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首页 食品敏感性

食品敏感性.ppt

食品敏感性

npcpz
2010-06-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《食品敏感性ppt》,可适用于领域

FoodSensitivities,AllergicReactions,andFoodIntolerances食品敏感性、过敏性反应和食品不耐性FoodSensitivities,AllergicReactions,andFoodIntolerances食品敏感性、过敏性反应和食品不耐性CONTENTS主要内容CONTENTS主要内容DEFINITIONANDMECHANISMSOFADVERSEFOODREACTION第一节食品不良反应的定义和机理SYMPTOMSOFADVERSEFOODREACTIONS第二节食品不良反应的症状DIAGNOSISOFADVERSEFOODREACTIONS第三节食品不良反应的诊断法PREVALENCE第四节发病率FOODALLERGENS第五节食品过敏原FOODADDITIVES第六节食品添加剂FOODLABELINGINRELATIONTOFOODSENSITIVITIES第七节与食品过敏性有关的食品标签DEFINITIONANDMECHANISMSOFADVERSEFOODREACTION第一节食品不良反应的定义和机理DEFINITIONANDMECHANISMSOFADVERSEFOODREACTION第一节食品不良反应的定义和机理FigClassificationoffoodsproposedbyEAACI图EAACI对食品的分级toxicfoodreactions食品毒性反应toxicfoodreactions食品毒性反应Aclassicaltoxicfoodreactionisscombroidfishpoisoning,duetolargeamountsofhistamine鲭亚目鱼组胺中毒是典型的食品毒性反应。Foodintolerance食品不耐性Foodintolerance食品不耐性enzymatic(resultingfromanenzymaticdefect,eg,lactasedeficiency),“酶促性的”(因酶缺陷造成如乳糖酶缺乏症)pharmacological(dependingonthedirecteffectof,eg,vasoactiveaminesnaturallyfoundinfoods)“药理学的”(取决于直接效应如食品中天然存在的血管活性胺)“Undefined不明确的”SYMPTOMSOFADVERSEFOODREACTIONS第二节食品不良反应的症状SYMPTOMSOFADVERSEFOODREACTIONS第二节食品不良反应的症状IgEMediatedFoodAllergy一、以IgE为媒介的食品敏感症IgEMediatedFoodAllergy一、以IgE为媒介的食品敏感症Characteristic特征Characteristic特征ClinicalmanifestationsofIgEmediatedfoodallergycanremainlocalizedatthesiteoftheprimarydirectcontact,ie,一直保持在最初的直接接触部位themouth嘴throat(oralallergysyndrome)咽喉(口腔敏感综合症)thegastroiniesrinaltract(isolatedgastrointestinalfoodallergy)胃肠道(单独的胃肠道食品敏感症)SkinRespiratorytractGItractCardievascularS皮肤呼吸道胃肠道心脏血管系统FigureClassicalsymptomsofIgEmediatedfoodailergy图以IgE为媒介的食品敏感综合症分布OralAllergySyndrome(一)口腔敏感综合病症OralAllergySyndrome(一)口腔敏感综合病症Allergen:freshfoods(fruitsandvegetables)过敏原:新鲜食品(如水果和蔬菜)Symptom症状:Itchingofthelips,mouth,palatethroat嘴唇、嘴、上腭咽喉等处立即发痒Hoarsenessandorswellingofthelips,tongue,uvula,andlarynx嗓音嘶哑嘴唇、舌头、小舌、喉等肿胀AllergicReactionsAfterIngestionofFood(二)摄入食品后的过敏反应AllergicReactionsAfterIngestionofFood(二)摄入食品后的过敏反应Symptom症状:)Themainsymptomsofgastrointestinalfoodallergyarevomiting,nausea,diarrhea,andabdominalpains(colicsorcramps)胃肠道主要症状:呕吐、反胃、腹泻以及腹部疼痛(绞痛或痛性痉挛))Skinreactionsincludelocalorgeneralizedpruritus,flush,urticaria,angioedemamorbilliformexanthema,andflareupofatopicdermatitis皮肤反应:局部的或无显著特