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首页 孟子(英文版)--著名汉学家理雅各译本

孟子(英文版)--著名汉学家理雅各译本.doc

孟子(英文版)--著名汉学家理雅各译本

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2010-06-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《孟子(英文版)--著名汉学家理雅各译本doc》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheWorksofMenciusauthor:Menciustitle:TheWorksofMenciuspublisher:ClarendonPress,subject:ConfucianismEthicsPhilosophylanguage:Englishaltauthor:JamesLegge,transothernotesThissitepresentsJamesLegge'stranslationofTheWorksofMenciusasitappearedintheseriescalledTheChineseClassicsinMrLeggereproducedinhistranslationtheoriginalChineseandwroteagreatdealofcommentaryconcerninghowhearrivedathisparticulartranslationoftheoriginalChineseTheseareleftoutOntheotherhand,MrLeggealsowroteabriefdescriptionofeachchapter,whichthissiteprovidesaspartofeachchapterheaderThistextwaslastrevisedthethofJuly,TheWorksofMenciusBookI,PartI:KingHûiofLiangMenciusChapterIBenvolenceandrighteousnessMencius'sonlytopicswiththeprincesofhistimeandtheonlyprincipleswhichcanmakeacountryprosperousMenciuswenttoseekingHûiofLiangThekingsaid,'Venerablesir,sinceyouhavenotcounteditfartocomehere,adistanceofathousandlî,mayIpresumethatyouareprovidedwithcounselstoprofitmykingdom'Menciusreplied,'WhymustyourMajestyusethatword"profit"WhatIamprovidedwith,arecounselstobenevolenceandrighteousness,andthesearemyonlytopics'IfyourMajestysay,"Whatistobedonetoprofitmykingdom"thegreatofficerswillsay,"Whatistobedonetoprofitourfamilies"andtheinferiorofficersandthecommonpeoplewillsay,"Whatistobedonetoprofitourpersons"Superiorsandinferiorswilltrytosnatchthisprofittheonefromtheother,andthekingdomwillbeendangeredInthekingdomoftenthousandchariots,themurdererofhissovereignshallbethechiefofafamilyofathousandchariotsInthekingdomofathousandchariots,themurdererofhisprinceshallbethechiefofafamilyofahundredchariotsTohaveathousandintenthousand,andahundredinathousand,cannotbesaidnottobealargeallotment,butifrighteousnessbeputlast,andprofitbeputfirst,theywillnotbesatisfiedwithoutsnatchingall'ThereneverhasbeenabenevolentmanwhoneglectedhisparentsThereneverhasbeenarighteousmanwhomadehissovereignanafterconsideration'LetyourMajestyalsosay,"Benevolenceandrighteousness,andletthesebeyouronlythemes"Whymustyouusethatword"profit"ChapterIIRulersmustsharetheirpleasureswiththepeopleTheycanonlybehappywhentheyruleoverhappysubjectsMencius,anotherday,sawKingHûiofLiangThekingwentandstoodwithhimbyapond,and,lookingroundatthelargegeeseanddeer,said,'Dowiseandgoodprincesalsofindpleasureinthesethings'Menciusreplied,'Beingwiseandgood,theyhavepleasureinthesethingsIftheyarenotwiseandgood,thoughtheyhavethesethings,theydonotfindpleasure'ItissaidintheBookofPoetry,HemeasuredoutandcommencedhismarvelloustowerHemeasureditoutandplanneditThepeopleaddressedthemselvestoit,AndinlessthanadaycompleteditWhenhemeasuredandbeganit,hesaidtothemBenotsoearnest:ButthemultitudescameasiftheyhadbeenhischildrenThekingwasinhismarvellousparkThedoesreposedabout,Thedoessosleekandfat:AndthewhitebirdscameglisteningThekingwasbyhismarvellouspondHowfullwasitoffishesleapingabout!"'KingWanusedthestrengthofthepeopletomakehistowerandhispond,andyetthepeoplerejoicedtodothework,callingthetower"themarvelloustower,"callingthepond"themarvellouspond