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首页 墨西哥征服史

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墨西哥征服史

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2010-05-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《墨西哥征服史pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Page,HistoryoftheConquestofMexico,TheWilliamHicklingPrescottTHEHISTORYOFTHECONQUESTOFMEXICObyWilliamHicklingPrescottBOOKI:INTRODUCTIONViewoftheAztecCivilisationChapterIANCIENTMEXICOITSCLIMATEANDITSPRODUCTSITSPRIMITIVERACESAZTECEMPIRETHEcountryoftheancientMexicans,orAztecsastheywerecalled,formedbutaverysmallpartoftheextensiveterritoriescomprehendedinthemodernrepublicofMexicoItsboundariescannotbedefinedwithcertaintyTheyweremuchenlargedinthelatterdaysoftheempire,whentheymaybeconsideredasreachingfromabouttheeighteenthdegreenorthtothetwentyfirstontheAtlanticandfromthefourteenthtothenineteenth,includingaverynarrowstrip,onthePacificInitsgreatestbreadth,itcouldnotexceedfivedegreesandahalf,dwindling,asitapproacheditssoutheasternlimits,tolessthantwoItcovered,probably,lessthansixteenthousandsquareleaguesYet,suchistheremarkableformationofthiscountry,thatthoughnotmorethantwiceaslargeasNewEngland,itpresentedeveryvarietyofclimate,andwascapableofyieldingnearlyeveryfruitfoundbetweentheequatorandtheArcticcircleAllalongtheAtlanticthecountryisborderedbyabroadtract,calledthetierracaliente,orhotregion,whichhastheusualhightemperatureofequinoctiallandsParchedandsandyplainsareintermingledwithothersofexuberantfertility,almostimperviousfromthicketsofaromaticshrubsandwildflowers,inthemidstofwhichtoweruptreesofthatmagnificentgrowthwhichisfoundonlywithinthetropicsInthiswildernessofsweetslurksthefatalmalaria,engendered,probably,bythedecompositionofrankvegetablesubstancesinahotandhumidsoilTheseasonofthebiliousfever,vomito,asitiscalled,whichscourgesthesecoasts,continuesfromthespringtotheautumnalequinox,whenitischeckedbythecoldwindsthatdescendfromHudson'sBayThesewindsinthewinterseasonfrequentlyfreshenintotempests,and,sweepingdowntheAtlanticcoastandthewindingGulfofMexico,burstwiththefuryofahurricaneonitsunprotectedshores,andontheneighbouringWestIndiaislandsSucharethemightyspellswithwhichNaturehassurroundedthislandofenchantment,asiftoguardthegoldentreasureslockedupwithinitsbosomThegeniusandenterpriseofmanhaveprovedmorepotentthanherspellsAfterpassingsometwentyleaguesacrossthisburningregion,thetravellerfindshimselfrisingintoapureratmosphereHislimbsrecovertheirelasticityHebreathesmorefreely,forhissensesarenotnowoppressedbythesultryheatsandintoxicatingperfumesofthevalleyTheaspectofnature,too,haschanged,andhiseyenolongerrevelsamongthegayvarietyofcolourswithwhichwwwTaleBookscomPage,HistoryoftheConquestofMexico,TheWilliamHicklingPrescottthelandscapewaspaintedthereThevanilla,theindigo,andthefloweringcocoagrovesdisappearasheadvancesThesugarcaneandtheglossyleavedbananastillaccompanyhimand,whenhehasascendedaboutfourthousandfeet,heseesintheunchangingverdure,andtherichfoliageoftheliquidambertree,thathehasreachedtheheightwherecloudsandmistssettle,intheirpassagefromtheMexicanGulfThisistheregionofperpetualhumiditybuthewelcomesitwithpleasure,asannouncinghisescapefromtheinfluenceofthedeadlyvomitoHehasenteredthetierratemplada,ortemperateregion,whosecharacterresemblesthatofthetemperatezoneoftheglobeThefeaturesofthescenerybecomegrand,andeventerribleHisroadsweepsalongthebaseofmightymountains,oncegleamingwithvolcanicfires,andstillresplendentintheirmantlesofsnow,whichserveasbeaconstothemariner,formanyaleagueatseaAllaroundhebeholdstracesoftheirancientcombustion,ashisroadpassesalongvasttractsoflava,bristlingintheinnumerablefantasticformsintowhichthefierytorrenthasbeenthrownbytheobstaclesinitscareerPerhaps,atthesamemoment,ashecastshiseyedownsomesteepslope,oralmostunfathomableravine,onthemarginoftheroad,heseestheirdepthsglowingwiththerichbloomsandenamelledvegetationofthetropicsSucharethesingularcontrastspresented,atthesametime,tothesenses,inthispicturesqueregion!Stillpressingupwards,thetravellermountsintootherclimatesfavourabletootherkindsofcultivationTheyellowmaize,orIndiancorn,asweusuallycallit,hascontinuedtofollowhimupfromthelowestlevelbuthenowfirstseesfieldsofwheat,andtheotherEuropeangrains,broughtintothecountrybytheconquerorsMingledwiththemheviewstheplantationsofthealoeormaguey(agaveAmericana),appliedtosuchvariousandimportantusesbytheAztecsTheoaksnowacquireasturdiergrowth,andthedarkforestsofpineannouncethathehasenteredthetierrafria,orcoldregion,thethirdandlastofthegreatnaturalterracesintowhichthecountryisdividedWhenhehasclimbedtotheheightofbetweensevenandeightthousandfeet,thewearytravellersetshisfootonthesummitoftheCordilleraoftheAndes,thecolossalrangethat,aftertraversingSouthAmericaandtheIsthmusofDarien,spreadsout,asitentersMexico,intothatvastsheetoftablelandwhichmaintainsanelevationofmorethansixthousandfeet,forthedistanceofnearlytwohundredleagues,untilitgraduallydeclinesinthehigherlatitudesofthenorthAcrossthismountainrampartachainofvolcanichillsstretches,inawesterlydirection,ofstillmorestupendousdimensions,forming,indeed,someofthehighestlandontheglobeTheirpeaks,enteringthelimitsofperpetualsnow,diffuseagratefulcoolnessovertheelevatedplateausbelowfortheselast,thoughtermed"cold,"enjoyaclimate,themeantemperatureofwhichisnotlowerthanthatofthecentralpartsofItalyTheairisexceedinglydrythesoil,thoughnaturallygood,israrelyclothedwwwTaleBookscomPage,HistoryoftheConquestofMexico,TheWilliamHicklingPrescottwiththeluxuriantvegetationofthelowerregionsItfrequently,indeed,hasaparchedandbarrenaspect,owingpartlytothegreaterevaporationwhichtakesplaceontheseloftyplains,throughthediminishedpressureoftheatmosphereandpartly,nodoubt,tothewantoftreestoshelterthesoilfromthefierceinfluenceofthesummersunInthetimeoftheAztecs,thetablelandwasthicklycoveredwithlarch,oak,cypress,andotherforesttrees,theextraordinarydimensionsofsomeofwhich,remainingtothepresentday,showthatthecurseofbarrennessinlatertimesischargeablemoreonmanthanonnatureIndeedtheearlySpaniardsmadeasindiscriminatewarontheforestsasdidourPuritanancestors,thoughwithmuchlessreasonAfteronceconqueringthecountry,theyhadnolurkingambushtofearfromthesubmissivesemicivilisedIndian,andwerenot,likeourforefathers,obligedtokeepwatchandwardforacenturyThisspoliationoftheground,however,issaidtohavebeenpleasingtotheirimaginations,asitremindedthemoftheplainsoftheirownCastile,thetablelandofEuropewherethenakednessofthelandscapeformstheburdenofeverytraveller'slament,whovisitsthatcountryMidwayacrossthecontinent,somewhatnearerthePacificthantheAtlanticocean,atanelevationofnearlyseventhousandfivehundredfeet,isthecelebratedValleyofMexicoItisofanovalform,aboutsixtysevenleaguesincircumference