点的搔痒症、面部潮红、风疹、血管性水肿、麻疹样疹病、突发特异性皮炎)Thesymptomsoftheupperandthelowerrespiratorytractarerhinitis(sneezing,pruritusofthenose,nasalstuffiness,andnasalobstruction),larynxedema,cough,wheezing,andbronchialasthma上呼吸道或稍低些的呼吸道症状:鼻炎(打喷嚏、鼻搔痒症、鼻子不通气、鼻塞)、喉肿、咳嗽、喘息以及支气管哮喘)Itching,redness,andwateringeyes(conjunctivitis)发痒、充血以及眼睛流泪(结膜炎)AllergicReactionsAfterInhalationofFood(三)吸入食品后的过敏反应AllergicReactionsAfterInhalationofFood(三)吸入食品后的过敏反应Symptom症状:respiratorysymptoms呼吸道综合症Allergen:flour,namylase,greencoffee,castorandsoybeans,spiceseggwhite,andcrustaceans过敏原:面粉、α淀粉酶、绿咖啡、海狸香和大豆、调味品、鸡蛋白以及甲壳动物AllergicReactionsFollowingSkinContactWithFood(四)皮肤接触食品后的过敏反应AllergicReactionsFollowingSkinContactWithFood(四)皮肤接触食品后的过敏反应Allergen:fish,shrimp,flour,andpork过敏原:鱼、小虾、面粉和猪肉Symptom症状:Urticariallesion风疹Chroniccontactwithafoodmayinduceproteincontact,dermatitisinfoodhandlers食品操作工人长期接触某种食品会诱导蛋白接触性皮炎。NonlgEMediatedImmuneReactions二、不以IgE为媒介的免疫反应NonlgEMediatedImmuneReactions二、不以IgE为媒介的免疫反应Heiner'sSyndrome,AllergicAlveolitis,andHemorrhagicGastroenteritisinChildhood(一)儿童Heiner综合症、过敏性齿槽炎、出血性肠胃炎Heiner'sSyndrome,AllergicAlveolitis,andHemorrhagicGastroenteritisinChildhood(一)儿童Heiner综合症、过敏性齿槽炎、出血性肠胃炎DEFINITION:ThetermHeiner'ssyndromecharacterizesamilkinducedsyndromewithpulmonarydiseaseininfantsHeiner综合症:婴儿因牛奶诱导的肺病Symptom症状:chronicorrecurrentpulmonaryintiltrates慢性或周期性发生的肺渗透allergicalveolitis过敏性齿槽炎achronicrhinitis慢性鼻炎gastrointestinalbloodloss肠胃失血症irondeficiencyanemia缺铁性贫血chroniccough慢性咳嗽recurrentfever周期性发烧Anorexia厌食Vomiting呕吐Colic绞痛Diarrhea腹泻Hemoptysis咳血Control控制措施:institutionofamilkfreediet饮食中去除牛奶GlutenSensitiveEnteropathy(CeliacDisease)(二)谷蛋白敏感性肠病(乳糜泻)GlutenSensitiveEnteropathy(CeliacDisease)(二)谷蛋白敏感性肠病(乳糜泻)Definition:damagetothesmallintestinalmucosaandsymptomsofmalabsorption定义:小肠黏膜损伤和吸收不良症状小肠黏膜损伤和吸收不良症状Allergen过敏原:Gliadin麦醇溶蛋白presentinwheat,rye,barley,andoat广泛存在于小麦、燕麦、大麦和黑麦中Thepeakincidenceofsymptomsisininfancyaftertheintroductionofcereals婴儿开始添加谷物类食物时最容易发生这类症状为第一高峰期Asecondpeakoccursduringthethirddecade第二高峰期发生在三十岁。Symptom症状:abdominalpain周期性腹部疼痛loosestools便溏anorexia厌食shortstature体态短小delayedpuberty青春期滞缓nutritionaldeficiencies吸收不良Dentalenamelhypoplasia牙科瓷发育不全recurrentaphthae周期性口疮Control控制措施:Patientswithceliacdiseasemustavoidgliadinsandrelatedproteinspermanently远离麦醇溶蛋白以及相关蛋白质DermatitisHerpetiformis(三)疱疹样皮炎DermatitisHerpetiformis(三)疱疹样皮炎Definition定义:chronicblisteringdisease一种慢性起疱疾病Symptom症状:itchy发痒sometimesburning有时有灼伤感eruptionofgroupedvesiclesonanerythematousground在红斑状范围内出现成群泡样出疹SomeDHpatients,evenwithoutgastrointestinalsymptoms,mayhavevillousatrophysimilartothatseeninceliacdisease有些DH病人甚至在没有出现胃肠道综合症的情况下也会出现与乳糜泻类似的绒毛状萎缩症也就是说DH与CD之间有关连。