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首页 简单的逻辑学 - 清晰思考及简单逻辑入门导论

简单的逻辑学 - 清晰思考及简单逻辑入门导论

简单的逻辑学 - 清晰思考及简单逻辑入门导论

宅男向前走
2010-05-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《简单的逻辑学 - 清晰思考及简单逻辑入门导论pdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

BEINGLOGICALBeingLogicalAGUIDEtoGOODTHINKINGDQMclnernyRANDOMHOUSEi^MMlNEWYORKCopyright©byDQMclnernyAllrightsreservedunderInternationalandPanAmericanCopyrightConventionsPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyRandomHouse,animprintofTheRandomHousePublishingGroup,adivisionofRandomHouse,Inc,NewYork,andsimultaneouslyinCanadabyRandomHouseofCanadaLimited,TorontoRANDOMHOUSEandcolophonareregisteredtrademarksofRandomHouse,IncLIBRARYOFCONGRESSCATALOGINGINPUBLICATIONDATAMclnerny,DQBeinglogical:aguidetogoodthinkingDQMclnernypcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesISBNLogicReasoningThoughtandthinkingITitleBCMdcTextdesignbyMaryAWirthPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperRandomHousewebsiteaddress:wwwatrandomcomFirstEditionINMEMORIAMAUSTINCLIFFORDMCINERNYandVIVIANGERTRUDERUSHMCINERNYWemaytakeFancyforacompanion,butmustfollowReasonasourguideDRSAMUELJOHNSONPrefaceLOGICISABOUTclearandeffectivethinkingItisascienceandanartThisbookisintendedtointroducereaderstotherudimentsofthescienceaswellastothebasicskillsassociatedwiththeartWeallknowpeoplewhoareverybrightbutwhodonotalwaysshinewhenitcomestobeinglogicalTheyhavetheabilitytothinklogicallythatis,clearlyandeffectivelybutthatabilitydoesnothabituallymanifestitselfThelikelihoodisthatithasneverbeenproperlydeveloped,pointingtoadeficiencyintheireducationIndeed,logicistheverybackboneofatrueeducation,andyetitisseldomtaughtassuchinAmericanschoolsTomymind,logicisthemissingpieceoftheAmericaneducationalsystem,thesubjectthatinformseveryothersubjectfromEnglishtohistorytoscienceandmathSomereaders,especiallyifthisbookrepresentstheirfirstseriousencounterwithlogic,mightreactskittishlytowhatappearstobeanoverlytechnicalvocabulary,ortotheXXPrefacesymbolicnotationthatlogicmakesfrequentuseofDon'tbescaredoffbyinitialimpressionsIhavemadeaconcertedefforttopresentwhatevertechnicalmattersIdealwithhere(whichinanyeventarenotallthattrying)inassimpleanduncomplicatedawayaspossibleAtthesametime,however,IhavetriedtoavoidlapsingintothesimplisticAdumbeddownlogicisnotlogicatallOtherreadersmightbeputoffbywhattheyperceivetobeanemphasisupontheobviousIdo,infact,placeagooddealofstressontheobviousinthisbook,andthatisquitedeliberateInlogic,asinlife,itistheobviousthatmostoftenbearsemphasizing,becauseitsoeasilyescapesournoticeIfIhavebelaboredcertainpoints,andregularlyoptedfortheexplicitovertheimplicit,itisbecauseIadheretothetimehonoredpedagogicprinciplethatitisalwayssafesttoassumeaslittleaspossibleLogic,takenasawhole,isawide,deep,andwonderfullyvariedfield,andIwouldbepleasedifmyreaders,asaresultoftheirencounterwiththislittlebook,weremovedtobecomemorefamiliarwithitHowever,myaimhereisverymodestThisisneitheratreatiseinlogicaltheorynoratextbookinlogicthoughIwouldnotbedisappointedtolearnthatitprovesusefulintheclassroomMygoverningpurposewastowriteapracticalguidebook,presentingthebasicprinciplesoflogicinawaythatisaccessibletothosewhoareencounteringthesubjectforthefirsttimeBeingLogicalseekstoproducepractitioners,nottheoreticianspeopleforwhomknowingtheprinciplesoflogicisintheserviceofbeinglogicalPrefacexiInthehopeofbetterservingthepracticalendsofthebook,Ihaveadoptedasomewhatinformalstyle,oftenaddressingthereaderdirectly,and,inthemannerofatutororcoach,sometimesassumingadistinctivelydirectivetoneItreatlogicinfivestages,representedbythefivepartsofthebook,eachsuccessivestagebuildingupontheonethatprecededitPartOneispreparatory,anddealswiththeproperframeofmindthatmustbeestablishediflogicalthinkingistotakeplaceatallInPartsTwoandThree,theheartofthebook,wepassintotherealmoflogicproperPartTwoexplainsthefoundationaltruthsthatgovernlogicalthinking,whilePartThreefocusesonargumentthepublicexpressionoflogicalthinkingInPartFour,IdiscussattitudesandframesofmindthatpromoteillogicalthinkingFinally,PartFiveconcentratesontheparticularsofillogicalthinkingthefallaciesAfinalword,ofadmirationandappreciation,forasparklinglittlebookcalledTheElementsofStyle,byWilliamStrunk,Jr,andEBWhite,whichwastheinspirationforBeingLogicalWhatIhavemanagedtoaccomplishhereisnomatchfortheuniqueachievementofStrunkandWhite,butIhopethatBeingLogicalmighttosomedegreesucceedindoingforthecauseofgoodthinkingwhatTheElementsofStylehasdoneforthatofgoodwritingMyearnestwishisthatthisbookmaysucceedinconvincingitsreadersoftheintrinsicimportanceoflogicandthatitengenderinthemanappreciationforthepricelesssatisfactionwhichinevitablyaccompaniesthehappystateofbeinglogicalContentsPrefaceixPARTONEPREPARINGTHEMINDFORLOGICBeAttentiveGettheFactsStraightIdeasandtheObjectsofIdeasBeMindfuloftheOriginsofIdeasMatchIdeastoFactsMatchWordstoIdeasEffectiveCommunicationAvoidVagueandAmbiguousLanguageAvoidEvasiveLanguageTruthPARTTWOTHEBASICPRINCIPLESOFLOGICFirstPrinciplesRealGrayAreas,ManufacturedGrayAreasThere'sanExplanationforEverything,EventuallyXXVContentsDonVStopShortintheSearchforCausesDistinguishAmongCausesDefineYourTermsTheCategoricalStatementGeneralizingPARTTHREEARGUMENT:THELANGUAGEOFLOGICFoundinganArgumentTheMovefromUniversaltoParticularTheMovefromParticulartoUniversalPredicationNegativeStatementsMakingComparisonsComparisonandArgumentSoundArgumentConditionalArgumentSyllogisticArgument^r»MofPremises^£RelevancyofPremisesJStatementsofFact,StatementsofValueArgumentativeFormConclusionsMustReflectQuantityofPremisesConclusionsMustReflectQualityofPremisesInductiveArgumentAssessingArgumentPConstructinganArgumentPARTFOURTHESOURCESOFILLOGICALTHINKINGSkepticismEvasiveAgnosticismJCynicismandNaiveOptimism<NarrowMindednessContentsxvEmotionandArgumentTheReasonforReasoningArgumentationIsNotQuarrelingTheLimitsofSincerityCommonSensePARTFIVETHEPRINCIPALFORMSOFILLOGICALTHINKINGDenyingtheAntecedentAffirmingtheConsequentTheUndistributedMiddleTermEquivocationBeggingtheQuestionFalseAssumptionsTheStrawManFallacy<£f'gandAbusingTraditionPTwoWrongsDonVJtfi^aRight#^DemocraticFallacy^<AdHominemFallacy<SubstitutingfortheForceofReasonTheUsesandAbusesofExpertiseTheQuantifyingofQualityConsiderMoreThantheSourceStoppingShortatAnalysisReductionismMisclassificationPTheRedHerring<#LaughterasDiversionaryTactic>tfrstfjDiversionaryTacticZilInabilitytoDisproveDoesNotProveTheFalseDilemma*PostHocErgoPropterHocXVContentsSpecialPleadingTheFallacyofExpediencyAvoidingConclusionsSimplisticReasoningAfterwordPARTONEPreparingtheMindforLogicBeinglogicalpresupposesourhavingasensitivitytolanguageandaknackforitseffectiveuse,forlogicandlanguageareinseparableItalsopresupposesourhavingahealthyrespectforthefirmfactualnessoftheworldinwhichwelive,forlogicisaboutrealityFinally,beinglogicalpresupposesalivelyawarenessofhowthefactsthatareourideasrelatetothefactsthataretheobjectsintheworld,forlogicisabouttruthInthisfirstpartofthebookIwilldiscussthoseattitudes,pointsofview,andpracticalprocedureswhoseadoptionpreparesthemindforasuccessfulengagementwithlogicBeAttentiveManymistakesinreasoningareexplainedbythefactthatwearenotpayingsufficientattentiontothesituationinwhichwefindourselvesThisisespeciallytrueinfamiliarsituationsThatveryfamiliaritycausesustomakecarelessjudgmentsaboutfactsrightbeforeoureyesWemisreadasituationbecauseweareskimmingit,whenwhatweshouldbedoingisperusingitOften,weassumethatafamiliarsituationwillbebutarepeatperformanceofasimilarsituationwe'veexperiencedbeforeBut,inthestrictestsense,therearenorepeatperformancesEverysituationisunique,andwemustbealerttoitsuniquenessThephrase"topayattention"istellingItremindsusBeingLogicalthatattentioncostssomethingAttentiondemandsanactive,energeticresponsetoeverysituation,tothepersons,places,andthingsthatmakeupthesituationItisimpossibletobetrulyattentiveandpassiveatthesametimeDon'tjustlook,seeDon'tjusthear,listenTrainyourselftofocusondetailsThelittlethingsarenottobeignored,foritisjustthelittlethingsthatleadustothebigthingsGettheFactsStraightAfactissomethingmadeordoneIthasclearobjectivestatusItissomethingwerespondtoashavinganindependentstatusallitsownItisnagginglypersistent,demandsrecognition,andcanbenastyifignoredTherearetwobasictypesofobjectivefacts,thingsandeventsA"thing"isanactuallyexistingentity,animal,vegetable,ormineralTheWhiteHouseisanexampleofthefirsttypeoffact,andtheassassinationofAbrahamLincolnofthesecondThefirsttypeismorebasicthanthesecondbecauseeventsaremadeupofthingsoroftheactionsofthingsAstatedinneristobeheldattheWhiteHouseSuchaneventcouldnottakeplacewereitnotfortheexistence,firstandforemost,ofthefactthatistheWhiteHouse,andcountlessotherfactsaswellInordertoestablishthefactualnessofanevent,anynumberofconcretethingsneedtobeappealedtoTodeterminetherealityofafactthatisathing,allyouneeddoispayitavisitIfitactuallyexistsitmustbesomewhere,and,assumingitsplacetobeaccessibletoyou,youcanverifyitsfactualnessbydirectobservationTakethePreparingtheMindforLogiccaseoftheWhiteHouseToascertainitsbeingafact,ratherthanpurelyimaginary,youcantraveltoWashington,DC,andthereseetheWhiteHousewithyourowneyesThatisthemostdirectandreliablewaytoestablishitsfactualnessButyoucouldalsorelyonindirectevidence:Forexample,bytakingthewordofatrustworthyeyewitnessthattheWhiteHouseisindeedinWashington,DCOryoucoulddecidethatphotographicevidenceissufficienttoestablishfactualnessButwhataboutaneventlikeLincoln'sassassinationWesaythatisafactWhatisthejustificationforthatclaimItisaneventthatisoveranddonewith