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首页 Wittgenstein - A Very Short Introduction

Wittgenstein - A Very Short Introduction.pdf

Wittgenstein - A Very Short Int…

chiivy
2010-07-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Wittgenstein - A Very Short Introductionpdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

ACGraylingWITTGENSTEINAVeryShortIntroductionOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordoxdpOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity'sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAucklandBangkokBuenosAiresCapeTownChennaiDaresSalaamDelhiHongKongIstanbulKarachiKolkataKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityMumbaiNairobiSãoPauloShanghaiTaipeiTokyoTorontoOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYork©ACGrayling,ThemoralrightsoftheauthorhavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedasanOxfordUniversityPresspaperbackReissuedFirstpublishedasaVeryShortIntroductionAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationsEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethissameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloginginPublicationDataDataavailableLibrartyofCongressCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableISBNTypesetbyRefineCatchLtd,Bungay,SuffolkPrintedinGreatBritainbyTJInternationalLtd,Padstow,CornwallviiPrefaceInthisbriefaccountofWittgensteinIaimtodotwothingsThefirstistomakeclear,foranonspecialistreadership,themainoutlineofWittgenstein'sthoughtThesecondistodescribetheplaceofhisthoughtintwentiethcenturyanalyticphilosophyNeitheroftheseaimsiseasytofulfillintheconfinesofashortbookThereareanumberofreasonsforthisThemainoneisthatWittgenstein'swritingsarenumerous,complicated,andobscureAsaresulttheyinvitecompetinginterpretations,andhavereceivedmanyFulljusticetoWittgensteinwouldrequireadetailedandthereforelengthyexaminationofhisownwritings,togetherwithsomeaccountofthevoluminousliteraturewhichhasgrownaroundhisworkNothingofthekindcanbeofferedhereMyaims,therefore,aremodestlyconceivedBy'outline(ImeanjustthatandIassumenopriorknowledgeofphilosophyonthereader'spartFollowersofWittgensteinarguethatitisamistaketoattemptshortintroductorysketchesofhisviewsOneofWittgenstein'schiefdisciples,NormanMalcolm,haswritten:'AnattempttosummariseWittgenstein'sworkwouldbeneithersuccessfulnorusefulWittgensteincompressedhisthoughtstothepointwherefurthercompressionisimpossibleWhatisneededisthattheybeunfoldedandtheconnectionsbetweenthemtracedout(Wittgenstein'sfollowersviiiaddasafurtherreasonthefactthatsummariesofphilosophicalviewstendnaturallytotaketheformofasystematicaccount,inthesenseofanorderlysettingoutofthesespointbypoint,whereasWittgensteininhislaterphilosophyexpressedanaversiontosystematicphilosophizingandrefusedtoengageinitTherefore,briefsketchesofWittgenstein'sviews,hisfollowerssay,seriouslymisrepresentnotjusttheircontentbuttheirintentionIamnotconvincedbythesepointsWittgenstein'swritingsseemtomenotonlysummarizablebutinpositiveneedofsummary,especiallynowthattheyruntoalargenumberofposthumouslypublishedvolumescontainingmuchoverlapandrepetitionNorisittruethatWittgenstein'swritingscontainnosystematicallyexpressibletheories,forindeedtheydoItisthedifferencebetweenwhatWittgensteinsaysandthewayhesaysitthatisrelevantherethefactthathislaterwritingsareunsystematicinstyledoesnotmeanthattheyareunsystematicincontentInbothhis$earlyand$latework,Wittgensteinputsforwardcertainkeytheses,withrelationsoflogicaldependencebetweenthem,whichcanbediscerned,stated,andexplainedjustaswithanyphilosophicaltheoryThisbrieflyandinanintroductorywayiswhatIsetouttodohereThewidelatitudeforcompetinginterpretationsofWittgensteinneverthelesscreatesproblemsEverycommentatortriestogiveasaccurateanaccountashecan,onlytofindhimselfchargedwithdistortingWittgenstein'sviewsbythosewhohaveadifferentresponsetothemThismight,dismayingly,seemtosuggestthattherewillneverbeaconsensusaboutwhatWittgensteinmeantIdonot,however,thinksuchpessimismwarranted,foritseemstomethattheliteratureonWittgensteinalreadycontainssubstantialagreementaboutwhichthemesaremostcentraltohisworkThisisnottodenythatdifficultiesremainbutitdoesmeanthatonecanidentifywithsomeconfidencetheaspectsofWittgenstein'sworkwhichshouldbediscussedinanintroductionlikethisLikeanyonewritingaboutWittgenstein,however,ixImust,tobeproperlycautious,addthattheviewsIattributetohimarewhatIinterpretthoseviewstobethequalification�asIreadhim,Wittgensteinmeans��shouldthereforebeunderstoodthroughoutThesecondofthetwoaimsmentionedaboveislessdifficulttoattainItistosituateWittgenstein'sworkintwentiethcenturyanalyticphilosophyThisisanarrowaim,foritisnotatallthesamethingassituatinghisworkintwentiethcenturythoughtingeneralTorelateWittgenstein'sideastocurrentsinliteratureandart,ortospeculatewhether,say,hisearlyworkis�modernist�andhislatework�postmodernist�,ortosearchforthewellspringsofhisphilosophyintheintellectualfermentofpreVienna(thisisnotthetaskIsetmyselfinwhatfollowsSuchataskwouldbeinterestingandinmanywaysvaluable,buthereIfastenuponwhatisimmediatelyrelevantonlyWittgenstein'swork,consideredstrictlyinitsphilosophicalaspects,isingeneraltakentobelongtothemainstreamofrecentandcontemporaryanalyticphilosophyItisinthissettingthatIdiscussitItshould,however,bementionedthatWittgenstein'sname,andoccasionallyoneorotherofhisideas,alsoappearsinwritingsonanthropology,theology,literarytheory,andothersubjectsPhilosophersincontinentalEurope,whoserecenttraditionsofthoughtareratherdifferentfromthoseintheEnglishspeakinganalytictradition,havelikewisecometopayattentiontoWittgenstein'sworkAdetailedstudymighttakethesewiderconsiderationsintoaccountButhere,asremarked,IconcentrateonWittgenstein'sthoughtinitsprimarysettingJudgingwhetheranyvalueattachestotheusemadeofitintheseotherspheresinanycasedependsonfirstunderstandingtheideasthemselvesNevertheless,hereandthereIpointoutconnectionswithotherfieldsthishappensmainlyindiscussionofWittgenstein'slaterviewsExpositionandexplanationtakemoreroomthancriticisminwhatfollowsThisisbecausespaceislimitedandmyprimarytaskistomakexthemainaspectsofWittgenstein'sthoughtaccessibletononphilosophersItis,however,partofsuchaproceedingtoindicatewhatcriticalresponseshavebeenevokedbyathinker'sviews,andtoprovidesomeindicationofthedegreetowhichthoseviewsarepersuasiveorotherwise,andwhyAccordingly,ImakesomebriefanduntechnicalforaysinthisdirectionIndiscussingtherelationbetweenWittgenstein'sworkandothertwentiethcenturyanalyticphilosophyIofferminorrevisionstothestandardview,mysuggestionbeingthatWittgenstein'splaceinrecentphilosophy�intermsofhisactualeffectuponitscontentanddirection�isnotquitewhatitisusuallysaidtobeIntroductorybooksshouldencouragetheirreaderstoinvestigateatfirsthandthesubjectswithwhichtheydealInsomecases,however,itissimplytooambitioustoexpectnonspecialistreaderstodothiswithoutfirstacquiringasubstantialminimumofbackgroundknowledgeWittgensteinissuchacaseDespiteclaimsbyhisfollowerstothecontrary,heisverymuchaphilosopher'sphilosopherHiswritings,likethoseofAristotle,Kant,andcertainothers,cannotbereadwithprofitbysomeonewhodoesnothaveatleastamodestgroundinginphilosophy,fortheirpointwouldbewhollyobscuretosomeonewhodidnotrecognizewhatwasbeingarguedforandagainstSincethisaccountassumesnophilosophicaltrainingonthereader'spart,IhavetriedtomakeitselfcontainedtheaimistogiveasketchofWittgenstein'sthoughtwhichwillbeinformativeeventosomeonewhoisnot,anddoesnotintendtobecome,astudentofphilosophyinanysystematicsenseNevertheless,ifwhatfollowssucceedsinpromptingsomeofitsreaderstotackleWittgenstein'sownwritings,andtodosowithgreaterunderstanding,thatwillbeamajorgainMythanksgotoAnthonyKenny,AnthonyQuinton,JimHopkins,DanRashid,HenryHardy,andKeithThomasforreadingtheentiremanuscriptandmakingvaluablecommentsandcriticismsandtoxiCarolynWildeandNormanMalcolmforhelpfuldiscussionofcertainpointsintheInvestigationsTheusualconstraintsandexigenciesdictatedtheoutcome