Thecutaneousmanifestationsmayormaynotrespondtoaglutenfreediet饮食中排除麦醇溶蛋白可能会、也有可能不会改善皮肤症状。EosinophilicGastroenteritis(四)嗜酸性胃肠炎EosinophilicGastroenteritis(四)嗜酸性胃肠炎Definition定义:elevatedeosinophilcountsinbloodandtissueeosinophiliawithreleaseofeosinophiimajorbasicprotein释放嗜曙红细胞主要基本蛋白质后血液中嗜曙红细胞和嗜曙红血球增多的间质组织内嗜曙红细胞计数值升高Clinicalmanifestations临床症状:vomiting呕吐abdominalpain腹部疼痛Diarrhea腹泻malabsorption吸收不良bowelobstruction肠阻塞Ascites腹水ThecauseofEGisunknown起因还不清楚foodhypersensitivityhasbeensuggestedEG可能由食品超敏性引起UtcerativeColitis(五)溃疡性结肠炎UtcerativeColitis(五)溃疡性结肠炎Definition定义:aninflammatoryboweldiseaseofunknownorigin一种不明起因的炎症性肠病NoadversefoodreactionshavebeenshownascausativeofUC还不能证明食品不良反应会造成UCAllergicVasculitis(六)变应性脉管炎AllergicVasculitis(六)变应性脉管炎Cause起因:foodsandfoodadditives食品及其添加剂Symptom症状:allergicpurpura(widespreadhemorrhagicmaculesandpapules,mainlyonthelowerlegs)demonstratedbysinglechallenges变应性紫癜(分布广泛的出血性斑丘疹主要出现在腿的下部)FoodIntolerance三、食品不耐性FoodIntolerance三、食品不耐性LactaseDeficiency乳糖酶缺乏综合征LactaseDeficiency乳糖酶缺乏综合征Definition定义:Lackoftheenzymethatcleavesmilksugar,lactose,givesrisetoadversereactionswhenlactoseisconsumed当摄入乳糖时由于体内缺乏一种能将牛奶糖质乳糖水解的酶从而产生不良反应Theonlyfoodofwhichlactoseisanaturalconstituentismilk(gmlcowsmilk)天然含乳糖的唯一食品是牛奶(gml牛奶)Classification分类:)congenitallactasedeficiency先天性乳糖酶缺乏综合征)primarylactasedeficiency初级的乳糖酶缺乏综合征)secondarylactasedeficiency二级乳糖酶缺乏综合征)congenitallactasedeficiency先天性乳糖酶缺乏综合征lactaseisnotpresentandsymptomswillappearwhenthepatientisbreastfed人体内不存在乳糖酶当进行人乳哺育时会出现综合征Thecongenitalformisveryrare这种症状极少见)primarylactasedeficiency初级的乳糖酶缺乏综合征seeninmostoftheworld'spopulationwheretheproductionoflactasedecreasesordisappearsfromtheageoftotheteenageyears在岁时乳糖酶分泌下降或消失Persistenthighlactaseactivityinadultlifeoccursamongrelativelyfewethnicgroups:成年人体内乳糖酶活性一直处于高峰的人群:northernEuropeansandtheiroverseasdescendants北欧以及沿海后代afewAfricangroupsofpastoraltraditionBedouinsandotherSaudiArabs一些源于牧人的非洲人、贝都因人和沙特阿拉伯人certaingroupsfromwestIndiaandPakistan西印度和巴基斯坦部分人群)secondarylactasedeficiency二级乳糖酶缺乏综合征aconsequenceofpathologicalchangesinthegutmucosa,asseeninceliacdiseaseorinflammations乳糜泻或炎症引起内脏黏膜病变的结果Whenthegutmucosahasregaineditsnormalappearancethelactaseproductionreappears当内脏黏膜恢复正常乳糖酶也开始重新分泌。Thesymptoms症状:Diarrhea腹泻gasproduction产气Colic绞痛Control控制措施:avoidallproductscontainingevensmallamountsoflactose避免食用任何含乳糖的食品PREVALENCE第四节发病率PREVALENCE第四节发病率Thetotalprevalenceoffoodallergyfoodintoleranceisnotknown总发病率未知Estimatesbasedondatafromonecountrydonotnecessarilyreflecttheprevalenceofanothercountry在某个国家统计得到的数据并不能用到另一个国家因为:)frequencyanddurationofbreastfeeding母乳喂养的频率和持续时间)eatinghabits饮食习惯)flora植物群Children一、儿童Children一、儿童Food(一)食品Food(一)食品allergytocow'smilk,egg,andfishpredominantlybeginsbeforethesecondyearofage对牛奶、鸡蛋和鱼的过敏性主要发生岁以前allergytofruit,legumes,andvegetablespredominantlybeginsafterthesecondyear对水果、豆类和蔬菜的过敏性主要发生在岁以后TablePrevalenceofRhinitisandOralItchinDanishSchoolChildren丹麦学龄儿童中鼻炎和口腔发痒的发病率Age(yr)Rhinitis()Oralitch()boysgirlsboysgirlsFoodAdditives(二)食品添加剂FoodAdditives(二)食品添加剂Adversereactionstofoodadditivesarefoundinofschoolchildren学龄儿童对食品添加剂有不良反应Theprevalenceinyoungerchildrenisnotknown至今不知小年龄儿童的发病率Adults二、成年人Adults二、成年人Food(一)食品Food(一)食品InEuropeanstudiesthemajorityofallergicfoodreactionsinadultsarecausedbyfruitsvegetables,andnutsandarerelatedtopollenallergy在欧洲大部分成年人食品过敏性反应是由水果、蔬菜和坚果引起的且与花粉过敏症有关Theprevalenceisaround发病率在左右probablyonly,havesymptomsotherthanoralitch大约只有不是口腔发痒症状Theprevalenceofallergytomilk,egg,fishetcisaround牛奶、鸡蛋、鱼等引起的过敏症发病率大约为FoodAdditives(二)食品添加剂FoodAdditives(二)食品添加剂Theestimatedfrequencywas年EEC理论计算值:食品添加剂引起的发病率为InBritish:the prevalence大不列颠人:发病率为Dutch丹麦:ContactAllergens(三)接触性过敏原ContactAllergens(三)接触性过敏原Danishwomenhavecontactallergycausedbynickel丹麦妇女因镍造成接触性过敏症Uptoofthesemaybenefitfromanickelrestricteddiet其中以上会因排除镍的饮食而改善Whatiscontactallergens?Indermallysensitizedsubjectsingestionofthecontactallergenmaycauseskinflarereactionsorothersymptoms,eg,inthegastroinlestinaltract皮肤敏感症受检者摄入接触性过敏原后会导致皮肤潮间带反应或胃肠道症状等其他症状。ContactAllergens:fragrances芳香物质foodflavors(naturalorsynthetic)食品风味物Nickel镍OtherAdverseReactions(四)其它不良反应OtherAdverseReactions(四)其它不良反应)Celiacdisease腹部疾病:Cause:wheatgliadinandrelatedproteins起因:小麦麦醇溶蛋白和相关蛋白质Theprevalence:发病率:)lactasedeficiency乳糖酶缺乏综合征Cause:Lackoflactase起因:缺乏乳糖酶Theprevalence:variesfromafewpercentinnorthernEuropeancountriestoalmosttheentireadultpopulationinAsiaandAfrica发病率:从北欧国家到亚洲和非洲国家成年人发病率相差好几个百分点Conclusion:Itisnotknownwhethertheprevalenceoffoodallergyorintoleranceisincreasing不清楚食品过敏不耐性的发病率是否有上升趋势Theprevalenceofpollenrelatedfoodallergieshasincreased与花粉相关食品敏感症的发病率在提高。