,andtherearenolivingwitnessestotheeventwhomwemightconsultObviously,wedidnotourselveswitnesstheevent,sodirectevidenceisoutofthequestionInthiscaseourapproachwillbetoacquaintourselveswithavarietyofthingsthatserveasindirectevidenceoftheeventForexample,wewouldconsultofficialdocuments(policereports,thedeathcertificate,etc),newspaperaccounts,photographs,memoirs,diaries,anditemsintheCongressionalRecord,allofwhicharefactsintheirownrightandwhoseonlyreasonableexplanationisthefactualnessofLincoln'sassassinationOnthebasisofthefactualnessofthesethings,weestablishthefactualnessoftheeventAndwethusestablishahistoricalfactFactscanalsobethoughtofasobjectiveorsubjectiveBoththingsandeventsareobjectivefactsTheyexistinthepublicdomainandareinprincipleaccessibletoallAsubjectivefactisonethatislimitedtothesubjectexperiencingitAheadachewouldbeanexampleofasubjectivefactIfIBeingLogicalamtheoneexperiencingtheheadache,thenIhavedirectevidenceofitsfactualnessButifitisyouexperiencingtheheadache,IcanestablishitsfactualnessonlyindirectlyImusttakeyourwordthatyouhaveaheadacheEstablishingtherealityofsubjectivefactsdependsentirelyonthetrustworthinessofthosewhoclaimtobeexperiencingthemTosumuphowwegetthefactsstraight:Ifagivenfactisanactuallyexistingthingtowhichwehaveaccess,thenthesurestwaytoestablishitsfactualnessistoputourselvesinitspresenceWethenhavedirectevidenceofitIfwecannotestablishfactualnessbydirectevidence,wemustrigorouslytesttheauthenticityandreliabilityofwhateverindirectevidencewerelyuponsothat,onthebasisofthatevidence,wecanconfidentlyestablishthefactualnessofthethingThereareonlyaverylimitednumberofsignificantpubliceventswhichwecanexperiencedirectlyThismeansthat,inalmosteverycase,wemustrelyonindirectevidenceInestablishingthefactualnessofeventsbyindirectevidence,wemustexercisethesamekindofcarewedoinestablishingthefactualnessof"things"byindirectevidenceItallcomesdowntotheauthenticityandreliabilityofoursourcesAsubjectivefact,tothesubjectexperiencingit,isselfevidentundernormalcircumstanceHowever,throughsuchmechanismsasselfdelusionorrationalization,apersoncouldfailtogetstraightafactevenabouthimselfBecausetheestablishmentofthefactualnessofasubjectivefactpertainingtoanotherpersondependsentirelyonthetrustworthinessofthatperson,youmustfirst,insofarPreparingtheMindforLogicasitispossible,establishthetrustworthinessofthepersoninquestionIdeasandtheObjectsofIdeasEveryideainthemindisultimatelytraceabletoathing,orthings,actuallyexistinginaworldthatisindependentofandapartfromthemindAnideaisthesubjectiveevocationofanobjectivefactClearideas,then,areideasthatfaithfullyreflecttheobjectiveorderfromwhichtheyderiveUnclearideas,conversely,arethosethatgiveusadistortedrepresentationoftheobjectiveworldThoughthecontrolwehaveoverourideasisnotabsolute,itisrealThismeansthatwearenothelplessinthefaceofunclearideasToensurethatourideasareclear,wemustvigilantlyattendtotherelationshipbetweenanygivenideaanditsobjectIfitisastrainedrelationship,iftheconnectionbetweentheideaanditsobjectistenuous,thenwearedealingwithanunclearideaItiswrongtosupposethatbecauseweknowthingsintheworldonlythroughourideas,itisonlyourideaswhichwereallyknowOurideasarethemeans,nottheends,ofourknowledgeTheylinkustotheworldIftheyareclearideas,thelinksarestrongThemostefficientwaytoclarifyourideasistolookthroughthemtotheobjectstheyrepresent,BeMindfuloftheOriginsofIdeasWealltendtofavorourownideas,whichisnaturalenoughTheyare,afterall,inasenseourveryownbabies,theconBeingLogicalceptionsofourmindsButconceptionispossibleinthethinkingsubjectonlybecauseofthesubject'sencounterwiththeworldOurideasowetheirexistence,ultimately,tothingsoutsideandindependentofthemind,towhichtheyrefer:objectivefactsOurideasareclear,andourunderstandingofthemisclear,onlytotheextentthatwekeepconstanttabsonthethingstowhichtheyreferThefocusmustalwaysbeontheoriginatingsourcesofourideasintheobjectiveworldWedonotreallyunderstandourownideasifwesupposethemtobeselfgenerating,thatis,notowingtheirexistencetoextramentalrealitiesThemorewefocusonourideasinawaythatsystematicallyignorestheirobjectiveorigins,themoreunreliablethoseideasbecomeThehealthybondsthatbindtogetherthesubjectiveandobjectiveordersareputundergreatstrain,andifwepushtheprocesstoofar,thebondsmaybreakThenwehaveeffectivelydivorcedourselvesfromtheobjectiveworldInsteadofseeingtheworldasitis,weseeaprojectedworld,onethatisnotpresentedtoourmindsbutwhichistheproductofourmindsWhenwespeakof"establishingafact,"wedonotrefertoestablishingtheexistenceofanideainthemindTheideainthemind,aswehaveseen,isasubjectivefact,butthekindoffactweareconcernedwithestablishingisanobjectivefactTodoso,wemustlookbeyondourideastotheirsourcesintheobjectiveworldIestablishafactifIsuccessfullyascertainthatthereis,foraparticularideaIhaveinmind,acorrespondingrealityexternaltomymindForinstance,Ihaveaparticularideainmymind,whichIlabelPreparingtheMindforLogic"cat"Correspondingtothatideaareactuallyexistingthingsintheextramentalworldcalled"cats"ButIcouldhaveanotherideainmymind,whichIlabel"centaur"butforwhichnocorrespondingfactcanbefoundintheextramentalworldForallthat,theideaof"centaur"isasubjectivefact,sinceitreallyexistsasanideainmymindMatchIdeastoFactsTherearethreebasiccomponentstohumanknowledge:first,anobjectivefact(eg,acat)second,theideaofacatthird,thewordweapplytotheidea,allowingustocommunicateittoothers(eg,inEnglish,"cat")ItallstartswiththecatIftherewerenorealcats,therewouldbenoideaaboutthem,andtherewouldbenowordfortheideaIhavebeenstressingthegeneralpointthatideas(subjectiverealities)areclearorsoundtotheextentthattheyreflectobjectiverealitiesAndwehavesaidthatallideashavetheirultimatesourceintheobjectiveworldNowwemustlookmorecloselyathowideasrelatetotheobjectiveworld,fortherelationisnotalwayssimpleNext,wemustaddressthequestion:HowarebadideaspossibleSometimesthereisadirectcorrelationbetweenanideaandanobjectivefactExample:theideaofcatWewillcallthisa"simple"ideaCorrespondingtomyideaofcatisasingle,particularsortofentityintheextramentalworldthatfurry,purringcreaturewhichinEnglishwenameacatIndealingwithsimpleideasitisrelativelyeasytotesttheirreliability,becauseweneedonlyrefertoonethingMyideaofcatisclearandsoundifitreferstoanactualcatBeingLogicalWewillcall"complex"ideasthoseforwh

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简单的逻辑学 - 清晰思考及简单逻辑入门导论

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