDABromley,ChairmanRobleyDEvans,ViceChairmanYaleUniversityMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyCKReed,ExecutiveSecretaryNationalAcademyofSciencesMartinJBergerHermanFeshbachNationalBureauofStandardsMassachusettsinstituteofTechnologyVictorPBondFSGouldingBrookhavenNationalLaboratoryLawrenceRadiationLaboratoryGregoryRChoppinBerndKahnFloridaStateUniversityNationalCenterforRadiologicalHealthMembersatLargeWAFowlerGeorgeWetherillCaliforniaInstitutaofTechnologyUniversityofCaliforniaGCPhillipsAlexanderZuckerRiceUniversityOakRidgeNationalLaboratoryLiaisonMembersGeorgeAKolstadWalterSRodneyUSAtomicEnergyCommissionNationalScienceFoundationJohnMcElhinneyLewisSlackNavalResearchLaboratoryAmericanInstituteofPhysicsSubcommitteeonRadiochemistryGregoryRChoppin,ChairmanJohnAMiskalFloridaStateUniversityLawrenceRadiationLaboratoryHerbartMClarkJulianMNielsenRensselaerPolytechnicInstitutePacificNorthwestLaboratoryRaymondDavis,JrGDO’KelleyBrookhavenNationalLaboratoryOakRidgeNationalLaboratoryBruceDropeskyAndrewFStehneyLosAlamosScientificLaboratoryArgonneNationalLaboratoryRolfeHerbarJohnWWinchesterRutgersUniversityUniversityofMichiganAECCategoryUCNASNS(Rev)Radiochernistryof‘TitaniumbyVincentJLandisSanDiegoStateUniversitySanDiego,CaliforniaandJamesHKayeBattelleNorthwestRichland,WashingtonRevisedEditionIssuanceDate:JanuarySubcommitteeonRadiochemistryNationalAcademyofSciencesNationalResearchCouncilPrice$,whichistheminimumorderpriceforeitherone,two,orthreerandomlyselectedpublicationsintheNASNSseriesAdditionalindividualcopieswillbesoldinincrementsofthreefor$Availablefrom:NationalTechnicalInformationServiceUSDepartmentofCommerceSpringfield,VirginiaPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAnwricsUSAECDivisionofTechnicalInformationExtansion,OakRidge,TennassasForewordTheSubcommitteeonRadiochemistryisoneofanumberofsubcommitteesworkingundertheCommitteeonNuclearSciencewithintheNationalAcademyofSciencesNationalResearchCouncilItsmembersrepresentgovernment,industrial,anduniversitylaboratoriesintheareasofnuclearchemistryandanalyticalchemistryTheSubcommitteehasconcerneditselfwiththoseareasofnuclearsciencewhichinvolvethechemist,suchasthecollectionanddistributionof’radiochemicalprocedures,theradiochemicalpurityofreagents,theplaceofradiochemistryincollegeenduniversityprograms,andradiochemistryinenvironmentalscience,Thisseriesofmonographshasgrownoutoftheneedforcompilationsofradiochemicalinformation,procedures,andtechniquesTheSubcommitteehasendeavoredtopresentaseriesthatwilfbeofmaximumusetotheworkingscientistEachmonographpresentspertinentinformationrequiredforradiochemicalworkwithanindividualelementorwithaspecializedtechnique,ExpertsintheparticularradiochemicaltechniquehavewrittenthemonographsTheAtomicEnergyCommissionhassponsoredtheprintingoftheseriesTheSubcommitteeisconfidentthesepublicationswillbeusefulnotonlytoradiochemistsbutalsotoresearchworkersinotherfieldssuchasphysics,biochemistry,ormedicinewhowishtouseradiochemicaltechniquestosolvespecificproblemsGregoryRChoppin,ChairmanSubcommitteeonRadiochemistryIllContentsGeneralReviewsoftheInorganicChemistryofTitaniumandAnalyticalGeneralReviewsoftheRadiochemistryofTitaniumIIIIsotopesofTitaniumIvTheInorganicChemistryofTitaniumTitaniumMetalandAlloysOxidesofTitanium:OxidationStatesofTitaniumSolutionChemistryofTitanium(IV)ASimpleAqueousSolutionsBHydrochloricAcidSolutionsc$ikhxeicAcidSolutionsInorganicSaltsASolubleCompoundsBInsolubleCompoundscVolatileTitaniumCompoundsComplexesofTitaniumAMonodentateLigandsBChelateComplexesPrincipalMethodsofDeterminationofTitaniumAGravimetricMethodsB‘TitrimetricDeterminationscSpectrophotometricMethodsSeparationMethodsAPrecipitationSeparationsBSolventExtractionSeparationscoIonExchangeSeparationsDPaperChromatographySeparationsDissolutionofTitaniumContainingMaterialsATitaniumMetalandBTitaniumDioxidecSaltsDOresEBiologicalSamplesvHazardsandPrecautionsinContainingMaterialsAlloysHandlingTitaniumgCcmrnnts(Continued)VICounthgTechniquesmtaniulnwAGammaSpectrmnetryBBetaCounttigcOtherMethodETfWuIuti:TiteaiunlVIIRadlochemicalSeparationFrocecureProcedureProcedureProcedureProcedureprocedureProcedureprocedureProcedureProcedureProcetireIiprocedureprocedureBlbllographyProceduresn,:~‘,:”viRadiochemistryofTitaniumbyVincentJLandisSanDiegoStateUniversitySanDiego,Californiaand,JamesHKayeBattelle–NorthwastRichland,WashingtonGeneralReviewsoftheInorganicandAnalyticalChemistryofTitaniumBarksdale,J,Titanium,ItsOccurrence,Chemistry,andTechnology,ndedition,(TheRonaldPre=Co,NewYork,)Brophy,CA,Archer,BJ,Gibson,RW,etal,TitaniumBibliography,(BattelleMemorialInstitute,Columbus,Ohio,)Chariot,GandBezier,D,translatedbyMurraY,C,QuantitativeInorganicAnalysis,(JohnWileyandSons,Inc,NewYork,)Codell,M,AnalyticalChemistryofTitaniumMetalsandCompounds,(IntersciencePublishers,Inc,NYork,rDuval,C,InorganicThermogravimetricAnalysis,ndedition,(ElsevierPublishingCo,Amsterdam,)Fresenius,RandJander,G,Ed,Handbuchder(SpringerVerlag,Berlin,)Furman,NH,Ed,Scott’sStandardMethodsofedition,(DVanNostrandCo,NewYo~Gmelin’sHandbuchderAnorganischenChemie,th(VerlagChemie,G=h,Berlin,=AnalytischenChemie,ChemicalAnalysis,thedition,SystemNo,Hampel,C,RareMetalsHandbook,ndedition,(ReinholdPublishingCorp,>NewYork,WHillebrand,WF,LundeU,AppliedInorganicAnalysis,~GEF,Bright,ndHolness,H,AdvancedInorganicIOndon,)Ho~kinsBSChantersintheHAandHoffman,JI,WileyandSons,NewYork,QualitativeAnalysis,ChemistmoftheLess(S~ipes’Publislgo,Champaign,Illi~oiZ~~(PitmanandSons,FamiliarElements,Kelley,MT,Ed,ProgressinNuclearEnergy,Series~,AnalyticalChemistry,Vol,(~n=endon,rKirk,REandOthmer,DF,Eds,EncyclopediaofChemicalTechnology,(TheInterscienceEncyclopedia,Inc,iEw~)Kodama,K,Methods~QuantitativeInorganicAnalysis,(InterscienceFublInc,NewYork,~,’iKolthoff,IMandElving,PJ,Eds,TreatiseonAnalyticalChemistry,(TheIhterscienceEncyclopedia,Inc,N~Yo~k,)PartII,Vol,PPLatimer,WMandHildebrand,JH,ReferenceBookofInorganicLChemistry,rdEdition,(ThemcmillanCo,Newyork,~~Lundel,GEFandHoffnan,JI,OutlinesofMethodsofChemicalAnalysis,(JohnWileyandSons,Inc,NewYork,q~Meites,L,~a,Randbook~AnalyticalChemistry,(McGrawHillBookco,NewYork,~Mellor,Jw,~ComprehensiveTreatiseonInorganicanaTheoretical‘“Chemistry,(Longmans,GreenandCo,Inc~NewYork,~Morrison,GHandFreiser,H,SolventExtractioninAnalyticalChemistry,(JohnWileyandSons,Inc,Ne~~,pNoyes,AAandBray,WC,QualitativeAnalysisfortheRareElementsj(TheMacmillanCo,NewYork,~Remy,H,TreatiseonInorganicChemistry,translatedbyJSAnderson,~r~lishingCo,Amsterdam,)Vol,ppRedden,CJ,AnalyticalChemistryoftheManhattanProject,(McGrawHillBookCo,NewYork,~Samuelson,O,IonExchangersQIAnalyticalChemistry,ndEdition,(JohnWileyandSons,Inc,NewYork,)Sandell,EB,ColorimetrlcDeterminationofTracesofMetals,YrdEdition,(IntersciencePublishers,New~r~~Scott,WW,StandardMethodsofChemicalAnalysis,Vol,(DVanNostrandCo,=~wYork,l$~Sidgwick,NV,TheChemicalElementsandTheirCompounds,(OxfordUniversit~d~)~Skinner,G,Johnston,HLandBeckett,C,TitaniumanditsCompounds,(HerrickLJohnstonEnterprises,Columbus,~o~)Thorne,PCLandRoberts,ER,FritzEphraimInorganicChemistry,thEdition,Revised,(NordemsnPublishingCo,Inc,=York,)Thornton,WM,Titanium,(TheChemicalCatalogCo,Inc,’)I(’>Treadwell,FPandHall,WT,AnalyticalChemistry,thEdition,(JohnWileyandSons,Inc,NewYork,)PrinciplesanaMethodsofChemicalAnalysis,(k~n~kFizInc,NewY=,~willara,HHandDiehl,H,AdvancedQuantitativeAnalysis,(DVanNostrandCo,NewYork~Wilson,CLandWilson,DW,Eds,ComprehensiveAnalyticalChemistry,(ElsevierPublishingCO,Amsterdam,)Yoe,JHandKoch,HJ,Jr,Eds,TraceAnalysis,(JohnWileyandSona,NewYork,)GeneralReviewsoftheRadiochemistryofTitaniumKim,CK,TheRadiochemistryofTitanium,(IASNS,)Redden,CJ,AnalyticalChemistryoftheManhattanProject,NationalNuclearEnergySeries,Vol,Div~~McGrawHillBookCompany,)UisotopesofTitaniumTableI(seepage)isalistoftheisotopesoftitaniumlVTheinorganicChemistryofTitaniumAGeneralChemistryExcellentandcurrentreviewsofthegeneralchemistryoftitaniumarelistedinthe“GeneralReviews”sectionAlthoughtitaniumisoneofthemostabundantandubiquitouselements,ithastraditionallybeentreatedasarareelementbecauseofthedifficultyofreducingtheoresIthasbeenfoundinalmostallcrystallinerocks,sands,andsoils,aswellasinvegetation,naturalwaters,()meteorites,stars,mdeepseadredgingsTitaniumisestimatedtoconstitutepercentOfthelithosphere,makingittheninthmostabundantelementandthefourthmostplentifulstructuralmetal()Ferrotitsnium,titaniumdioxideandtitaniumtetrachloridehavebeenwidelyusedformanyyears,butthemetalhas(,)beenproducedonacommercialscaleonlysinceTableshowssomepropertiesoftitaniumofinteresttothechemist‘TABIEITableofIsotopesofTitmium()*AttickSSThermalNaturalMXieEuer~ofIsotope(CScale)NeutronAbundance,$LifeofDec~Radiation,MVU,barns~iTiTi~iTiTi~TiTiTi~i’gB’gL!kWOgoaPs(~EC)sppyrEC~(~)~()h~,EGphlpp~()()(u)**Alldatafromreference(JexceptTitaniumdatafromreference()FIGUREIChartoftheNuclidesintheTitanimRegionReference,m“~=B,,EW“,CL=,$:,Cr“’k’EE,NOTES:ThischartmaybeobtainedfromBattelleNorthwestLaboratories,Richland,WashingtonTheGeneralElectricChartoftheNuclides(toDecember)isavailablefromEducationalRelations,TheGeneralElectricCompany,Schenectady,NewYorkTheKarlsruheChart()maybeobtainedfromGersbachandSohnVerlag,Munchen,BarerStrasse,GermanyFIGUREIIDecwschemesofTkLtaniumRadioisotopes()~(s)pSCest~cca#!ci(S))(Continued)FIGUREII(Continued)~i(yr)FTln~cO“”F(h)iTF~$EC=~i(m)‘il’i’(h)P“‘‘OogoLFd$LAQECCdCECl~o~rl’SC!=~ECP‘~kti~I,TABLEIIPropertiesofTitaniumklsityMeltingPointBoilingPointElectrcmGoundStateOxidatiaStateaIalcRadiusCovalentRadiusImizzcmPotintialstudrdtbOxi’datfcmPotentials:mo~=Ti”H=TRefemzmceg’ccC”cmldhsi*oMcststaleStabl$inwateroddbysirOxidbydrvatsrusefulinfusedsaltsMetalorLEL(dipy)onlyTl(dipY)only()ievevevevE“$caVHheE“McaVTi”H=Til~tiS!E“=vNoF=TIFheE“=VTi=Ti!eE“=caVTiEQ=T~E“=caVTI!I!AHIUMMETALAEDALLOYSMostccamnercialproducticmoftitaniumisbaaedupmformaticmofthevolatiletetrachlofidebychlorinaticmoftheoreaudsubsequentmducticmofthevaporwithmoltenmagnesium(’)ThereductionoftitaniumtetrachloridebysodiumisusedtoalesserextentHighpuritytitaniumhasbeenproducedbytheiodiderefine()nentprocessofvanArkelandtleBoerformanyyearsonalaboratoryscaleArecentdevelopmentinrefiningtitaniumistheelectrolysisoftitaniumortitsnium(III)saltsinafusedalkalihalidesolutionTableshowstherelativepurityoftitaniummetalasproducedorrefinedbytheseprocessesFurtherpurificationofiodidemetalasindicatedbylowerstressvalueshasbeenreported(g)Typicalalloyingconstituentsforindustrialtitaniumarealuminqmtogetherwithlesserpercentagesofvanadium,zirconium,molybdenum,amdorchromiumAsafirstapproximation,titaniummetalisverysimilartozirconiumorstainlesssteelinappearanceandinphysicalandchemicalpropertiesAtroomtemperature,massivetitaniumisreiuistsnttoallcommongases,salts,alkalies,(lo)mineralacids(exceptHF)sadmostliquidmetalsHydrofluoricacidandfluorboricacidsreactvigorouslywithtitaniummetal,evenwhenhotnitricacidformsanoxidefilmontitaniumendfailstodissolvethemetalRefluxingwith:HCLintheabsenceofrwilldissolvechipsoftitaniumintohoursformingapurpletitsnium(III)solution,butinthepresenceofairsomedioxideprecipitatesSimilartreatmentwithdilutesulfuricaciddissolvessomeofthemetalbutalsoformsabluegraybtiihkyprecipitatewhichcoversandprotectstheremainingmetalAtelevatedtemperature,titaniumwillburninmanygaseaReactiontakesplaceatCinfluorine(u),Cinchlorine,Cinbromine,Ciniodine,Cinoxygen,Cinnitrogen,toCinsteamandQOOCin#)”HeatinginanopenflamecausesabluefilmtoformonthesurfaceofapieceofmetalTechniquesfordissolutionoftitaniummetalandalloysaregivenlaterOXIDESOFTITANIUMTherearethreewelldefinedoxidesoftitanium,TiO,Ti$andTi,whichcorrespondtothepositiveoxidationstatesoftitanium()ThefirstTABLEIII!piCalAnalysesofTitauiumMetalMgReducedIodideCmmrcialRefinedElectrolytic~ercent(’)Percent(’)Percent(U)Iron’aooChronliwnl<~esiumUOsodiumSilica<~oo’MauganeseCopper<Aluminun<oocoHitrogenoooLomoolHydrogenWwooooCarbm’>Valadium<chlorineMolybdenmNickelTin<<twoarereadilysubJecttocddatltitot,heextnnelystebledicdde“llt~um(II)reduceswaterbuttitauium(III)andtitaniumaremeadilypmacipltatdaehydroueoxidesfromaqueouesolutimsmep~betitenium(III)tiOUoxideprecipitatedbybasefranwaterIsaverystragreducingagentTitaniumhydrousoaideisBtableandmqybeIgnitedtothedicddeFreshlyprecipitatedhydrouedioxidecembedissolvedinstrongacidoralkallbuttheproductofaging,ignlticm,orprecipitaticmfrmshotsolutlmsrequireshotcacentrabedsulfuricacid,p=ferablycmtdninganmmiumsulfate,oralkdifusion,toeffectspee*uticm()Severalsolidperiteniun(IV)ccqoundsofsomwhatuncerteAnccuspceitionm()structureamoftenincludedinthegroupof“titaniumaidesPeroxytitenium(IV)speciesareofgreetimportancetotheeolutionchemiEItVoftituiumTheircoloristhebsaiefortheccmmcmspectrophotcmetricmethodofanalysie,theyareusedtopreventhydrolysis,andcanserveasa‘holdbackntopreventpreclpitaticmWInthepresenceofPerdde,titenlum(IV)canbedissolvedinstringalkali(),butmprecipitatesdeccmlpozitionoftheperofidsOXIDATIONSTATESOFTTTAEIUMAscaubededucedfrmuTehleonlywithtitaniummtalandwithalonedonotrerkctthetitenimII,tberadiochemistislikelytobeccncernedtitauium(IV)cqomdsOxidatimpotentlalaredoxpicturecompletelyforseve,ralresscmsTitmium(IV)and,toaMaserextent,titauium(III)requireEevralmolaracidor,altemativew,cmqdemfomdngreagentstopreventhydrolysisAsaresult,theeXSCtSpdeSorthei=icstrengthiSinSufficientttOcauseBiflcantpmmibilltyforerrorinthemssumdpotentialsAnhydromtitaniumwbepurchasedesthehydride,halideorofide(lb)eadmethodsforanalysishkvebeendevisedTheeeccmrpoundsmsactwltiwatertoformhyti”~nandtltauium(III)Aqueoustitsmium(III)solutimsmustbeprotectedfrmsairofthechlorideOlutimBlowlyorevanmildcAdizing~ntscanbeobtdnedcammrciellyproducesnoticeableamountsofTitanium(III)saltaendSoluticamTitauium(III)sblfateinacidHSendtitauiwm(III)ieoneof*wryfewimskn~volmmtficeualysisforOolutimsbydadhiumor()toreduceperchlomteinaqumuesolutimTheccomnmtitsmlumisbaaedupaIthereducticmofacidictitsmium(TV)zincamalgam,orbyaluminumsetal,follmedbytitratimof*eresultingtitanim,unliketitanium{III)withastaudardaxidizingagent()SinceIrca,isnotreducedbyasilvefiszlverchloridereductortitaniumandirontitanium(III)arekineticstudiescanbecodeterminatedbyredoxmethods()SolutionsofusedtosomeextentasreducingagentsbothinanalysisandinReferencestothepreparationandusesofsuchsolutionsaregivenintheMeites“HandbookofAnalyticalChemistry()lSOLUTIONCHEMISTRYOFTITANIUM(IV)ASimpleAqueousSolutionsExtremesusceptibilitytohydrolysisrequiresthatsolutionsoftitaniumsaltsinnoncompletingmediabemaintainedathighaciditywithlowtitaniumconcentrationTheionicspeciesoftitaniuminsuchaqueous~becameeti~nceforeitherasolutionshsslongbeendesignatedasTiOhydratedtetrapositiveionorhydrolyticpolymershasbeenlacking()Thepredominatetrulyhydrolyticspeciesinnitricandperchloricacidsolutionshasbeenthesubjectofconsiderablestudy()Liberti,ChiantellaandCorgliano(),themostrecentauthors,‘navestudiedthepartitionoftitanium(ill)betweenaqueoussolutionandhydroxyquinolineinchloroformandTAinbenzeneTheyproposethefollowingspeciesandequilibriumconstants:=Ti(OH)HTiOHpK=K~Ti(OH)H*TiOHpK=oKETi(OH)HTiOHPK=TM’dataindicatethefollowingformulationofthevolubilityproductKsp~!iOHOHpK=Iiabivsnets()reportedthefollowingvolubilityproductsKspETiO

用户评论(0)

0/200

精彩专题

上传我的资料

每篇奖励 +1积分

资料评分:

/19
仅支持在线阅读

意见
反馈

立即扫码关注

爱问共享资料微信公众号

返回
顶部

举报
资料