FOODALLERGENS第五节食品过敏原FOODALLERGENS第五节食品过敏原Definition定义Definition定义Allergensareantigensthatgiverisetoallergy过敏原是能引起敏感的抗原Whereisfoodallergensfrom?Whereisfoodallergensfrom?Pollen花粉Mammals哺乳动物mites螨otherinsects其他昆虫foods食品Component:过敏原成分:ProteinsorglycoproteinswithamolecularweightfromtokDa,themajorityrangingfromtokDa已知结构的过敏原都是蛋白质或糖蛋白分子量从kDa到kDa大部分在kDa到kDa之间Theidentifiedallergens:Theidentifiedallergens:thefirstthreelettersofthegenus,space,thefirstletterofthespecies,space,andanArabicnumberXXXXX属种阿拉伯数字Forexample:LolpreferstothefirstpollenallergenidentifiedfromLoliumperennc,orryegrassLolp表示第一个花粉过敏原来自Loliumperenne或黑麦草Classification分类Classification分类"major":proteinsforwhichormoreoftheallergicpatientsstudiedhavespecificIgE“主要的”:能使或以上被研究病人具有特异性IgE的蛋白质"minor“:theremainingallergensareconsideredminor“次要的”:能使以下的被研究病人具有特异性IgE的蛋白质TheNatureofFoodAllergens一、过敏原的种类TheNatureofFoodAllergens一、过敏原的种类Tomakeacompletelistofallergenicfoodsonaglobalbasisisvirtuallyimpossible我们不可能列出一张食品过敏原清单Whetherafoodallergencausessignificantproblemsinapopulationisdependentonseveralfactors:某种食品过敏原是否会在消费者中引起明显的问题取决于以下几个方面:(a)thepotencyoftheallergen过敏原的效能(a)thepotencyoftheallergen过敏原的效能somearemuchmorefrequentsensitizerslhanothers有些抗体比其他抗体造成敏感症的次数更多eg,βlactoglobulininmilkorovomucoidfromeggwhite如:牛奶中的β乳球蛋白或鸡蛋蛋白中的卵类粘蛋白(b)thephysiochemicalproperties物化性质:(b)thephysiochemicalproperties物化性质:)Thechemicalstructure,ie,theaminoacidsequence,andthetertiarystructure化学结构如氨基酸序列蛋白质三级结构)heatstability热稳定性)digestibility可消化性)Structuralrelationshipwithepitopesfromnonfoodallergens非食品过敏原与抗原决定族之间的结构关系(c)thefrequencyofexposure暴露的频率:(c)thefrequencyofexposure暴露的频率:InEuropeallergytoriceandbuckwheatisuncommon在欧洲稻米和荞麦一般不引起敏感症InJapanriceandbuckwheatarecommonfoodallergens在日本稻米和荞麦通常是食品过敏原。(d)therouteofexposure暴露途径(d)therouteofexposure暴露途径)aeroallergens:grasses,pollenoftreesandherbshousedustmitesocatdander飞散过敏原:草、树或药草的花粉、屋尘螨、猫毛发皮屑)workenvironment:baker工作环境:面包工人)viatheskin:Naturalrubber(latex)通过皮肤:天然橡胶(e)crossreactionstoaeroallergens飞散过敏原的交叉反应(e)crossreactionstoaeroallergens飞散过敏原的交叉反应)localspeciesofgrass,trees,andherbsandpollution当地生长的草、树以及药草种类eg,Allergytohazelnutsiscommoninareaswithmanybirchtrees,wherebirchpollenhayleverisfrequent榛实敏感症一般发生在有许多桦树的地区在这些地区经常发生桦树花粉热)airpollution空气污染(f)theageatwhichtheallergenisintroduced受过敏原入侵的个体年龄(f)theageatwhichtheallergenisintroduced受过敏原入侵的个体年龄Inearlyinfancyanincreaseduptakeofantigentakesplaceatatimewhenthegutassociatedlymphoidtissueisstillincompletelydeveloped在幼年早期在与消化道相关淋巴组织还没有发育好的时候抗原的摄入量相对较高。AllergensofAnimalOrigin二、来源于动物的过敏原AllergensofAnimalOrigin二、来源于动物的过敏原Milk(一)牛奶Milk(一)牛奶)Albumin,βlactoglobulin,andimmunoglobulinsofmilkarethemostimportantallergensininfants婴儿:清蛋白、β乳球蛋白和免疫球蛋白)Inolderchildrenβlactoglobulin,caseins,andIlactalbuminmaybemorereactive大孩子:β乳球蛋白、酪蛋白和І乳白蛋白)inadulthood:caseintobethemostfrequentallergen成人期:酪蛋白crossreactions交叉反应Themajorityofpatientswithallergytocow'smilkproteinswillalsoreacttoproteinsfromsheep'sandgoat'smilk大部分对牛奶蛋白质有敏感症的病人同样对绵羊奶和山羊奶有敏感症Crossreactionsbetweenmilkfromthesespeciesisnotalwayspresent各种奶之间的交叉反应并不一直存在Eggs(二)鸡蛋Eggs(二)鸡蛋thesecondmostfrequentfoodallergeninsmallchildrenaftercow'smilk在小孩子中大概是仅次于牛奶的食品过敏原Eggwhiteproteinsarereportedtoelicitallergicreactionsmorefrequentlythaneggyolk鸡蛋蛋白比蛋黄更易引起过敏反应蛋黄中的主要过敏原蛋黄中的主要过敏原crossreactions交叉反应:allergytoeggcanbecorrelatedtoallergytobirdfeathers鸡蛋敏感症与鸟类羽毛敏感症之间有相关性themajorcrossreactingdeterminantsarethelivetinsfromeggyolk主要交叉反应的决定因素是蛋黄中的卵黄蛋白AllergensofPlantOrigin三、来源于植物的过敏原AllergensofPlantOrigin三、来源于植物的过敏原Thevegetablefoodsthatmostcommonlycausehypersensitivitysymptoms致敏性蔬菜种类Thevegetablefoodsthatmostcommonlycausehypersensitivitysymptoms致敏性蔬菜种类hazelnut榛实Walnut胡桃Brazilnut巴西坚果Apple苹果Almond杏仁Peach桃子Plum李子Cherry樱桃Peanut花生Peas豌豆Carrot胡萝卜parsley欧芹Celery芹菜Orange橘子Strawberry草莓Cereals谷物Therankinglistsvarydependingon各种蔬菜致敏程度的影响因素Therankinglistsvarydependingon各种蔬菜致敏程度的影响因素)theageofthepatients病人的年龄)themethodsofdiagnosis诊断方法以及)thegeographiclocationofthepopulation地理环境Fruits,Nuts,andVegetables(一)水果、坚果和蔬菜Fruits,Nuts,andVegetables(一)水果、坚果和蔬菜Morethanofpatientswithsensitizationtovegetablefoodshadconcomitantsensitizationtopollen以上的蔬菜敏感症总是伴随着花粉敏感症而来Inagroupofbirchpollenallergiesthepatientswithadditionalhypersensitivitytonutsandappleshad:在一组同时有另外的坚果和苹果超敏性的桦树花粉敏感症病人中()moreseveresymptomsduringthepollenseason在花粉季节症状严重加重()highervaluesofIgEtobirchandhazelpollen,桦树和榛子花粉的IgE值较高()alargerareaoftheskinpricktestreactivetobirchandhazelpollencomparedtothegroupwithoutappleandnutallergy与那些没有坚果和苹果超敏性病人相比桦树和榛子花粉的皮肤穿刺试验反应区域要大得多。