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首页 美国政党与选举(英文)

美国政党与选举(英文).pdf

美国政党与选举(英文)

止戈即武
2010-07-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《美国政党与选举(英文)pdf》,可适用于职业教育领域

AmericanPoliticalPartiesandElections:AVeryShortIntroductionVeryShortIntroductionsavailablenow:AFRICANHISTORYJohnParkerandRichardRathboneAMERICANPOLITICALPARTIESANDELECTIONSLSandyMaiselTHEAMERICANPRESIDENCYCharlesOJonesANARCHISMColinWardANCIENTEGYPTIanShawANCIENTPHILOSOPHYJuliaAnnasANCIENTWARFAREHarrySidebottomANGLICANISMMarkChapmanTHEANGLOSAXONAGEJohnBlairANIMALRIGHTSDavidDeGraziaARCHAEOLOGYPaulBahnARCHITECTUREAndrewBallantyneARISTOTLEJonathanBarnesARTHISTORYDanaArnoldARTTHEORYCynthiaFreelandTHEHISTORYOFASTRONOMYMichaelHoskinATHEISMJulianBagginiAUGUSTINEHenryChadwickBARTHESJonathanCullerTHEBIBLEJohnRichesTHEBRAINMichaelO’SheaBRITISHPOLITICSAnthonyWrightBUDDHAMichaelCarrithersBUDDHISMDamienKeownBUDDHISTETHICSDamienKeownCAPITALISMJamesFulcherTHECELTSBarryCunliffeCHAOSLeonardSmithCHOICETHEORYMichaelAllinghamCHRISTIANARTBethWilliamsonCHRISTIANITYLindaWoodheadCLASSICSMaryBeardandJohnHendersonCLASSICALMYTHOLOGYHelenMoralesCLAUSEWITZMichaelHowardTHECOLDWARRobertMcMahonCONSCIOUSNESSSusanBlackmoreCONTEMPORARYARTJulianStallabrassCONTINENTALPHILOSOPHYSimonCritchleyCOSMOLOGYPeterColesTHECRUSADESChristopherTyermanCRYPTOGRAPHYFredPiperandSeanMurphyDADAANDSURREALISMDavidHopkinsDARWINJonathanHowardTHEDEADSEASCROLLSTimothyLimDEMOCRACYBernardCrickDESCARTESTomSorellDESIGNJohnHeskettDINOSAURSDavidNormanDREAMINGJAllanHobsonDRUGSLeslieIversenTHEEARTHMartinRedfernECONOMICSParthaDasguptaEGYPTIANMYTHGeraldinePinchEIGHTEENTHCENTURYBRITAINPaulLangfordTHEELEMENTSPhilipBallEMOTIONDylanEvansEMPIREStephenHoweENGELSTerrellCarverVERYSHORTINTRODUCTIONSareforanyonewantingastimulatingandaccessiblewayintoanewsubjectTheyarewrittenbyexperts,andhavebeenpublishedinmorethanlanguagesworldwideTheseriesbeganin,andnowrepresentsawidevarietyoftopicsinhistory,philosophy,religion,science,andthehumanitiesOverthenextfewyearsitwillgrowtoalibraryofaroundvolumesaVeryShortIntroductiontoeverythingfromancientEgyptandIndianphilosophytoconceptualartandcosmologyETHICSSimonBlackburnTHEEUROPEANUNIONJohnPinderEVOLUTIONBrianandDeborahCharlesworthEXISTENTIALISMThomasFlynnFASCISMKevinPassmoreFEMINISMMargaretWaltersTHEFIRSTWORLDWARMichaelHowardFOSSILSKeithThomsonFOUCAULTGaryGuttingTHEFRENCHREVOLUTIONWilliamDoyleFREEWILLThomasPinkFREUDAnthonyStorrFUNDAMENTALISMMaliseRuthvenGALILEOStillmanDrakeGANDHIBhikhuParekhGLOBALCATASTROPHESBillMcGuireGLOBALIZATIONManfredStegerGLOBALWARMINGMarkMaslinTHEGREATDEPRESSIONANDTHENEWDEALEricRauchwayHABERMASJamesGordonFinlaysonHEGELPeterSingerHEIDEGGERMichaelInwoodHIEROGLYPHSPenelopeWilsonHINDUISMKimKnottHISTORYJohnHArnoldHOBBESRichardTuckHUMANEVOLUTIONBernardWoodHUMANRIGHTSAndrewClaphamHUMEAJAyerIDEOLOGYMichaelFreedenINDIANPHILOSOPHYSueHamiltonINTELLIGENCEIanJDearyINTERNATIONALMIGRATIONKhalidKoserINTERNATIONALRELATIONSPaulWilkinsonISLAMMaliseRuthvenJOURNALISMIanHargreavesJUDAISMNormanSolomonJUNGAnthonyStevensKABBALAHJosephDanKAFKARitchieRobertsonKANTRogerScrutonKIERKEGAARDPatrickGardinerTHEKORANMichaelCookLINGUISTICSPeterMatthewsLITERARYTHEORYJonathanCullerLOCKEJohnDunnLOGICGrahamPriestMACHIAVELLIQuentinSkinnerTHEMARQUISDESADEJohnPhillipsMARXPeterSingerMATHEMATICSTimothyGowersMEDICALETHICSTonyHopeMEDIEVALBRITAINJohnGillinghamandRalphAGriffithsMODERNARTDavidCottingtonMODERNIRELANDSeniaPasˇetaMOLECULESPhilipBallMUSICNicholasCookMYTHRobertASegalNATIONALISMStevenGrosbyTHENEWTESTAMENTASLITERATUREKyleKeeferNEWTONRobertIliffeNIETZSCHEMichaelTannerNINETEENTHCENTURYBRITAINChristopherHarvieandHCGMatthewNORTHERNIRELANDMarcMulhollandPARTICLEPHYSICSFrankClosePAULEPSandersPHILOSOPHYEdwardCraigPHILOSOPHYOFLAWRaymondWacksPHILOSOPHYOFSCIENCESamirOkashaPHOTOGRAPHYSteveEdwardsPLATOJuliaAnnasPOLITICSKennethMinoguePOLITICALPHILOSOPHYDavidMillerPOSTCOLONIALISMRobertYoungPOSTMODERNISMChristopherButlerPOSTSTRUCTURALISMCatherineBelseyPREHISTORYChrisGosdenPRESOCRATICPHILOSOPHYCatherineOsbornePSYCHOLOGYGillianButlerandFredaMcManusPSYCHIATRYTomBurnsQUANTUMTHEORYJohnPolkinghorneRACISMAliRattansiTHERENAISSANCEJerryBrottonRENAISSANCEARTGeraldineAJohnsonROMANBRITAINPeterSalwayTHEROMANEMPIREChristopherKellyROUSSEAURobertWoklerRUSSELLACGraylingRUSSIANLITERATURECatrionaKellyTHERUSSIANREVOLUTIONSASmithSCHIZOPHRENIAChrisFrithandEveJohnstoneSCHOPENHAUERChristopherJanawaySHAKESPEAREGermaineGreerSIKHISMEleanorNesbittSOCIALANDCULTURALANTHROPOLOGYJohnMonaghanandPeterJustSOCIALISMMichaelNewmanSOCIOLOGYSteveBruceSOCRATESCCWTaylorTHESPANISHCIVILWARHelenGrahamSPINOZARogerScrutonSTUARTBRITAINJohnMorrillTERRORISMCharlesTownshendTHEOLOGYDavidFFordTHEHISTORYOFTIMELeofrancHolfordStrevensTRAGEDYAdrianPooleTHETUDORSJohnGuyTWENTIETHCENTURYBRITAINKennethOMorganTHEVIKINGSJulianRichardsWITTGENSTEINACGraylingWORLDMUSICPhilipBohlmanTHEWORLDTRADEORGANIZATIONAmritaNarlikarAvailablesoon:AntisemitismStevenBellerBestsellersJohnSutherlandClassicalMythologyHelenMoralesDocumentaryFilmPatriciaAufderheideTheEuropeanUnion(newedition)JohnPinderSimonUsherwoodExpressionismKaterinaReedTsochaGameTheoryKenBinmoreGeographyJohnMatthewsDavidHerbertGeopoliticsKlausDoddsGermanLiteratureNicholasBoyleMemoryJonathanFosterModernChinaRanaMitterQuakerismPinkDandelionScienceandReligionThomasDixonSexualityVeroniqueMottierFormoreinformationvisitourwebsitewwwoupcoukgeneralvsiLSandyMaiselAmericanPoliticalPartiesandElectionsAVeryShortIntroductionOxfordUniversityPress,Inc,publishesworksthatfurtherOxfordUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanPolandPortugalSingaporeSouthKoreaSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamCopyright�byLSandyMaiselPublishedbyOxfordUniversityPress,IncMadisonAvenue,NewYork,NewYorkwwwoupcomOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofOxfordUniversityPressLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMaisel,LouisSandy,AmericanpoliticalpartiesandelectionsbyLSandyMaiselpcm(Averyshortintroduction)Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex––––PoliticalpartiesUnitedStatesElectionsUnitedStatesITitleJKMdcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperThisbookisdedicatedwithrespect,admiration,andprofoundgratitudetoJoeBoulos,BobDiamond,BobGelbard,BillGoldfarb,andLarryPughThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsListofillustrationsxForewordxiAcknowledgmentsxvThecontextofAmericanelectionsandpoliticalpartiesAbriefhistoryofAmericanpoliticalpartiesPartyorganizations:WhatdotheylooklikeWhatdotheydoWhoareRepublicansWhoareDemocratsWhoarethe‘‘others’’Presidentialelections:NominatingcampaignsandgeneralelectionsSubnationalnominationsandelectionsFarfromtheperfectdemocracyNotesForfurtherreadingIndexListofillustrationsHarrySTrumantakestheoathofofficeaspresidentoftheUnitedStatesWashington,DC,NationalArchivesPresidentLyndonBJohnsonsignstheVotingRightsActofintolawAustin,TX,LBJLibrary(photobyRobertKnudsen)JohnAdams,GouverneurMorris,AlexanderHamiltonandThomasJeffersonWashington,DC,LibraryofCongressAaronBurrandAlexanderHamiltonduelWashington,DC,LibraryofCongressRonaldReaganacceptingpresidentialnominationWashington,DC,NationalArchivesPresidentLyndonJohnsonandChicagoMayorRichardDaleyAustin,TX,LBJLibrary(photobyYoichiROkamoto)AwomansuffrageprocessioninWashington,DCWashington,DC,LibraryofCongressOfficialstallyvotesinDixvilleNotch,NewHampshireAPWideWorldPhotosPresidentGeorgeHWBushonawhistlestopcampaignthroughOhioWashington,DC,NationalArchivesGeorgeWBushandAlGoredebateWaitChapel,NC,WakeForestUniversityForewordTheconceptoftheVeryShortIntroductionserieshasintriguedmeforsometimeYoucangotoyourlocalbookstore,pickupavolume,andquicklyrelearnwhatyouonceknewbuthadforgottenaboutimportantsubjectsOryoucanfindavolumeonsomethingyoushouldknowaboutbutneverfoundtimetostudyImustadmitthatIhavelongthoughtofthesebooksassophisticatedcribnotes,writtenbyscholarswhounderstandwhatisimportantaboutasubjectandcandistillcomplexinformationinanaccessibleformatThenIwasapproachedtowritethisbookMyadmirationforthosewhohavewrittenVSIsonDemocracyorFascism,onIslamorJudaism,onKantorSocrates,onChoiceTheoryorLiteraryTheoryhasincreasedimmenselyLikeJohnPinder,oneoftheauthorsinthisseries,IhavethoughtoftenoftheclaimattributedatvarioustimestoDrJohnson,Twain,ShawandvariousothersagesthattheywrotealongletterbecausetheydidnothavetimetowriteashortoneThedifficultyinwritingashortworkaboutasubjectonwhichonehaswrittenatlengthistodecidewhatisessentialandwhatmerelyinteresting,todeterminewhichfamiliarbutcomplexconceptsareintuitivelyknownaccuratelybyyouraudienceandwhichareoftenmisunderstood,tochoosewhenfamiliarexamplesareneededtoillustrateaprocessandwhenageneralizeddescriptionwillsuffice,and,particularlywhenoneiswritingonasubjectofcontemporarysaliency,toconcentrateonthemesthatthereadercanapplyintheimmediatecontextandintothefutureInmycase,thedifficultywasexacerbatedbecauseAmericanpoliticalpartiesandelectionsareofinteresttoanAmericanaudiencefamiliarinageneralwaywithmuchoftheprocess,andtoanonAmericanaudiencetowhomtheelectoralprocessintheUnitedStatesisnotonlyunfamiliarbutalsosignificantlydifferentfromtheirownTheimportanceofunderstandinghowelectionsworkInmyview,thesubjectmatterofthisbookmeritstheattentionneededtoapproachthesetaskscarefullyTheelectoralprocessservesasthelinkbetweenthepeopleandtheirgovernmentWhenagovernmentisaspowerfulasthatoftheUnitedStates,theconsequencesforallcitizensoftheworldaresohighthatatleastabasicunderstandingofhowtheyarechosenisessentialDothedecisionsofthegovernmentinfactrepresentthewillofthepeopleDotheopinionsexpressedbyelectedleadersreflecttheviewsofAmericansmoregenerallyIfnot,whydoesthesystemnotlinktherepresentativesandtherepresentedmorecloselyThereaderwilljudgehowwellIhavedistilledthecomplexAmericanelectoralprocesstoitscoreelementsandhavediscussedtheimplicationsoftheseelementsforgoverningMygoalwastoaccomplishthesetaskssothatthereadercanfollowanelectionandcritiquethesystemknowledgeablyMorethanthat,Isoughttoevaluatetheprocessagainstrigorousdemocraticcriteria,theprinciplestowhichAmericansholddearIamapassionatebelieverinAmericandemocracy,butIamalsoanardentcriticAndIdonotbelievethatthosetwopositionsareinconsistentTheAmericanelectoralprocessworksverywellfortheUnitedStatesbutnotperfectlyAsanationbasedonanidealdemocraticcreed,aseloquentlylaidoutintheDeclarationofIndependence,theUnitedStatesshouldhaveaconstantgoalofimprovingthewaysinwhichcitizensexpresstheirconsenttothosewhogovernthemAmericanPoliticalPartiesandElectionsxiiInthepagesthatfollow,IhopetoinformthereaderabouttheAmericansystemandtostimulatethoughtanddiscussionaboutwaystoimproveitReformisnoteasywereiteasytorighttheproblemswiththeAmericansystem,someonewouldhavedonesolongagoConsequencesofreformeffortsarenotoriouslydifficulttopredictpassageofreformproposalsarealwaysdifficultbecauseofthosewithvestedinterestsinthestatusquoButanticipateddifficultydoesnotmeanthateffortisnotworthwhilethatiswhatstrivingforanidealisallaboutAsWoodrowWilson,anotedreformerhimself,said,‘‘SomepeoplecallmeanidealistWell,thatistheonlywayIknowtobeanAmericanAmericaistheonlyidealisticnationintheworld’’ForewordxiiiThispageintentionallyleftblankAcknowledgmentsInworkingonthisbook,IhaveaccumulatedmanydebtsIwanttothankTimBartlettandKateHamill,theeditorsatOxfordwhobroughtthisideatome,andespeciallyDediFelmanandherassistant,MicheleBove,whohaveseenitthroughtocompletionMythanksgotoHelenMules,MarySutherland,andJaneSlusserfortheirfineeditorialworkAsabbaticalleavefromColbyCollegeaffordedmethetimenecessarytoworkonthisprojectIhavealwaysconsideredmyselfextremelyluckytoworkataninstitutionthatvaluesthetwoaspectsofmyprofessionalworkfromwhichIderivemostenjoymentundergraduateteachingandproductivescholarshipAndreaBerchowitzservedasmyresearchassistantonthisprojectherdedicationandskillsareevidentthroughout,andherhumoralwaysmadeworkingwithherapleasureIwouldalsoliketothankRhodesCook,BrookeMcNally,PippaNorris,DanShea,HaroldStanley,AmyWalter,andSarahWhitfieldforpointingmeindirectionsIotherwisemightnothavefoundBobAtkins,LynnBindeman,andespeciallyHelenIrvingcommentedonthemanuscriptfromtheperspectiveofinformednonAmericanreadersIhopethatthechangesImadeasaresultoftheircommentshavemadethisbookmoreusefulfornonAmericanreadersIfnot,asinallelse,thefaultisminealoneAshasbeentrueformorethanadozenyears,mymostsignificantdebtistomywife,PatriceFrankoWehavebothbeenonsabbaticalleavethisyearSomemightthinkthattwoprofessorsspendingayeartogethereachworkingonabookprojectand,evenmoreamazingly,workingonanotheronetogetherwouldbearecipefordisasterNotsoforus,andmyonlyhopeisthatPatricefeelsthatmysupportforherhasbeenashelpfulasIknowhershasbeenformeFinally,thisbookisdedicatedtofivewonderfulfriendsJoeBoulos,BobDiamond,BobGelbard,BillGoldfarb,andLarryPugharealltrusteesofColbyCollege,generousbenefactors,andincrediblyloyalalumniButthisbookisnotdedicatedtothemforthatreasonIhavedonesobecausetometheyarerolemodels,individualswhocombineexcellenceandsuccessintheirprofessionswithanunderstandingthatoneonlylivesafulllifeifthatcommitmenttotheworkplaceiscombinedwithdevotiontoandloveoffamily,enjoymentofleisuretimespentwithgoodfriends,andcommitmenttocommunityPatriceandIfeelprivilegedindeedtocountthemandtheirwivesamongourfriendsSandyMaiselRome,MaineNovemberAmericanPoliticalPartiesandElectionsxviChapterThecontextofAmericanelectionsandpoliticalpartiesAmericansareproudjustifiablyproud,givenitslongevityoftheirdemocraticelectoralsystemYet,truthbetold,fewAmericansandevenfewerobserversfromothernationsunderstandtheAmericanelectoralprocessMostcitizensofdemocraticregimesevaluateotherdemocraciesaccordingtothestandardsetbytheirownButrepresentativedemocraciescomeinmanyvarietiesWhatiscommonacrossdemocraticsystemsisthatcitizensvotetochoosethosewhoaretogovernthemInsomecasestheychooseexecutives,legislators,andjudgesinothers,onlysomeoftheseInsomenations,voterschoosenational,regional,andlocalofficeholdersinothers,onlysomeofthoseWhatiscriticalisthatcitizenscanevaluatetheperformanceofthosewhomakedecisionsthatmostdirectlyaffecttheirlivesTheworld’sdemocraciesarejudgedtobemoreorlesseffectivebasedonanumberoffactorsIstheprocessopenDothoseoutofpowerhaveachancetocontestforofficesuccessfullyInCanada,partycontrolofgovernmenthasswitchedwithsomefrequencyIntheoldSovietUnion,suchpowershiftingwasunimaginableDocitizensparticipateeasilyandfreelyinthepoliticalprocessInDenmarkandGermany,turnoutintypicalelectionsforthelegislatureaveragesnearlypercentinPolandandSwitzerland,closertopercentandinrecentUSelections,aroundpercenthavevotedinmidtermelectionsandaboutpercentinpresidentialTohowmuchinformationdocitizenshaveaccessbeforetheyreachtheirdecisionsofvotingHowfreearecandidatesandpartiestoexpresstheirviewsontheissuesofthedayDemocraticregimesspanawidespectrumintermsofhowfreelythoseinpowercanbecriticized,bythepressorbytheopposition,onsuchissuesastheopennessoftheprocess,theabilityofthoseoutofpowertocontestforofficesuccessfully,thelevelofparticipationamongthecitizenry,theamountofinformationtowhichcitizenshaveaccessinreachingtheirjudgments,andthefreedomthatcandidateshavetoexpresstheirviewsandthatcitizenshavetovoteByallofthosestandards,thedemocracyintheUnitedStatesscoresquitehighIntermsofcitizenrightsandproceduresAmericandemocracyisexemplary,butahigherstandardisneededVotersandcandidatesmustbeabletotakeadvantageoftheseproceduresandthusexercisetheirrightsinawaythatimpactsgovernmentalpolicytoconformwithcitizens’expressedpreferencesInthisbookweexaminethewaysinwhichtheelectoralinstitutionsintheUnitedStatesfacilitate,oftenthroughvoting,thegrantingoftheconsentofthegovernedtothosewhogovernWealsolookatwhenthisprocessofgeneratingcitizens’support(andthusthatconsent)forgovernmentpolicybreaksdownManycitizenswhocarepassionatelyaboutpolicyabouttheissuesofwarandpeaceeconomicprosperitycareforthepoor,theill,andtheelderlyequaltreatmentwithoutregardtoreligion,race,gender,sexualorientation,physicalhandicapprotectionoftheenvironmentandsomanyothersareboredbythemechanicsoftheelectoralprocessButthosearethequestionsthatenthrallmeTherulesbywhichelectionsarerunoftendeterminewhowillwinand,therefore,whosepolicypreferenceswillbeheardThus,Americanpoliticalpart

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美国政党与选举(英文)

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