,"andrejoicingthathehadhislargedeer,hisfishes,andturtlesTheancientscausedthepeopletohavepleasureaswellasthemselves,andthereforetheycouldenjoyit'IntheDeclarationofT'angitissaid,"Osun,whenwiltthouexpireWewilldietogetherwiththee"ThepeoplewishedforChieh'sdeath,thoughtheyshoulddiewithhimAlthoughhehadtowers,ponds,birds,andanimals,howcouldhehavepleasurealone'ChapterIIIHalfmeasuresareoflittleuseThegreatprinciplesofroyalgovernmentmustbefaithfullyandintheirspiritcarriedoutKingHûiofLiangsaid,'Smallasmyvirtueis,inthegovernmentofmykingdom,IdoindeedexertmymindtotheutmostIftheyearbebadontheinsideoftheriver,IremoveasmanyofthepeopleasIcantotheeastoftheriver,andconveygraintothecountryintheinsideWhentheyearisbadontheeastoftheriver,IactonthesameplanOnexaminingthegovernmentoftheneighboringkingdoms,IdonotfindthatthereisanyprincewhoexertshismindasIdoAndyetthepeopleoftheneighboringkingdomsdonotdecrease,nordomypeopleincreaseHowisthis'Menciusreplied,'YourmajestyisfondofwarletmetakeanillustrationfromwarThesoldiersmoveforwardtothesoundofthedrumsandaftertheirweaponshavebeencrossed,ononesidetheythrowawaytheircoatsofmail,trailtheirarmsbehindthem,andrunSomerunahundredpacesandstopsomerunfiftypacesandstopWhatwouldyouthinkifthosewhorunfiftypacesweretolaughatthosewhorunahundredpaces'Thekindsaid,'TheyshouldnotdosoThoughtheydidnotrunahundredpaces,yettheyalsoranaway''SinceyourMajestyknowsthis,'repliedMencius,'youneednothopethatyourpeoplewillbecomemorenumerousthanthoseoftheneighboringkingdoms'Iftheseasonsofhusbandrybenotinterferedwith,thegrainwillbemorethancanbeeatenIfclosenetsarenotallowedtoenterthepoolsandponds,thefishesandturtleswillbemorethancanbeconsumedIftheaxesandbillsenterthehillsandforestsonlyatthepropertime,thewoodwillbemorethancanbeusedWhenthegrainandfishandturtlesaremorethancanbeeaten,andthereismorewoodthancanbeused,thisenablesthepeopletonourishtheirlivingandmournfortheirdead,withoutanyfeelingagainstanyThiscondition,inwhichthepeoplenourishtheirlivingandburytheirdeadwithoutanyfeelingagainstany,isthefirststepofroyalgovernment'Letmulberrytreesbeplantedaboutthehomesteadswiththeirfivemâu,andpersonsoffiftyyearsmaybeclothedwithsilkInkeepingfowls,pigs,dogs,andswine,letnottheirtimesofbreedingbeneglected,andpersonsofseventyyearsmayeatfleshLettherenotbetakenawaythetimethatisproperforthecultivationofthefarmwithitshundredmâ,andthefamilyofseveralmouthsthatissupportedbyitshallnotsufferfromhungerLetcarefulattentionbepaidtoeducationinschools,inculcatinginitespeciallythefilialandfraternalduties,andgreyhairedmenwillnotbeseenupontheroads,carryingburdensontheirbacksorontheirheadsItneverhasbeenthattherulerofaState,wheresuchresultswereseen,personsofseventywearingsilkandeatingflesh,andtheblackhairedpeoplesufferingneitherfromhundernorcold,didnotattaintotheroyaldignity'Yourdogsandswineeatthefoodofmen,andyoudonotmakeanyrestrictivearrangementsTherearepeopledyingfromfamineontheroads,andyoudonotissuethestoresofyourgranariesforthemWhenpeopledie,yousay,"Itisnotowingtomeitisowingtotheyear"Inwhatdoesthisdifferfromstabbingamanandkillinghim,andthensaying"ItwasnotIitwastheweapon"LetyourMajestyceasetolaytheblameontheyear,andinstantlyfromallthenationthepeoplewillcometoyou'ChapterIVAcontinuationoftheformerchapter,carryingontheappeal,inthelastparagraph,onthecharacterofkingHû'sowngovernmentKingHûiofLiangsaid,'Iwishquietlytoreceiveyourinstructions'Menciusreplied,'Isthereanydifferencebetweenkillingamanwithastickandwithasword'Thekingsaid,'Thereisnodifference!'Isthereanydifferencebetweendoingitwithaswordandwiththestyleofgovernment'Thereisnodifference,'wasthereplyMenciusthensaid,'InyourkitchenthereisfatmeatinyourstablestherearefathorsesButyourpeoplehavethelookofhunger,andonthewildstherearethosewhohavediedoffamineThisisleadingonbeaststodevourmen'Beastsdevouroneanother,andmenhatethemfordoingsoWhenaprince,beingtheparentofhispeople,administershisgovernmentsoastobechargeablewithleadingonbeaststodevourmen,whereishisparentalrelationtothepeople'Chungnîsaid,'WashenotwithoutposteritywhofirstmadewoodenimagestoburywiththedeadSohesaid,becausethatmanmadethesemblancesofmen,andusedthemforthatpurpose:whatshallbethoughtofhimwhocauseshispeopletodieofhunger'ChapterVHowarulermaybesttakesatisfactionforlosseswhichhehassustainedThatbenevolentgovernmentwillraisehimhighabovehisenemiesKingHûiofLiangsaid,'TherewasnotinthenationastrongerStatethanTsin,asyou,venerableSir,knowButsinceitdescendedtome,ontheeastwehavebeendefeatedbyCh'i,andthenmyeldestsonperishedonthewestwehavelostsevenhundredlîofterritorytoCh'inandonthesouthwehavesustaineddisgraceatthehandsofCh'ûIhavebroughtshameonmydepartedpredecessors,andwishontheiraccounttowipeitaway,onceforallWhatcourseistobepursuedtoaccomplishthis'Menciusreplied,'Withaterritorywhichisonlyahundredlîsquare,itispossibletoattaintotheroyaldignity'IfYourMajestywillindeeddispenseabenevolentgovernmenttothepeople,beingsparingintheuseofpunishmentsandfines,andmakingthetaxesandlevieslight,socausingthatthefieldsshallbeplougheddeep,andtheweedingofthembecarefullyattendedto,andthatthestrongbodied,duringtheirdaysofleisure,shallcultivatetheirfilialpiety,fraternalrespectfulness,sincerity,andtruthfulness,servingthereby,athome,theirfathersandelderbrothers,and,abroad,theireldersandsuperiors,youwillthenhaveapeoplewhocanbeemployed,withstickswhichtheyhaveprepared,toopposethestrongmailandsharpweaponsofthetroopsofCh'inandCh'û'TherulersofthoseStatesrobtheirpeopleoftheirtime,sothattheycannotploughandweedtheirfields,inordertosupporttheirparentsTheirparentssufferfromcoldandhungerBrothers,wives,andchildrenareseparatedandscatteredabroad'Thoserulers,asitwere,drivetheirpeopleintopitfalls,ordrownthemYourMajestywillgotopunishthemInsuchacase,whowillopposeyourMajesty'Inaccordancewiththisisthesaying,"Thebenevolenthasnoenemy"IbegyourMajestynottodoubtwhatIsay'ChapterVIDisappointmentofMenciuswiththekingHsiangBywhomthetornnationmaybeunitedunderoneswayMenciuswenttoseethekingHsiangofLiangOncomingoutfromtheinterview,hesaidtosomepersons,'WhenIlookedathimfromadistance,hedidnotappearlikeasovereignwhenIdrewneartohim,IsawnothingvenerableabouthimAbruptlyheaskedme,"Howcanthekingdombesettled"Ireplied,"Itwillbesettledbybeingunitedunderonesway"'"Whocansouniteit"'Ireplied,"Hewhohasnopleasureinkillingmencansouniteit""'Whocangiveittohim"'Ireplied,"AllthepeopleofthenationwillunanimouslygiveittohimDoesyourMajestyunderstandthewayofthegrowinggrainDuringtheseventhandeighthmonths,whendroughtprevails,theplantsbecomedryThenthecloudscollectdenselyintheheavens,theysenddowntorrentsofrain,andthegrainerectsitself,asifbyashootWhenitdoesso,whocankeepitbackNowamongtheshepherdsofmenthroughoutthenation,thereisnotonewhodoesnotfindpleasureinkillingmenIftherewereonewhodidnotfindpleasureinkillingmen,allthepeopleinthenationwouldlooktowardshimwithoutstretchednecksSuchbeingindeedthecase,thepeoplewouldflocktohim,aswaterflowsdownwardswitharush,whichnoonecanrepress"'ChapterVIILovingandprotectingthepeopleisthecharacteristicofroyalgovernment,andthesurepathtotheroyaldignityThekingHsüanofCh'îasked,saying,'MayIbeinformedbyyouofthetransactionsofHwanofCh'î,andWanofTsin'Menciusreplied,'TherewerenoneofthedisciplesofChuncgnîwhospokeabouttheaffairsofHwanandWAn,andthereforetheyhavenotbeentransmittedtotheseafteragesyourservanthasnotheardthemIfyouwillhavemespeak,letitbeaboutroyalgovernment'Thekingsaid,'Whatvirtuemusttherebeinordertoattaintoroyalsway'Menciusanswered,'Theloveandprotectionofthepeoplewiththisthereisnopowerwhichcanpreventarulerfromattainingtoit'Thekingaskedagain,'IssuchanoneasIcompetenttoloveandprotectthepeople'Menciussaid,'Yes''HowdoyouknowthatIamcompetentforthat''IheardthefollowingincidentfromHûHo:"Theking,"saidhe,"wassittingaloftinthehall,whenamanappeared,leadinganoxpastthelowerpartofitThekingsawhim,andasked,WhereistheoxgoingThemanreplied,WearegoingtoconsecrateabellwithitsbloodThekingsaid,LetitgoIcannotbearitsfrightenedappearance,asifitwereaninnocentpersongoingtotheplaceofdeathThemananswered,ShallwethenomittheconsecrationofthebellThekingsaid,HowcanthatbeomittedChangeitforasheep"Idonotknowwhetherthisincidentreallyoccurred'Thekingreplied,'Itdid,'andthenMenciussaid,'TheheartseeninthisissufficienttocarryyoutotheroyalswayThepeopleallsupposedthatyourMajestygrudgedtheanimal,butyourservantknowssurely,thatitwasyourMajesty'snotbeingabletobearthesight,whichmadeyoudoasyoudid'Thekingsaid,'YouarerightAndyettherereallywasanappearanceofwhatthepeoplecondemnedButthoughChîbeasmallandnarrowState,howshouldIgrudgeoneoxIndeeditwasbecauseIcouldnotbearitsfrightenedappearance,asifitwereaninnocentpersongoingtotheplaceofdeath,thatthereforeIchangeditforasheep'Menciuspursued,'LetnotyourMajestydeemitstrangethatthepeopleshouldthinkyouweregrudgingtheanimalWhenyouchangedalargeoneforasmall,howshouldtheyknowthetruereasonIfyoufeltpainedbyitsbeingledwithoutguilttotheplaceofdeath,whatwastheretochoosebetweenanoxandasheepThekinglaughedandsaid,'WhatreallywasmymindinthematterIdidnotgrudgetheexpenseofit,andchangeditforasheep!Therewasreasoninthepeople'ssayingthatIgrudgedit''Thereisnoharmintheirsayingso,'saidMencius'YourconductwasanartificeofbenevolenceYousawtheox,andhadnotseenthesheepSoisthesuperiormanaffectedtowardsanimals,that,havingseenthemalive,hecannotbeartoseethemdiehavingheardtheirdyingcries,hecannotbeartoeattheirfleshThereforehekeepsawayfromhisslaughterhouseandcookroom'Thekingwaspleased,andsaid,'ItissaidintheBookofPoetry,"Themindsofothers,Iamablebyreflectiontomeasure"thisisverified,myMaster,inyourdiscoveryofmymotiveIindeeddidthething,butwhenIturnedmythoughtsinward,andexaminedintoit,IcouldnotdiscovermyownmindWhenyou,Master,spokethosewords,themovementsofcompassionbegantoworkinmymindHowisitthatthishearthasinitwhatisequaltotheroyalsway'Menciusreplied,'SupposeamanweretomakethisstatementtoyourMajesty:"Mystrengthissufficienttoliftthreethousandcatties,butitisnotsufficienttoliftonefeathermyeyesightissharpenoughtoexaminethepointofanautumnhair,butIdonotseeawaggonloadoffaggots"wouldyourMajestyallowwhathesaid''No,'wastheanswer,onwhichMenciusproceeded,'Nowhereiskindnesssufficienttoreachtoanimals,andnobenefitsareextendedfromittothepeopleHowisthisIsanexceptiontobemadehereThetruthis,thefeatherisnotlifted,becausestrengthisnotusedthewaggonloadoffirewoodisnotseen,becausetheeyesightisnotusedandthepeoplearenotlovedandprotected,becausekindnessisnotemployedThereforeyourMajesty'snotexercisingtheroyalsway,isbecauseyoudonotdoit,notbecauseyouarenotabletodoit'Thekingasked,'Howmaythedifferencebetweenthenotdoingathing,andthenotbeingabletodoit,berepresentedMenciusreplied,'InsuchathingastakingtheT'âimountainunderyourarm,andleapingoverthenorthseawithit,ifyousaytopeople"Iamnotabletodoit,"thatisarealcaseofnotbeingableInsuchamatterasbreakingoffabranchfromatreeattheorderofasuperior,ifyousaytopeople"Iamnotabletodoit,"thatisacaseofnotdoingit,itisnotacaseofnotbeingabletodoitThereforeyourMajesty'snotexercisingtheroyalsway,isnotsuchacaseasthatoftakingtheT'âimountainunderyourarm,andleapingoverthenorthseawithitYourMajesty'snotexercisingtheroyalswayisacaselikethatofbreakingoffabranchfromatree'Treatwiththereverenceduetoagetheeldersinyourownfamily,sothattheeldersinthefamiliesofothersshallbesimilarlytreatedtreatwiththekindnessduetoyouththeyounginyourownfamily,sothattheyounginthefamiliesofothersshallbesimilarlytreated:dothis,andthekingdommaybemadetogoroundinyourpalmItissaidintheBookofPoetry,"HisexampleaffectedhiswifeItreachedtohisbrothers,andhisfamilyoftheStatewasgovernedbyit"ThelanguageshowshowkingWansimplytookhiskindlyheart,andexercisedittowardsthosepartiesThereforethecarryingouthiskindnessofheartbyaprincewillsufficefortheloveandprotectionofallwithinthefourseas,andifhedonotcarryitout,hewillnotbeabletoprotecthiswifeandchildrenThewayinwhichtheancientscamegreatlytosurpassothermen,wasnootherbutthis:simplythattheyknewwellhowtocarryout,soastoaffectothers,whattheythemselvesdidNowyourkindnessissufficienttoreachtoanimals,andnobenefitsareextendedfromittoreachthepeopleHowisthisIsanexceptiontobemadehere'Byweighing,weknowwhatthingsarelight,andwhatheavyBymeasuring,weknowwhatthingsarelong,andwhatshortTherelationsofallthingsmaybethusdetermined,anditisofthegreatestimportancetoestimatethemotionsofthemindIbegyourMajestytomeasureit'Youcollectyourequipmentsofwar,endangeryoursoldiersandofficers,andexcitetheresentmentoftheotherprincesdothesethingscauseyoupleasnreinyourmind'Thekingreplied,'NoHowshouldIderivepleasurefromthesethingsMyobjectinthemistoseekforwhatIgreatlydesire'Menciussaid,'MayIhearfromyouwhatitisthatyougreatlydesire'ThekinglaughedanddidnotspeakMenciusresumed,'Areyouledtodesireit,becauseyouhavenotenoughofrichandsweetfoodforyourmouthOrbecauseyouhavenotenoughoflightandwarmclothingforyourbodyOrbecauseyouhavenotenoughofbeautifullycolouredobjectstodelightyoureyesOrbecauseyouhavenotvoicesandtonesenoughtopleaseyourearsOrbecauseyouhavenotenoughofattendantsandfavouritestostandbeforeyouandreceiveyourordersYourMajesty'svariousofficersaresufficienttosupplyyouwiththosethingsHowcanyourMaj

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孟子(英文版)--著名汉学家理雅各译本

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