,buttheseadvisersamelioratedit,andIamgratefultothemThisisdedicatedtoJenny!Inveniosineverticeaquas,sinemurmureeuntes,perspicuasadhumurn"xiiiContentsNoteonreferencesxivListofillustrationsxvLifeandcharacterTheearlyphilosophyThelaterphilosophyWittgensteinandrecentphilosophyFurtherreadingIndexxivNoteonreferencesThemostfrequentreferencestoWittgenstein'sworksareeffectedbythefollowingabbreviations:BTheBlueandBrownBooksCOnCertaintyPPhilosophicalInvestigationsRRemarksontheFoundationofMathematicsTTractatusLogicoPhilsophicusZZettelNumbersfollowingtheseabbreviationsrefertoparagraphs,exceptinthecaseofB,forwhichpagenumbersaregivenAllotherreferencesareexplainedinthesectiononfurtherreadingxvListofillustrationsWittgensteinandhisfamilyWittgensteinArchive,CambridgeWittgensteinkiteflyingWittgensteinArchive,CambridgeWittgensteininSwanseaPhoto:BenRichardsWittgensteinArchive,CambridgeWittgenstein'struthtablesFromProtractatus,anearlyversionofTractatusLogicoPhilosophicusbyWittgensteinWittgensteinneartheendofhislifeProfessorKETranøjWittgensteinArchive,CambridgeChapterLifeandcharacterLudwigWittgensteinwasaphilosopherPhilosophyinthetwentiethcenturyhasbecomeapursuitforspecialists,andaccordinglymostphilosopherswhohaverecentlyacquiredreputationsarefamousonlyamongtheirfellowsWittgenstein,however,isfamousfarbeyondtheboundariesofphilosophyAmongnonphilosophershisnameismentionedsurprisinglyoftenandinasurprisingvarietyofconnectionsItseemsthatbymanyheisregardedasquintessentiallyrepresentativeoftwentiethcenturyphilosophy,asifheexemplifies!notjustinhisworkbutinhispersonality!whatphilosophyitselfislike:difficultandprofoundPerhapsforthisreasonhiswritingsareplunderedforaphorismsTheylendthemselvestothattreatmentbecauseoftheirstyleandstructure,andbecausetheyseemtodistilsomethingofwisdomThelayman'sestimationofWittgensteinderivesfromthefactthatmanycontemporaryphilosophersthinkheisthetwentiethcentury'sgreatestthinkerWhetherornotthatistrueremainsforhistorytodecidethejudgementofpeersisnotinfallibleWhateverthedecisionis,however,itwillnotalterthefactthatWittgenstein'slifeandthoughtwere,attheveryleast,extraordinaryLudwigJosefJohannWittgensteinwasborninViennaonApril,theyoungestinafamilyofeightchildrenHisfatherwasanindustrialist,andoneoftherichestmeninAustriatheWittgensteins'homewasacentreofViennesesocialandculturallifeWealthandculturehadcharacterizedbothsidesofWittgenstein'sfamilyforseveralgenerationsHispaternalgrandfatherwasawealthyJewishwoolmerchantfromHessewhohadconvertedtoProtestantChristianityandmarriedthedaughterofaViennesebankerSoonafterwardshetransferredhisbusinessheadquarterstoVienna,whereheandhiswifeestablishedthemselvesaspatronsoftheartsTheygavetheirsonKarl,LudwigWittgenstein'sfather,anexpensiveclassicaleducation,butKarlrebelledandattheageofranawaytoAmerica,wherefortwoyearshelivedbyworkingasawaiterandgivingviolinandGermanlessonsOnhisreturntoViennahestudiedengineeringWithindecadeshehadaddedafortunetohisinheritancebysuccessfulinvolvementintheironandsteelindustry,establishinghimselfasoneoftheforemostindustrialistsoftheAustroHungarianEmpireHewasabletoretireinhisearlyfifties,anddevotedpartofhistimethereaftertopublishingarticlesoneconomicsintheViennesepressItwasWittgenstein'smotherLeopoldinewhodidmosttoencouragethefamily'sculturalandmusicalactivitiesShetoowasabanker'sdaughter,withconnectionsamongtheStyrianlandedgentryHermusicalinterestswereparticularlystrongAtherinvitationBrahmsandMahlerwereregularvisitorstothehouse,andwithherencouragementWittgenstein'sbrotherPaulbecameaconcertpianistRavelandStrausswereamongthosewhowroteonehandedconcertosforPaulafterhislossofanarminthewarWittgensteinhimselfwasgiftedwithafinemusicalsensibilityInadultlifehetaughthimselftoplaytheclarinet,buthismoststrikingmusicaltalentwastheabilitytowhistleentirescoresfrommemoryLeopoldineWittgensteinwasaRomanCatholicandWittgensteinwasthereforebroughtupinthatpersuasionReligionremainedapowerfulthemethroughouthislifeonseveraloccasionsheseriouslycontemplatedbecomingamonkHisreligioussentimentswereunorthodox,however,andhekepttheirexactnatureasecretHintsofthemappearinhiswritingsPerhapsbecauseofhisownexperiencesKarlWittgenstein'sviewsoneducationwereidiosyncraticHehadallhischildrentaughtathome,toacurriculumofhisowndevising,untiltheywereyearsoldTheplanwasnotasuccessWhenthetimecameforWittgensteintoattendschoolhecouldnotgetintoaGymnasium(theequivalentofagrammarschool)orevenaRealschule(theequivalentofasecondarymodern)inVienna,becausehehadnotattainedtherequiredstandardEventuallyhepassedtheentranceexaminationsforaprovincialRealschule,inLinz,wherehisexactcontemporaryAdolfHitlerwasalsoapupilHespentthreeunhappyyearsthere,leavinginwithoutthequalificationsforuniversityentranceThiswasasetbackbecausehehadconceivedanambitiontostudyphysicswithBoltzmanninViennaHowever,hehadalwaysshownanaptitudeforengineering,hisfather'sprofessionitissaidthathedemonstratedthisinchildhoodbyconstructingaworkingmodelofasewingmachineHisparentsaccordinglysenthimtoatechnicalcollegeinBerlinCharlottenburgWittgensteinwasnothappythereeitherandleftafterthreetermsHehad,however,developedaninterestinaeronauticalengineering,thenthenewestbranchofhisprospectiveprofessionHewenttoEnglandinandspentthesummerflyingexperimentalkitesattheUpperAtmosphereResearchStationnearGlossopinDerbyshireIntheautumnheenteredasastudentofaeronauticalengineeringatManchesterUniversityWittgensteinremainedontheregisteratManchesterfortwoyears,althoughformostofthattimehewasinEuropeBytheendofhisstayhewasworkingonthedesignofapropellerwithjetreactionnozzlesatthetipsofitsbladesHebecameintriguedbythemathematicsofthedesign,thenbymathematicsitself,andfinallybyphilosophicalquestionsaboutthefoundationsofmathematicsHeaskedacquaintanceswhathecouldreadonthissubject,andwasdirectedtoBertrandRussell'sPrinciplesofMathematicsTheimpactofthisbookonWittgensteinwasgreatHithertohisphilosophicalreadinghadbeenlimitedhehadreadsomeofSchopenhauer'sworkbutlittlebesidesRussell'sbookintroducedhimtothelatestdevelopmentsinlogicandphilosophy,developmentsforwhichRussellhimselfandGottlobFregewereresponsibleWittgensteinwasexcitedbytheseideasanddecidedtostudythemInhecontactedFregeatJenaUniversitytoshowhimanessayhehadwrittenandtoseekhisguidanceFregeadvisedhimtostudywithRussellatCambridgeEarlyin,accordingly,WittgensteinarrivedinCambridgeandregisteredasastudentWittgensteinspentamerefivetermsatCambridgeNeverthelessitwasanimmenselyformativetimeforhimHediscussedlogicandphilosophywithRussell,whoinaletterwrittenatthetimesaidofhimheistheablestpersonIhavecomeacrosssinceMooreTherelationshipbetweenWittgensteinandRussellquicklyceasedtobethatofpupilandteacher,andalthoughWittgenstein'sfriendDavidPinsentremarkedinhisdiaryitisobviousthatWittgensteinisoneofRussell'sdisciplesandowesenormouslytohim,theinfluencewasnotallonesided,asweshalllaterseeTravelinterestedWittgensteingreatlyIn,withPinsent,hevisitedfirstIcelandandthenNorwayHewasattractedbyNorwayandreturnedlaterinonhisownInaremotecornerofafarmnearSkjoldenhebuilthimselfahut,andremainedthere,apartfromashortvisittoViennaforChristmas,untilthesummerofHedevotedhistimetoresearchinlogicGEMoorecameonavisit,andwhilethere,tooknotesofsomeofWittgenstein'sworkThisworkrepresentedtheearliestphaseofprogresstowardsWittgenstein'sfirstbook,theTractatusLogicoPhilosophicusWhenwarbrokeoutinWittgensteinwasathomeinViennaWithinafewdayshehadenlistedintheImperialArmyFormostofthenexttwoyearsheservedasamechanicwithanartilleryworkshopunitontheEasternFront,firstinCracowandthennearLwowInhewassenttoOlmützforofficertrainingWhiletherehemetPaulEngelmann,andtheydiscussedreligiontogetherEngelmannsubsequentlypublishedarecordoftheirfriendshipwhichshowshowmuchsignificancereligiousquestionshadforWittgensteinatthattimeWittgensteinrejoinedhisregimentinandservedasanartilleryobserverEarlyinhewaspostedtoamountainartilleryregimentintheTyrolonthesouthernfrontWheninNovembertheAustroHungarianwar

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