,andisencompassedbyatoweringrampartofporphyriticrock,whichnatureseemstohaveprovided,thoughineffectually,toprotectitfrominvasionThesoil,oncecarpetedwithabeautifulverdureandthicklysprinkledwithstatelytrees,isoftenbare,and,inmanyplaces,whitewiththeincrustationofsalts,causedbythedrainingofthewatersFivelakesarespreadovertheValley,occupyingonetenthofitssurfaceOntheoppositebordersofthelargestofthesebasins,muchshrunkinitsdimensionssincethedaysoftheAztecs,stoodthecitiesofMexicoandTezcuco,thecapitalsofthetwomostpotentandflourishingstatesofAnahuac,whosehistory,withthatofthemysteriousracesthatprecededtheminthecountry,exhibitssomeofthenearestapproachestocivilisationtobemetwithancientlyontheNorthAmericancontinentOftheseracesthemostconspicuousweretheToltecsAdvancingfromanortherlydirection,butfromwhatregionisuncertain,theyenteredtheterritoryofAnahuac,probablybeforethecloseoftheseventhcenturyOfcourse,littlecanbegleaned,withcertainty,respectingapeoplewhosewrittenrecordshaveperished,andwhoareknowntousonlythroughthetraditionarylegendsofthenationsthatsucceededthemBythegeneralagreementofthese,however,theToltecswerewellinstructedinagriculture,andmanyofthemostusefulmechanicartswereniceworkersofmetalsinventedthecomplexarrangementoftimeadoptedbytheAztecsand,inshort,werethetruefountainsofthecivilisationwhichdistinguishedthispartofthecontinentinlatertimesTheyestablishedtheircapitalatTula,northoftheMexicanValley,andtheremainsofextensivewwwTaleBookscomPage,HistoryoftheConquestofMexico,TheWilliamHicklingPrescottbuildingsweretobediscernedthereatthetimeoftheConquestThenobleruinsofreligiousandotheredifices,stilltobeseeninvariouspartsofNewSpain,arereferredtothispeople,whosename,Toltec,haspassedintoasynonymforarchitectTheirshadowyhistoryremindsusofthoseprimitiveraces,whoprecededtheancientEgyptiansinthemarchofcivilisationfragmentsofwhosemonuments,astheyareseenatthisday,incorporatedwiththebuildingsoftheEgyptiansthemselves,givetotheselattertheappearanceofalmostmodernconstructionsAfteraperiodoffourcenturies,theToltecs,whohadextendedtheirswayovertheremotestbordersofAnahuac,havingbeengreatlyreduced,itissaid,byfamine,pestilence,andunsuccessfulwars,disappearedfromthelandassilentlyandmysteriouslyastheyhadentereditAfewofthemstilllingeredbehind,butmuchthegreaternumber,probably,spreadovertheregionofCentralAmericaandtheneighbouringislesandthetravellernowspeculatesonthemajesticruinsofMitlaandPalenqueaspossiblytheworkofthisextraordinarypeopleAfterthelapseofanotherhundredyears,anumerousandrudetribe,calledtheChichemecs,enteredthedesertedcountryfromtheregionsofthefarNorthwestTheywerespeedilyfollowedbyotherraces,ofhighercivilisation,perhapsofthesamefamilywiththeToltecs,whoselanguagetheyappeartohavespokenThemostnotedoftheseweretheAztecs,orMexicans,andtheAcolhuansThelatter,betterknowninlatertimesbythenameofTezcucans,fromtheircapital,Tezcuco,ontheeasternborderoftheMexicanlake,werepeculiarlyfitted,bytheircomparativelymildreligionandmanners,forreceivingthetinctureofcivilisationwhichcouldbederivedfromthefewToltecsthatstillremainedinthecountryThis,intheirturn,theycommunicatedtothebarbarousChichemecs,alargeportionofwhombecameamalgamatedwiththenewsettlersasonenationAvailingthemselvesofthestrengthderived,notonlyfromtheincreaseofnumbers,butfromtheirownsuperiorrefinement,theAcolhuansgraduallystretchedtheirempireovertherudertribesinthenorthwhiletheircapitalwasfilledwithanumerouspopulation,busilyemployedinmanyofthemoreusefulandevenelegantartsofacivilisedcommunityInthispalmystate,theyweresuddenlyassaultedbyawarlikeneighbour,theTepanecs,theirownkindred,andinhabitantsofthesamevalleyasthemselvesTheirprovinceswereoverrun,theirarmiesbeaten,theirkingassassinated,andtheflourishingcityofTezcucobecametheprizeofthevictorFromthisabjectconditiontheuncommonabilitiesoftheyoungprinceNezahualcoyotl,therightfulheirtothecrown,backedbytheefficientaidofhisMexicanallies,atlengthredeemedthestate,andopenedtoitanewcareerofprosperity,evenmorebrilliantthantheformerTheMexicans,withwhomourhistoryisprincipallyconcerned,camealso,aswehaveseen,fromtheremoteregionsofthenorth,thewwwTaleBookscomPage,HistoryoftheConquestofMexico,TheWilliamHicklingPrescottpopuloushiveofnationsintheNewWorld,asithasbeenintheOldTheyarrivedonthebordersofAnahuactowardsthebeginningofthethirteenthcentury,sometimeaftertheoccupationofthelandbythekindredracesForalongtimetheydidnotestablishthemselvesinanypermanentresidencebutcontinuedshiftingtheirquarterstodifferentpartsoftheMexicanValley,enduringallthecasualtiesandhardshipsofamigratorylifeOnoneoccasion,theywereenslavedbyamorepowerfultribebuttheirferocitysoonmadethemformidabletotheirmastersAfteraseriesofwanderingsandadventures,whichneednotshrinkfromcomparisonwiththemostextravagantlegendsoftheheroicagesofantiquity,theyatlengthhaltedonthesouthwesternbordersoftheprincipallake,intheyearTheytherebeheld,perchedonthestemofapricklypear,whichshotoutfromthecreviceofarockthatwaswashedbythewaves,aroyaleagleofextraordinarysizeandbeauty,withaserpentinhistalons,andhisbroadwingsopentotherisingsunTheyhailedtheauspiciousomen,announcedbyanoracleasindicatingthesiteoftheirfuturecity,andlaiditsfoundationsbysinkingpilesintotheshallowsforthelowmarsheswerehalfburiedunderwaterOnthesetheyerectedtheirlightfabricsofreedsandrushesandsoughtaprecarioussubsistencefromfishing,andfromthewildfowlwhichfrequentedthewaters,aswellasfromthecultivationofsuchsimplevegetablesastheycouldraiseontheirfloatinggardensTheplacewascalledTenochtitlan,thoughonlyknowntoEuropeansbyitsothernameofMexico,derivedfromtheirwargod,MexitliThelegendofitsfoundationisstillfurthercommemoratedbythedeviceoftheeagleandthecactus,whichformthearmsofthemodernMexicanrepublicSuchwerethehumblebeginningsoftheVeniceoftheWesternWorldTheforlornconditionofthenewsettlerswasmadestillworsebydomesticfeudsApartofthecitizenssecededfromthemainbody,andformedaseparatecommunityontheneighbouringmarshesThusdivided,itwaslongbeforetheycouldaspiretotheacquisitionofterritoryonthemainlandTheygraduallyincreased,however,innumbers,andstrengthenedthemselvesyetmorebyvariousimprovementsintheirpolityandmilitarydiscipline,whiletheyestablishedareputationforcourageaswellascrueltyinwar,whichmadetheirnameterriblethroughouttheValleyIntheearlypartofthefifteenthcentury,nearlyahundredyearsfromthefoundationofthecity,aneventtookplacewhichcreatedanentirerevolutioninthecircumstances,and,tosomeextent,inthecharacteroftheAztecsThiswasthesubversionoftheTezcucanmonarchybytheTepanecs,alreadynoticedWhentheoppressiveconductofthevictorshadatlengtharousedaspiritofresistance,itsprince,Nezahualcoyotl,succeeded,afterincredibleperilsandescapes,inmusteringsuchaforce,as,withtheaidoftheMexicans,placedhimonalevelwithhisenemiesIntwosuccessivebattlestheseweredefeatedwithgreatslaughter,theirchiefslain,andtheirterritory,byoneofthosesuddenreverseswhichcharacterisethewarsofpettywwwTaleBookscomPage,HistoryoftheConquestofMexico,TheWilliamHicklingPrescottstates,passedintothehandsoftheconquerorsItwasawardedtoMexico,inreturnforitsimportantservicesThenwasformedthatremarkableleague,which,indeed,hasnoparallelinhistoryItwasagreedbetweenthestatesofMexico,Tezcuco,andtheneighbouringlittlekingdomofTlacopan,thattheyshouldmutuallysupporteachotherintheirwars,offensiveanddefensive,andthat,inthedistributionofthespoil,onefifthshouldbeassignedtoTlacopan,andtheremainderbedivided,inwhatproportionsisuncertain,betweentheotherpowersTheTezcucanwritersclaimanequalsharefortheirnationwiththeAztecsButthisdoesnotseemtobewarrantedbytheimmenseincreaseofterritorysubsequentlyappropriatedbythelatterAndwemayaccountforanyadvantageconcededtothembythetreaty,onthesupposition,thathoweverinferiortheymayhavebeenoriginally,theywere,atthetimeofmakingit,inamoreprosperousconditionthantheirallies,brokenanddispiritedbylongoppressionWhatismoreextraordinarythanthetreatyitself,however,isthefidelitywithwhichitwasmaintainedDuringacenturyofuninterruptedwarfarethatensued,noinstanceoccurredwherethepartiesquarrelledoverthedivisionofthespoil,whichsooftenmakesshipwreckofsimilarconfederaciesamongcivilisedstatesThealliesforsometimefoundsufficientoccupationfortheirarmsintheirownvalleybuttheysoonoverleapeditsrockyramparts,andbythemiddleofthefifteenthcentury,underthefirstMontezuma,hadspreaddownthesidesofthetablelandtothebordersoftheGulfofMexicoTenochtitlan,theAzteccapital,gaveevidenceofthepublicprosperityItsfrailtenementsweresupplantedbysolidstructuresofstoneandlimeItspopulationrapidlyincreasedItsoldfeudswerehealedThecitizenswhohadsecededwereagainbroughtunderacommongovernmentwiththebody,andthequartertheyoccupiedwaspermanentlyconnectedwiththeparentcitythedimensionsofwhich,coveringthesameground,weremuchlargerthanthoseofthemoderncapitalFortunately,thethronewasfilledbyasuccessionofableprinces,whoknewhowtoprofitbytheirenlargedresourcesandbythemartialenthusiasmofthenationYearafteryearsawthemreturn,loadedwiththespoilsofconqueredcities,andwiththrongsofdevotedcaptives,totheircapitalNostatewasablelongtoresisttheaccumulatedstrengthoftheconfederatesAtthebeginningofthesixteenthcentury,justbeforethearrivaloftheSpaniard,theAztecdominionreachedacrossthecontinentfromtheAtlantictothePacificand,undertheboldandbloodyAhuitzotl,itsarmshadbeencarriedfaroverthelimitsalreadynoticedasdefiningitspermanentterritory,intothefarthestcornersofGuatemalaandNicaraguaThisextentofempire,howeverlimitedincomparisonwiththatofmanyotherstates,istrulywonderful,consideringitastheacquisitionofapeoplewhosewholepopulationandresourceshadsorecentlybeencomprisedwithinthewallsoftheirownpettycityandconsidering,moreover,thattheconqueredterritorywasthicklywwwTaleBookscomPage,HistoryoftheConquestofMexico,TheWilliamHicklingPrescottsettledbyvariousraces,bredtoarmsliketheMexicans,andlittleinferiortotheminsocialorganisationThehistoryoftheAztecssuggestssomestrongpointsofresemblancetothatoftheancientRomans,notonlyintheirmilitarysuccesses,butinthepolicywhichledtothemBOOKI|CHAPTERIIChapterIISUCCESSIONTOTHECROWNAZTECNOBILITYJUDICIALSYSTEMLAWSANDREVENUESMILITARYINSTITUTIONSTH

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