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首页 家庭、私有制和国家的起源

家庭、私有制和国家的起源.pdf

家庭、私有制和国家的起源

风云
2010-06-04 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《家庭、私有制和国家的起源pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

FredrickEngelsTheOriginoftheFamily,PrivatePropertyandtheStateWritten:MarchMay,FirstPublished:October,inHottingenZurichSource:MarxEngelsSelectedWorks,VolumeThreeTranscriptionMarkup:ZodiacBrianBasgenOnlineVersion:MarxEngelsInternetArchive(marxistsorg),,TableofContents:IntroductionPrefacetotheFirstEditionPrefacetotheFourthEditionStagesofPrehistoricCultureTheFamilyTheConsanguineFamily(TheFirstStageoftheFamily)ThePunaluanFamilyThePairingFamilyTheMonogamousFamilyTheIroquoisGensTheGreekGensTheRiseofPrivatePropertyTheRiseoftheAthenianStateTheGensandtheStateinRomeTheGensAmongCeltsandGermansOriginsoftheFamilyhttp:wwwmarxistsorgarchivemarxworksfamindexhtm(of)::TheFormationoftheStateAmongtheGermansBarbarismandCivilizationAppendix:ARecentlyDiscoveredCaseofGroupMarriageIntroductionAfterMarx'sdeath,inrumagingthroughMarx'smanuscripts,EngelscameuponMarx'sprecisofAncientSocietyabookbyprogressiveUSscholarLewisHenryMorganandpublishedinLondonThepreciswaswrittenbetweenandcontainedMarx'snumerousremarksonMorganaswellaspassagesfromothersourcesAfterreadingtheprecis,EngelssetouttowriteaspecialtreatisewhichhesawasfulfillingMarx'swillWorkingonthebook,heusedMarx'sprecis,andsomeofMorgan'sfactualmaterialandconclusionsHealsomadeuseofmanyanddiversedatagleanedinhisownstudiesofthehistoryofGreece,Rome,OldIreland,andtheAncientGermansItwould,ofcourse,becomeTheOriginoftheFamily,PrivatePropertyandtheStatethefirsteditionofwhichwaspublishedOctoberinHottingenZurichEngelswroteTheOriginoftheFamily,PrivatePropertyandtheStateinjusttwomonthsbeginningtowardtheendofMarchandcompletingitbytheendofMayItfocusesonearlyhumanhistory,followingthedisintegrationoftheprimitivecommunityandtheemergenceofaclasssocietybasedonprivatepropertyEngelslooksintotheoriginandessenceofthestate,andconcludesitisboundtowitherawayleavingaclasslesssocietyEngels:"AlongwiththeclassesthestatewillinevitablyfallSociety,whichwillreorganiseproductiononthebasisofafreeandequalassociationoftheproducers,willputthewholemachineryofstatewhereitwillthenbelong:intothemuseumofantiquity,bythesideofthespinningwheelandthebronzeaxe"In,havinggatherednewmaterialonthehistoryofprimitivesociety,EngelssetaboutpreparinganeweditionofhisbookHestudiedthelatestbooksonthesubjectincludingthoseofRussianhistorianMaximKovalevsky(Thefourthedition,Stuttgart,,wasdedicatedtoKovalevsky)Asaresult,heintroducedanumberofchangesinhisoriginaltextandalsoconsiderableinsertionsIn,Engels'sbookappearedinRussiantranslationItwasthefirstofEngels'sworkspublishedlegallyinRussiaLeninwouldlaterdescribeitas"oneofthefundamentalworksofmodernsocialism"MarxEngelsWorksArchiveOriginsoftheFamilyhttp:wwwmarxistsorgarchivemarxworksfamindexhtm(of)::FredrickEngelsOriginsoftheFamily,PrivateProperty,andtheStatePREFACETOTHEFIRSTEDITIONThefollowingchaptersare,inasense,theexecutionofabequestNolessamanthanKarlMarxhadmadeitoneofhisfuturetaskstopresenttheresultsofMorgan'sresearchesinthelightoftheconclusionsofhisownwithincertainlimits,Imaysayourmaterialisticexaminationofhistory,andthustomakecleartheirfullsignificanceForMorganinhisownwayhaddiscoveredafreshinAmericathematerialisticconceptionofhistorydiscoveredbyMarxfortyyearsago,andinhiscomparisonofbarbarismandcivilizationithadledhim,inthemainpoints,tothesameconclusionsasMarxAndjustastheprofessionaleconomistsinGermanywereforyearsasbusyinplagiarizingCapitalastheywerepersistentinattemptingtokillitbysilence,soMorgan'sAncientSocietyreceivedpreciselythesametreatmentfromthespokesmenof"prehistoric"scienceinEnglandMyworkcanonlyprovideaslightsubstituteforwhatmydepartedfriendnolongerhadthetimetodoButIhavethecriticalnoteswhichhemadetohisextensiveextractsfromMorgan,andasfaraspossibleIreproducethemhereAccordingtothematerialisticconception,thedeterminingfactorinhistoryis,inthefinalinstance,theproductionandreproductionoftheimmediateessentialsoflifeThis,again,isofatwofoldcharacterOntheoneside,theproductionofthemeansofexistence,ofarticlesoffoodandclothing,dwellings,andofthetoolsnecessaryforthatproductionontheotherside,theproductionofhumanbeingsthemselves,thepropagationofthespeciesThesocialorganizationunderwhichthepeopleofaparticularhistoricalepochandaparticularcountryliveisdeterminedbybothkindsofproduction:bythestageofdevelopmentoflaborontheonehandandofthefamilyontheotherThelowerthedevelopmentoflaborandthemorelimitedtheamountofitsproducts,andconsequently,themorelimitedalsothewealthofthesociety,themorethesocialorderisfoundtobedominatedbykinshipgroupsHowever,withinthisstructureofsocietybasedonkinshipgroupstheproductivityoflaborincreasinglydevelops,andwithitprivatepropertyandexchange,differencesofwealth,thepossibilityofutilizingthelaborpowerofothers,andhencethebasisofclassantagonisms:newsocialelements,whichinthecourseofgenerationsstrivetoadapttheoldsocialordertothenewconditions,untilatlasttheirincompatibilitybringsaboutacompleteupheavalInthecollisionofthenewlydevelopedsocialclasses,theoldsocietyfoundedonkinshipgroupsisbrokenupinitsplaceappearsanewsociety,withitscontrolcenteredinthestate,thesubordinateunitsofwhicharenolongerkinshipassociations,butlocalassociationsasocietyinwhichthesystemofthefamilyiscompletelydominatedbythesystemofproperty,andinwhichtherenowfreelydevelopthoseclassantagonismsandclassstrugglesthathavehithertoformedthecontentofallwrittenhistoryItisMorgan'sgreatmeritthathehasdiscoveredandreconstructedinitsmainlinesthisprehistoricbasisofourwrittenhistory,andthatinthekinshipgroupsoftheNorthAmericanIndianshehasfoundthekeytothemostimportantandhithertoinsolubleriddlesofearliestGreek,RomanandGermanhistoryHisbookisnottheworkofadayFornearlyfortyyearshewrestledwithhismaterial,untilhewasOriginsoftheFamilyPreface()http:wwwmarxistsorgarchivemarxworksfamprefacehtm(of)::completelymasterofitButthatalsomakeshisbookoneofthefewepochmakingworksofourtimeInthefollowingpresentation,thereaderwillingeneraleasilydistinguishwhatcomesfromMorganandwhatIhaveaddedInthehistoricalsectionsonGreeceandRomeIhavenotconfinedmyselftoMorgan'sevidence,buthaveaddedwhatwasavailabletomeThesectionsontheCeltsandtheGermansareinthemainmyworkMorganhadtorelyherealmostentirelyonsecondarysources,andforGermanconditionsapartfromTacitusontheworthlessandliberalisticfalsificationsofMrFreemanThetreatmentoftheeconomicaspects,whichinMorgan'sbookwassufficientforhispurposebutquiteinadequateformine,hasbeendoneafreshbymyselfAnd,finally,Iam,ofcourse,responsibleforalltheconclusionsdrawn,insofarasMorganisnotexpresslycitedFootnotesAncientSociety,orResearchesintheLinesofHumanProgressfromSavagery,throughBarbarismtoCivilization,byLewisHMorgan,London,MacmillanCo,ThebookwasprintedinAmericaandispeculiarlydifficulttoobtaininLondonTheauthordiedsomeyearsagoForthepurposesofthisedition,allreferencestoAncientSocietyarefromtheCharlesHKerredition,ChicagoEdPreface()OriginsoftheFamilyOriginsoftheFamilyPreface()http:wwwmarxistsorgarchivemarxworksfamprefacehtm(of)::FredrickEngelsOriginsoftheFamily,PrivateProperty,andtheStatePREFACETOTHEFOURTHEDITIONTheearlierlargeeditionsofthisworkhavebeenoutofprintnowforalmosthalfayear,andforsometimethepublisherhasbeenaskingmetoprepareaneweditionUntilnow,moreurgentworkkeptmefromdoingsoSincetheappearanceofthefirsteditionsevenyearshaveelapsed,duringwhichourknowledgeoftheprimitiveformsofthefamilyhasmadeimportantadvancesTherewas,therefore,plentytodointhewayofimprovementsandadditionsallthemoresoastheproposedstereotypingofthepresenttextwillmakeanyfurtheralterationsimpossibleforsometimeIhaveaccordinglysubmittedthewholetexttoacarefulrevisionandmadeanumberofadditionswhich,Ihope,takedueaccountofthepresentstateofknowledgeIalsogiveinthecourseofthisprefaceashortreviewofthedevelopmentofthehistoryofthefamilyfromBachofentoMorganIdosochieflybecausethechauvinisticallyinclinedEnglishanthropologistsarestillstrivingtheirutmosttokillbysilencetherevolutionwhichMorgan'sdiscoverieshaveeffectedinourconceptionofprimitivehistory,whiletheyappropriatehisresultswithouttheslightestcompunctionElsewherealsotheexampleofEnglandisinsomecasesfollowedonlytoocloselyMyworkhasbeentranslatedintoanumberofotherlanguagesFirst,Italian:L'originedeltafamiglia,deltaproprietaprivataedellostato,versionsrivedutadall'autore,diPasqualeMartignetti,Benevento,Then,Rumanian:Originafamdei,proprietateiprivatesiastatului,traduceredeJoanNadeide,intheYassyperiodicalContemporanul,September,,toMay,Further,Danish:Familjens,PrivatejendommensogStatensOprindelse,Dansk,afForfatterngennemgaaetUdgave,besorgetafGersonTrier,Kobenhavn,AFrenchtranslationbyHenriRave,basedonthepresentGermanedition,isonthepressBeforethebeginningofthe'sixties,onecannotspeakofahistoryofthefamilyInthisfield,thescienceofhistorywasstillcompletelyundertheinfluenceofthefivebooksofMosesThepatriarchalformofthefamily,whichwastheredescribedingreaterdetailthananywhereelse,wasnotonlyassumedwithoutquestiontobetheoldestform,butitwasalsoidentifiedminusitspolygamywiththebourgeoisfamilyoftoday,sothatthefamilyhadreallyexperiencednohistoricaldevelopmentatallatmostitwasadmittedthatinprimitivetimestheremighthavebeenaperiodofsexualpromiscuityItistruethatinadditiontothemonogamousformofthefamily,twootherformswereknowntoexistpolygamyintheOrientandpolyandryinIndiaandTibetbutthesethreeformscouldnotbearrangedinanyhistoricalorderandmerelyappearedsidebysidewithoutanyconnectionThatamongsomepeoplesofancienthistory,aswellasamongsomesavagesstillalivetoday,descentwasreckoned,notfromthefather,butfromthemother,andthatthefemalelinewasthereforeregardedasalonevalidthatamongmanypeoplesofthepresentdayineverycontinentmarriageisforbiddenwithincertainlargegroupswhichatOriginsoftheFamilyPreface()http:wwwmarxistsorgarchivemarxworksfamprefacehtm(of)::thattimehadnotbeencloselystudiedthesefactswereindeedknownandfreshinstancesofthemwerecontinuallybeingcollectedButnobodyknewwhattodowiththem,andevenaslateasEBTylor'sResearchesintotheEarlyHistoryofMankind,etc()theyarelistedasmere"curiouscustoms,"sidebysidewiththeprohibitionamongsomesavagesagainsttouchingburningwoodwithanirontoolandsimilarreligiousmumbojumboThehistoryofthefamilydatesfrom,fromthepublicationofBachofen'sMutterrechtMotherright,matriarchateEdInthisworktheauthoradvancesthefollowingpropositions:()Thatoriginallymanlivedinastateofsexualpromiscuity,todescribewhichBachofenusesthemistakenterm"hetaerism"()thatsuchpromiscuityexcludesanycertaintyofpaternity,andthatdescentcouldthereforebereckonedonlyinthefemaleline,accordingtomotherright,andthatthiswasoriginallythecaseamongstallthepeoplesofantiquity()thatsincewomen,asmothers,weretheonlyparentsoftheyoungergenerationthatwereknownwithcertainty,theyheldapositionofsuchhighrespectandhonorthatitbecamethefoundation,inBachofen'sconception,ofaregularruleofwomen(gynaecocracy)()thatthetransitiontomonogamy,wherethewomanbelongedtoonemanexclusively,involvedaviolationofaprimitivereligiouslaw(thatis,actuallyaviolationofthetraditionalrightoftheothermentothiswoman),andthatinordertoexpiatethisviolationortopurchaseindulgenceforitthewomanhadtosurrenderherselfforalimitedperiodBachofenfindstheproofsoftheseassertionsininnumerablepassagesofancientclassicalliterature,whichhecollectedwithimmenseindustryAccordingtohim,thedevelopmentfrom"hetaerism"tomonogamyandfrommotherrighttofatherrightisaccomplished,particularlyamongtheGreeks,astheconsequenceofanadvanceinreligiousconceptions,introducingintotheoldhierarchyofthegods,representativeoftheoldoutlook,newdivinities,representativeofthenewoutlook,whopushtheformermoreandmoreintothebackgroundThus,accordingtoBachofen,itisnotthedevelopmentofmen'sactualconditionsoflife,butthereligiousreflectionoftheseconditionsinsidetheirheads,whichhasbroughtaboutthehistoricalchangesinthesocialpositionofthesexesinrelationtoeachotherInaccordancewiththisview,BachofeninterpretstheOresteiaofAschylusasthedramaticrepresentationoftheconflictbetweendecliningmotherrightandthenewfatherrightthataroseandtriumphedintheheroicageForthesakeofherparamour,AEgisthus,Clytemnestraslaysherhusband,Agamemnon,onhisreturnfromtheTrojanWarbutOrestes,thesonofAgamemnonandherself,avengeshisfather'smurderbyslayinghismotherForthisactheispursuedbytheFuries,thedemonicguardiansofmotherright,accordingtowhichmatricideisthegravestandmostinexpiablecrimeButApollo,whobythevoiceofhisoraclehadsummonedOrestestothisdeed,andAthena,whoiscalledupontogivejudgmentthetwodeitieswhohererepresentthenewpatriarchalordertakeOrestesundertheirprotectionAthenahearsbothsidesThewholematterofthedisputeisbrieflysummedupinthedebatewhichnowtakesplacebetweenOrestesandtheFuriesOrestescontendsthatClytemnestrahascommittedadoublecrimeshehasslainherhusbandandthusshehasalsoslainhisfatherWhyshouldtheFuriespursuehim,andnother,seeingthatsheisbyfarthemoreguiltyTheanswerisstriking:"Shewasnotkinbybloodtothemansheslew"Themurderofamannotrelatedbyblood,evenifhebethehusbandofthemurderess,isexpiableandOriginsoftheFamilyPreface()http:wwwmarxistsorgarchivemarxworksfamprefacehtm(of)::doesnotconcerntheFuriestheirofficeissolelytopunishmurderbetweenbloodrelations,andofsuchmurdersthemostgraveandthemostinexpiable,accordingtomotherright,ismatricideApollonowcomesforwardinOrestes'defenseAthenacallsupontheAreopagitestheAthenianjurorstovotethevotesforOrestes'condemnationandforhisacquittalareequalAthena,aspresident,giveshervoteforOrestesandacquitshimFatherrighthastriumphedovermotherright,the"godsofyoungdescent,"astheFuriesthemselvescallthem,havetriumphedovertheFuriesthelatterthenfinallyallowthemselvestobepersuadedtotakeupanewofficeintheserviceoftheneworderThisnewbutundoubtedlycorrectinterpretationoftheOresteiaisoneofthebestandfinestpassagesinthewholebook,butitprovesatthesametimethatBachofenbelievesatleastasmuchasAEschylusdidintheFuries,Apollo,andAthenafor,atbottom,hebelievesthattheoverthrowofmotherrightbyfatherrightwasamiraclewroughtduringtheGreekheroicagebythesedivinitiesThatsuchaconception,whichmakesreligiontheleverofworldhistory,mustfinallyendinpuremysticism,isclearItisthereforeatoughandbynomeansalwaysagratefultasktoplowthroughBachofen'ssolidtomeButallthatdoesnotlessenhisimportanceasapioneerHewasthefirsttoreplacethevaguephrasesaboutsomeunknownprimitivestateofsexualpromiscuitybyproofsofthefollowingfacts:thatabundanttracessurviveinoldclassicalliteratureofastatepriortomonogamyamongtheGreeksandAsiaticswhennotonlydidamanhavesexualintercoursewithseveralwomen,butawomanwithseveralmen,withoutoffendingagainstmoralitythatthiscustomdidnotdisappearwithoutleavingitstracesinthelimitedsurrenderwhichwasthepricewomenhadtopayfortherighttomonogamythatthereforedescentcouldoriginallybereckonedonlyinthefemaleline,frommothertomotherthatfarintotheperiodofmonogamy,withitscertainoratleastacknowledgedpaternity,thefemalelinewasstillalonerecognizedandthattheoriginalpositionofthemothers,astheonlycertainparentsoftheirchildren,securedforthem,andthusfortheirwholesex,ahighersocialpositionthanwomenhaveeverenjoyedsinceBachofendidnotputthesestatementsasclearlyasthis,forhewashinderedbyhismysticismButheprovedthemandinthatwasarealrevolutionBachofen'smassivevolumewaswritteninGerman,thelanguageofthenationwhichatthattimeinteresteditselflessthananyotherintheprehistoryofthemodernfamilyConsequently,heremainedunknownHisfirstsuccessorinthesamefieldappearedin,withouteverhavingheardofBachofenThissuccessorwasJFMcLennan,theexactoppositeofhispredecessorInsteadofamysticofgenius,wehavethedryasdustjuristinsteadoftheexuberantimaginationofapoet,theplausibleargumentsofabarristerdefendinghisbriefMcLennanfindsamongmanysavage,barbarian,andevencivilizedpeoplesofancientandmoderntimesaformofmarriageinwhichthebridegroom,aloneorwithhisfriends,mustcarryoffthebridefromherrelationsbyashowofforceThiscustommustbethesurvivalofanearliercustomwhenthemenofonetribedidinfactcarryofftheirwivesbyforcefromothertribesWhatwastheoriginofthis"marriagebycapture"Solongasmencouldfindenoughwomenintheirowntribe,therewasnoreasonwhateverforitWefind,however,nolessfrequentlythatamongundevelopedpeoplestherearecertaingroups(whichiniwerestilloftenidentifiedwiththetribesthemselves)withinwhichmarriageisforbidden,sothatthemenareobligedtotaketheirwives,andwomentheirhusbands,fromoutsidethegroupwhereasamongotherpeoplesthecustomisthatthemenofonegroupmusttaketheirwivesonlyfromwithintheirowngroupMcLennancallsthefirstpeoples"exogamous"andthesecond"endogamous"hethenpromptlyproceedstoconstructarigidoppositionbetweenexogamousanden

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