Thesymptoms主要症状:Mainlyfromthemouthandpharynx,withitching,swellingofthelips,tongue,andthroatsyndrome从嘴到咽发痒嘴唇、舌头以及咽喉肿胀Thesesymptomsarecalledthe“oralallergy”“口腔敏感综合症”crossreactions交叉反应:)Asensitizationtomugwortpollensanddifferentspices,thesocalledmugwortceleryspicessyndrome,hasbeenreported艾蒿及其不同种艾属植物的花粉有致敏性又称艾蒿芹菜香料综合症。)Itwasshownbyprick,RASTstudies,andRASTinhibitionexperiments皮肤穿刺、RSAT研究以及RSAT抑制实验证明:acelerythermolabileallergenseemstobeinvolvedincelerybirchpollenallergicpatients一种不耐热芹菜过敏原会导致芹菜桦树花粉敏感症athermostableallergenisinvolvedincelerymugwortallergicpatients一种耐热过敏原会导致芹菜艾蒿敏感症PollenrelatedfoodallergiesarethoughttobecausedbycrossreactionsofpollenspecificIgEantibodieswithepitopesoffoodproteins花粉特异IgE抗体与食品蛋白质的抗原决定族发生交叉反应导致了花粉相关食品敏感症Threedistinctcrossreactivestructuresinpollenandvegetablefoods花粉和蔬菜中的个明显交叉反应结构Threedistinctcrossreactivestructuresinpollenandvegetablefoods花粉和蔬菜中的个明显交叉反应结构)BetvlisthemajorbirchpollenallergenBetv是主要的桦树花粉过敏原AllergenswithcrossreactivitytoBetv:与Betv有交叉反应的过敏原有:Apples苹果Hazelnuts榛实cherries樱桃Pears梨子Celery艾蒿carrots胡萝卜)Profilinsarewidelydistributedintheplantkingdomandhavebeenidentifiedas"plantpanAllergens"Profilin广泛分布在植物王国被称为“植物pan过敏原”toofthepollenallergicpatientsaresensitizedtopronlins花粉敏感病人对profilins敏感)CrossreactionsofallergenspecificIgEantibodiescanbecausedbysocalled"crossreactivecarbohydratedeterminants"offoodandpollenglycoproteins食品和花粉糖蛋白又称为“交叉反应碳水化合物决定物”会引起过敏原与特异性IgE抗体的交叉反应。Cereals(二)谷物Cereals(二)谷物twomajorallergens:两个主要过敏原IgE:oneatkDaoneatkDaWhenchallengedwithdoubleblind,placebocontrolledfoodchallengeDBPCFC实验证实ofthepatientswithsuspectedallergytocerealshadsymptoms谷物过敏儿童有综合症状hadclinicalreactionstoonlyonecereal儿童只对一种谷物有临床反应Themajorityofthechildrenhadclinicalreactionstowheat()大部分儿童()对谷物有临床反应Legumes(三)豆类Legumes(三)豆类PeanutallergymaybethemostcommonfoodallergyintheUnitedStates在美国花生敏感症是最常见的食品敏感症Allergicreactionsareoftenacuteandsevere过敏反应经常是急性和严重的Themajorpeanutallergen:主要的花生过敏原:glycoprotein糖蛋白ArahmolecularweightofkDaArah,molecularweightofkDa{Thecharacteristic特征:heatstable热稳定性apotentialsourceof"hiddenfoodallergens一种“隐藏性食品过敏原”的潜在资源NaturalRubber(Latex)RelatedFoodAllergens(四)与天然橡胶(乳胶)有关食品过敏原NaturalRubber(Latex)RelatedFoodAllergens(四)与天然橡胶(乳胶)有关食品过敏原Thelatexallergensareproteinsfromtherubbertree乳汁过敏原是来自橡胶树的蛋白质Commonantigenicdeterminantsdemonstratedbetweenlatexandavocado,chestnut,andbanana乳汁与鳄梨、栗子和香蕉之间存在共同的抗原定子Allergytonaturalrubber(latex)hasbecome

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