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首页 h.264和mpeg4视频压缩编码

h.264和mpeg4视频压缩编码.pdf

h.264和mpeg4视频压缩编码

草堂春梦
2010-07-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《h.264和mpeg4视频压缩编码pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

HandMPEGVideoCompressionHandMPEGVideoCompressionVideoCodingforNextgenerationMultimediaIainEGRichardsonTheRobertGordonUniversity,Aberdeen,UKCopyrightC©JohnWileySonsLtd,TheAtrium,SouthernGate,Chichester,WestSussexPOSQ,EnglandTelephone()Email(forordersandcustomerserviceenquiries):csbookswileycoukVisitourHomePageonwwwwileyeuropecomorwwwwileycomAllRightsReservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,scanningorotherwise,exceptunderthetermsoftheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActorunderthetermsofalicenceissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgencyLtd,TottenhamCourtRoad,LondonWTLP,UK,withoutthepermissioninwritingofthePublisherRequeststothePublishershouldbeaddressedtothePermissionsDepartment,JohnWileySonsLtd,TheAtrium,SouthernGate,Chichester,WestSussexPOSQ,England,oremailedtopermreqwileycouk,orfaxedto()ThispublicationisdesignedtoprovideaccurateandauthoritativeinformationinregardtothesubjectmattercoveredItissoldontheunderstandingthatthePublisherisnotengagedinrenderingprofessionalservicesIfprofessionaladviceorotherexpertassistanceisrequired,theservicesofacompetentprofessionalshouldbesoughtOtherWileyEditorialOfficesJohnWileySonsInc,RiverStreet,Hoboken,NJ,USAJosseyBass,MarketStreet,SanFrancisco,CA,USAWileyVCHVerlagGmbH,Boschstr,DWeinheim,GermanyJohnWileySonsAustraliaLtd,ParkRoad,Milton,Queensland,AustraliaJohnWileySons(Asia)PteLtd,ClementiLoop#,JinXingDistripark,SingaporeJohnWileySonsCanadaLtd,WorcesterRoad,Etobicoke,Ontario,CanadaMWLWileyalsopublishesitsbooksinavarietyofelectronicformatsSomecontentthatappearsinprintmaynotbeavailableinelectronicbooksBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNTypesetinptTimesromanbyTechBooks,NewDelhi,IndiaPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyAntonyRowe,Chippenham,WiltshireThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperresponsiblymanufacturedfromsustainableforestryinwhichatleasttwotreesareplantedforeachoneusedforpaperproductionToPhyllisContentsAbouttheAuthorxiiiForewordxvPrefacexixGlossaryxxiIntroductionTheSceneVideoCompressionMPEGandHThisBookReferencesVideoFormatsandQualityIntroductionNaturalVideoScenesCaptureSpatialSamplingTemporalSamplingFramesandFieldsColourSpacesRGBYCbCrYCbCrSamplingFormatsVideoFormatsQualitySubjectiveQualityMeasurementObjectiveQualityMeasurementConclusionsReferencesCONTENTS•viiiVideoCodingConceptsIntroductionVideoCODECTemporalModelPredictionfromthePreviousVideoFrameChangesduetoMotionBlockbasedMotionEstimationandCompensationMotionCompensatedPredictionofaMacroblockMotionCompensationBlockSizeSubpixelMotionCompensationRegionbasedMotionCompensationImagemodelPredictiveImageCodingTransformCodingQuantisationReorderingandZeroEncodingEntropyCoderPredictiveCodingVariablelengthCodingArithmeticCodingTheHybridDPCMDCTVideoCODECModelConclusionsReferencesTheMPEGandHStandardsIntroductionDevelopingtheStandardsISOMPEGITUTVCEGJVTDevelopmentHistoryDecidingtheContentoftheStandardsUsingtheStandardsWhattheStandardsCoverDecodingtheStandardsConformingtotheStandardsOverviewofMPEGVisualPartOverviewofHMPEGPartComparisonofMPEGVisualandHRelatedStandardsJPEGandJPEGMPEGandMPEGHandHOtherPartsofMPEGConclusionsReferencesCONTENTS•ixMPEGVisualIntroductionOverviewofMPEGVisual(NaturalVideoCoding)FeaturesTools,Objects,ProfilesandLevelsVideoObjectsCodingRectangularFramesInputandOutputVideoFormatTheSimpleProfileTheAdvancedSimpleProfileTheAdvancedRealTimeSimpleProfileCodingArbitraryshapedRegionsTheCoreProfileTheMainProfileTheAdvancedCodingEfficiencyProfileTheNbitProfileScalableVideoCodingSpatialScalabilityTemporalScalabilityFineGranularScalabilityTheSimpleScalableProfileTheCoreScalableProfileTheFineGranularScalabilityProfileTextureCodingTheScalableTextureProfileTheAdvancedScalableTextureProfileCodingStudioqualityVideoTheSimpleStudioProfileTheCoreStudioProfileCodingSyntheticVisualScenesAnimatedDandDMeshCodingFaceandBodyAnimationConclusionsReferencesHMPEGPartIntroductionTerminologyTheHCODECHstructureProfilesandLevelsVideoFormatCodedDataFormatReferencePicturesSlicesMacroblocksCONTENTS•xTheBaselineProfileOverviewReferencePictureManagementSlicesMacroblockPredictionInterPredictionIntraPredictionDeblockingFilterTransformandQuantisation×LumaDCCoefficientTransformandQuantisation(×IntramodeOnly)×ChromaDCCoefficientTransformandQuantisationTheCompleteTransform,Quantisation,RescalingandInverseTransformProcessReorderingEntropyCodingTheMainProfileBSlicesWeightedPredictionInterlacedVideoContextbasedAdaptiveBinaryArithmeticCoding(CABAC)TheExtendedProfileSPandSIslicesDataPartitionedSlicesTransportofHConclusionsReferencesDesignandPerformanceIntroductionFunctionalDesignSegmentationMotionEstimationDCTIDCTWaveletTransformQuantiseRescaleEntropyCodingInputandOutputInterfacingPreprocessingPostprocessingPerformanceCriteriaSubjectivePerformanceRate–distortionPerformanceCONTENTS•xiComputationalPerformancePerformanceOptimisationRatecontrolTransportandStorageTransportMechanismsFileFormatsCodingandTransportIssuesConclusionsReferencesApplicationsandDirectionsIntroductionApplicationsPlatformsChoosingaCODECCommercialissuesOpenStandardsLicensingMPEGVisualandHCapturingtheMarketFutureDirectionsConclusionsReferencesBibliographyIndexAbouttheAuthorIainRichardsonisalecturerandresearcheratTheRobertGordonUniversity,Aberdeen,ScotlandHewasawardedthedegreesofMEng(HeriotWattUniversity)andPhD(TheRobertGordonUniversity)inandrespectivelyHehasbeenactivelyinvolvedinresearchanddevelopmentofvideocompressionsystemssinceandistheauthorofoverjournalandconferencepapersandtwopreviousbooksHeleadstheImageCommunicationTechnologyResearchGroupatTheRobertGordonUniversityandadvisesanumberofcompaniesonvideocompressiontechnologyissuesForewordWorkontheemerging“AdvancedVideoCoding”standardnowknownasITUTRecommendationHandasISOIEC(MPEG)ParthasdominatedthevideocodingstandardizationcommunityforroughlythepastthreeyearsTheworkhasbeenstimulating,intense,dynamic,andallconsumingforthoseofusmostdeeplyinvolvedinitsdesignThetimehasarrivedtoseewhathasbeenaccomplishedAlthoughnotadirectparticipant,DrRichardsonwasabletodevelopahighquality,uptodate,introductorydescriptionandanalysisofthenewstandardThetimelinessofthisbookisremarkable,asthestandarditselfhasonlyjustbeencompletedThenewHAVCstandardisdesignedtoprovideatechnicalsolutionappropriateforabroadrangeofapplications,including:�Broadcastovercable,satellite,cablemodem,DSL,terrestrial�Interactiveorserialstorageonopticalandmagneticstoragedevices,DVD,etc�ConversationalservicesoverISDN,Ethernet,LAN,DSL,wirelessandmobilenetworks,modems�Videoondemandormultimediastreamingservicesovercablemodem,DSL,ISDN,LAN,wirelessnetworks�MultimediamessagingservicesoverDSL,ISDNTherangeofbitratesandpicturesizessupportedbyHAVCiscorrespondinglybroad,addressingvideocodingcapabilitiesrangingfromverylowbitrate,lowframerate,“postagestamp”resolutionvideoformobileanddialupdevices,throughtoentertainmentqualitystandarddefinitiontelevisionservices,HDTV,andbeyondAflexiblesysteminterfaceforthecodedvideoisspecifiedtoenabletheadaptationofvideocontentforuseoverthisfullvarietyofnetworkandchanneltypeenvironmentsHowever,atthesametime,thetechnicaldesignishighlyfocusedonprovidingthetwolimitedgoalsofhighcodingefficiencyandrobustnesstonetworkenvironmentsforconventionalrectangularpicturecameraviewvideocontentSomepotentiallyinteresting(butcurrentlynonmainstream)featuresweredeliberatelyleftout(atleastfromthefirstversionofthestandard)becauseofthatfocus(suchassupportofarbitrarilyshapedvideoobjects,someformsofbitratescalability,::and::chromaformats,andcolorsamplingaccuraciesexceedingeightbitspercolorcomponent)Foreword•xviIntheworkonthenewHAVCstandard,anumberofrelativelynewtechnicaldevelopmentshavebeenadoptedForincreasedcodingefficiency,theseincludeimprovedpredictiondesignaspectsasfollows:�Variableblocksizemotioncompensationwithsmallblocksizes,�Quartersampleaccuracyformotioncompensation,�Motionvectorsoverpictureboundaries,�Multiplereferencepicturemotioncompensation,�Decouplingofreferencingorderfromdisplayorder,�Decouplingofpicturerepresentationmethodsfromtheabilitytouseapictureforreference,�Weightedprediction,�Improved“skipped”and“direct”motioninference,�Directionalspatialpredictionforintracoding,and�IntheloopdeblockingfilteringInadditiontoimprovedpredictionmethods,otheraspectsofthedesignwerealsoenhancedforimprovedcodingefficiency,including:�Smallblocksizetransform,�Hierarchicalblocktransform,�Shortwordlengthtransform,�Exactmatchtransform,�Arithmeticentropycoding,and�ContextadaptiveentropycodingAndforrobustnesstodataerrorslossesandflexibilityforoperationoveravarietyofnetworkenvironments,somekeydesignaspectsinclude:�Parametersetstructure,�NALunitsyntaxstructure,�Flexibleslicesize,�Flexiblemacroblockordering,�Arbitrarysliceordering,�Redundantpictures,�Datapartitioning,and�SPSIsynchronizationswitchingpicturesPriortotheHAVCproject,thebigrecentvideocodingactivitywastheMPEGPart(Visual)codingstandardThatspecificationintroducedanewdegreeofcreativityandflexibilitytothecapabilitiesoftherepresentationofdigitalvisualcontent,especiallywithitscodingofvideo“objects”,itsscalabilityfeatures,extendedNbitsampleprecisionand::colorformatcapabilities,anditshandlingofsyntheticvisualscenesItintroducedanumberofdesignvariations(called“profiles”andcurrentlynumberinginall)forawidevarietyofapplicationsTheHAVCproject(withonlyprofiles)returnstothenarrowerandmoretraditionalfocusonefficientcompressionofgenericcamerashotrectangularvideopictureswithrobustnesstonetworklosses–makingnoattempttocovertheambitiousbreadthofMPEGVisualMPEGVisual,whilenotquiteas“hotoffthepress”,establishesalandmarkinrecenttechnologydevelopment,anditscapabilitiesareyettobefullyexploredForeword•xviiMostpeoplefirstlearnaboutastandardinpublicationsotherthanthestandarditselfMypersonalbeliefisthatifyouwanttoknowaboutastandard,youshouldalsoobtainacopyofit,readit,andrefertothatdocumentaloneastheultimateauthorityonitscontent,itsboundaries,anditscapabilitiesNotutorialoroverviewpresentationwillprovidealloftheinsightsthatcanbeobtainedfromcarefulanalysisofthestandarditselfAtthesametime,nostandardizedspecificationdocument(atleastforvideocoding),canbeacompletesubstituteforagoodtechnicalbookonthesubjectStandardsspecificationsarewrittenprimarilytobeprecise,consistent,complete,andcorrectandnottobeparticularlyreadableStandardstendtoleaveoutinformationthatisnotabsolutelynecessarytocomplywiththemManypeoplefinditsurprising,forexample,thatvideocodingstandardssayalmostnothingabouthowanencoderworksorhowoneshouldbedesignedInfactanencoderisessentiallyallowedtodoanythingthatproducesbitsthatcanbecorrectlydecoded,regardlessofwhatpicturequalitycomesoutofthatdecodingprocessPeople,however,canusuallyonlyunderstandtheprinciplesofvideocodingiftheythinkfromtheperspectiveoftheencoder,andnearlyalltextbooks(includingthisone)approachthesubjectfromtheencodingperspectiveAgoodbook,suchasthisone,willtellyouwhyadesignisthewayitisandhowtomakeuseofthatdesign,whileagoodstandardmayonlytellyouexactlywhatitisandabruptly(deliberately)stoprightthereInthecaseofHAVCorMPEGVisual,itishighlyadvisableforthosenewtothesubjecttoreadsomeintroductoryoverviewssuchasthisone,andeventogetacopyofanolderandsimplerstandardsuchasHorMPEGandtrytounderstandthatfirstTheprinciplesofdigitalvideocodecdesignarenottoocomplicated,andhaven’treallychangedmuchovertheyears–butthosebasicprincipleshavebeenwrappedinlayeruponlayeroftechnicalenhancementstothepointthatthesimpleandstraightforwardconceptsthatlieattheircorecanbecomeobscuredTheentireHspecificationwasonlypageslong,andonlyofthosepageswereactuallyrequiredtofullyspecifythetechnologythatnowliesattheheartofallsubsequentvideocodingstandardsIncontrast,theHAVCandMPEGVisualandspecificationsaremorethanandpageslong,respectively,withahighdensityoftechnicaldetail(despitecompletelyleavingoutkeyinformationsuchashowtoencodevideousingtheirformats)TheyeachcontainareasthataredifficultevenforexpertstofullycomprehendandappreciateDrRichardson’sbookisnotacompletelyexhaustivetreatmentofthesubjectHowever,hisapproachishighlyinformativeandprovidesagoodinitialunderstandingofthekeyconcepts,andhisapproachisconceptuallysuperior(andinsomeaspectsmoreobjective)toothertreatmentsofvideocodingpublicationsThisandtheremarkabletimelinessofthesubjectmattermakethisbookastrongcontributiontothetechnicalliteratureofourcommunityGaryJSullivanBiographyofGaryJSullivan,PhDGaryJSullivanisthechairmanoftheJointVideoTeam(JVT)forthedevelopmentofthelatestinternationalvideocodingstandardknownasHAVC,whichwasrecentlycompletedasajointprojectbetweentheITUTvideocodingexpertsgroup(VCEG)andtheISOIECmovingpictureexpertsgroup(MPEG)Foreword•xviiiHeisalsotheRapporteurofAdvancedVideoCodingintheITUT,wherehehasledVCEG(ITUTQSG)foraboutsevenyearsHeisalsotheITUTvideoliaisonrepresentativetoMPEGandservedasMPEG’s(ISOIECJTCSCWG)videochairmanfromMarchoftoMayofHeiscurrentlyaprogrammanagerofvideostandardsandtechnologiesintheeHomeAVplatformsgroupofMicrosoftCorporationAtMicrosofthedesignedandremainsactiveintheextensionofDirectX®VideoAccelerationAPIDDIfeatureoftheMicrosoftWindows®operatingsystemplatformPrefaceWiththewidespreadadoptionoftechnologiessuchasdigitaltelevision,InternetstreamingvideoandDVDVideo,videocompressionhasbecomeanessentialcomponentofbroadcastandentertainmentmediaThesuccessofdigitalTVandDVDVideoisbasedupontheyearoldMPEGstandard,atechnologythathasproveditseffectivenessbutisnowlookingdistinctlyoldfashionedItisclearthatthetimeisrighttoreplaceMPEGvideocompressionwithamoreeffectiveandefficienttechnologythatcantakeadvantageofrecentprogressinprocessingpowerForsometimetherehasbeenarunningdebateaboutwhichtechnologyshouldtakeupMPEG’smantleTheleadingcontendersaretheInternationalStandardsknownasMPEGVisualandHThisbookaimstoprovideaclear,practicalandunbiasedguidetothesetwostandardstoenabledevelopers,engineers,researchersandstudentstounderstandandapplythemeffectivelyVideoandimagecompressionisacomplexandextensivesubjectandthisbookkeepsanunapologeticallylimitedfocus,concentratingonthestandardsthemselves(andinthecaseofMPEGVisual,ontheelementsofthestandardthatsupportcodingof‘realworld’videomaterial)andonvideocodingconceptsthatdirectlyunderpinthestandardsThebooktakesanapplicationbasedapproachandplacesparticularemphasisontoolsandfeaturesthatarehelpfulinpracticalapplications,inordertoprovidepracticalandusefulassistancetodevelopersandadoptersofthesestandardsIamgratefultoanumberofpeoplewhohelpedtoshapethecontentofthisbookIreceivedmanyhelpfulcommentsandrequestsfromreadersofmybookVideoCodecDesignParticularthanksareduetoGarySullivanfortakingthetimetoprovidehelpfulanddetailedcomments,correctionsandadviceandforkindlyagreeingtowriteaForewordtoHarveyHanna(ImpactLabsInc),YafanZhao(TheRobertGordonUniversity)andAitorGarayforreadingandcommentingonsectionsofthisbookduringitsdevelopmenttomembersoftheJointVideoTeamforclarifyingmanyofthedetailsofHtotheeditorialteamatJohnWileySons(andespeciallytotheeverhelpful,patientandsupportiveKathrynSharples)toPhyllisforherconstantsupportandfinallytoFreyaandHughforpatientlywaitingforthelongpromisedtriptoStorybookGlen!Iverymuchhopethatyouwillfindthisbookenjoyable,readableandaboveallusefulFurtherresourcesandlinksareavailabl

用户评价(2)

  • shower 可惜是全英文,痛苦。

    2012-12-19 22:24:00

  • bushionmath 谢谢,可惜是英文版,要是中文的就更好了。

    2012-07-09 05:56:18

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