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首页 Peter K. Bol_ Neo-Confucianism in History

Peter K. Bol_ Neo-Confucianism in History.pdf

Peter K. Bol_ Neo-Confucianism i…

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简介:本文档为《Peter K. Bol_ Neo-Confucianism in Historypdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含NeoConfucianisminHistoryHarvardEastAsianMonographsPublicationofthisbookwas符等。

NeoConfucianisminHistoryHarvardEastAsianMonographsPublicationofthisbookwaspartiallyunderwrittenbytheMrandMrsStephenCMKingPublishingandCommunicationsFund,establishedbyStephenCMKingtofurtherthecauseofinternationalunderstandingandcooperation,especiallybetweenChinaandtheUnitedStates,byenhancingcrossculturaleducationandtheexchangeofideasacrossnationalboundariesthroughpublicationsoftheHarvardUniversityAsiaCenterNeoConucianisminHistoryPeterIZBolPublishedbytheHarvardUniversityAsiaCenterDistributedbyIfarvarclUniversityPressCambridge(Massachusetts)andLondonbythePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegePrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaTheHarvardUniversityAsiaCenterpublishesamonographseriesand,incoordinationwiththeFairbankCenterforChineseStudies,theKoreaInstitute,theReischauerInstituteofJapaneseStudies,andotherfacultiesandinstitutes,administersresearchprojectsdesignedtofurtherscholarlyunderstandingofChina,Japan,Vietnam,Korea,andotherAsiancountriesTheCenteralsosponsorsprojectsaddressingmultidisciplinaryandregionalissuesinAsiaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBol,PeterKeesNeoConfucianisminhistoryPeterKBolpcm(HarvardEastAsianmonographs)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(akpaper)INeoConfucianismITitleBNB'IIdcIndexbytheauthorPrintedonacidfreepaperLastfigurebelowindicatesyearofthisprintingIIIFrontispiece:XuQian(),knownasMasterBaiyun,establishedtheBahuaAcademyinthemountainsofDongyangCounty(Zhejiang)toteachZhuXi'slearningTodaytheacademyisareligioussiteandXuisworshippedasagodwhowill"respondtoanysupplication"AbovethealtarhangtwolateMingplaques,reading"LeadingProgenitoroftheLearningoftheWay"and"HisHonorXuBaiyun"Photographbytheauthor,AprilforKeesandMargaretBolandSatomiMatsumuraandChristopherBolAcknowledgmentsIdeasforthisbookweredevelopedfirstaspartofapaperfortheACLSConferenceontheSongYuanMingTransition,publishedas"NeoConfucianismandLocalSociety,TwelfthtoSixteenthCentury,"inTheSongYuanMingTransitioninChineseHistory,editedbyPaulJakovSmithandRichardvonGlahn(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityAsiaCenter,),Earlyversionsofsomeoftheargumentappearedin"NeoConfucianismandChineseHistory,"ChineseHistoryChiigokushigaku():andin"Shierzhishiliushijidewenhua,shehuijilixue"ri!!:agXt,ltJ!,Zhongguowenzheyaf!Jiutongxun'fiiiXtlflffti!'Mt():Iamgratefultotheparticipantsintheseveralcolloquiaatwhichpartsofthisbookwerepresented:asaSpeciallyInvitedVisitingScholaroftheInstituteofChineseLiteratureandPhilosophyatAcademiaSinicainspring,theTompkinsLecturesofDepartmentofEastAsianLanguagesandCulturesoftheUniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeleyinspring,theNewHistoryLecturesattheInstituteofHistoryandPhilologyatAcademiaSinicainspring,theDepartmentofHistoryattheChineseUniversityofHongKonginspring,theHistoriansatHarvardfacultyseminarintheDepartmentofHistoryatHarvardinspring,theTangJunyiLectureattheUniversityofMichiganinspring,theHarvardChinaHumanities•••AcknowledgmentsvllSeminarinfall,andatvariousmeetingsoftheColumbiaSeminarinNeoConfucianStudiesIthanktheChiangChingkuoFoundationforaSeniorScholar'sGrantduringthespringofMyparticularthankstoChuPingtzu,KimYoungmin,andOngChangWoeiforreadingandcommentingonthemanuscriptTheirdissertations,andthoseofChenWenyi,HildeDeWeerdt,PeterDitmanson,RobertFoster,AnneGerritsen,MinByounghee,DouglasSkonicki,SongJaeyoon,andCurieViraghavecontributedtomythinkingaboutNeoConfucianismDetailedreportsfromRobertHymesandananonymousreaderwereinvaluableinrevisingthemanuscriptIhavebeenveryfortunatetobeinadepartmentofexceptionalcolleaguesandstudents,whoovertheyearshavebroadenedmyviewofChinaanditshistoryButIhavealsobenefitedfromhavingmorewonderfulteachersthananyonehasarighttoexpectIthankVirginiaPZimmermanforgettingmetothinkabouttheworldbeyondtheUnitedStates,HenryNDrewryforshowingmehowinterestingthestudyofhistorycouldbe,AisinGioroYiiyiinfordemonstratinghiswayoftakingtheFourBooksandFiveClassicsseriously,andWillardJPetersonforguidingmeinstudyingChina'sintellectualtraditionsaspartofitshistoryPKB•ContentsIntroduction:NeoConfucianisminHistoryITheNewWorldoftheEleventhCentury:andComparedForeignRelationsNorthandSouthCommerceandUrbanizationSocialChangeSearchingforaNewFoundationintheEleventhCenturyLiteratiOpinionandtheCivilSeroiceExaminationsTheClassicsintheExaminationsExaminationLearningasWenxueTheAncientStyle(Guwen)inWritingandtheAttackonExaminationLearningTakingAparttheTangModelofAntiquityTheTangModel:HeavenandEarth,Antiquity,andEmpireChallengingtheTangModelSomeSignsofCommonGroundLearningandtheSelfReconceivedTheNewPolicies:LegislatingaSystemIxContentsTheNeoConfuciansNeoConfuciansandConfuciansAnExternalReadingiftheInternalHistoryNeoConfucianisminSouthandNorthinYuanNeoConfucianismandtheImperialStateDuringtheMingNeoConfucianismasPhilosophy,NeoConfucianismasCultureApproachesandQuestionsAppendixPoliticsIITheQuestionifAutocraryTheRhetoncifEmpireIIEarlyImperialModelsforRulersandMinistersQuestioningImperialAuthorityinNorthernSongNeoConfucianismandPoliticsChallengingtheImperialClaimtoMoralAuthorityTheNeoConfucianRulerTheNeoCotifucianMissionandtheLiteratiAFactionandaFellowshipLearningasPoliticsAVisionoftheSocialOrderTheLaterImperialStateandNeoCotifucianism:TheSignificanceiftheEarlYMingLearningINeoCotifucianLearningasTheoryandPractice'HeavenandEarth}}}Civilization}andtheHumanCondition"HeavenandEarth"asqiandIiAntiquityandSagesTheHumanConditionLearningastheSolution}LearningastheProblemLearningHowtoLearnandThinkingforOneselfTheRevivalifDiscoursingonLearningDuringtheMingContentsBeliefTheProblemifudgmentandMotivationUnityasBeliefTheUnityoftheCosmosTheUnityofSocietyinAntiquityTheUnityofDoctrineTheUnityoftheMindII•XlSocietyCreatingaChoiceinLiteratiLearninginSongandYuanANewCurriculumTheAcademiesAnAlternativefortheFamilYinSongandYuanLiteratiVoluntarismandCommunityinSongandYuanFromVoluntarismtoLegislation:TheMingFoundingTheGreatRevivalandtheReturnifVoluntarismAfterword:China'sHistoryandNeoConfucianismNotesBibliograpfyCharacterListIndexReferenceMatterNeoConfucianisminHistoryINTRODUCTIONNeoConfucianisminHistoryWheredoesNeoConfucianismasaschoolofthoughtbuiltontheteachingsofeleventhcenturymoralphilosophersandasanelitesocialmovementthattookshapeinthetwelfthcenturyfitintoourstoryofChina'shistoryInthestudyofChina'sintellectualtraditions,therehasalwaysbeenaspecialplaceforthethinkersandtextsofearlyChina,theagewhenpeoplebegantoargueovertheideasthatshouldguiderulersandindividualsThereligiousmovementsthattookmatureformduringthemedievalera,especiallyBuddhism,continuetogarnerattentionforthenewwaysofthinkingtheyintroducedandthenewkindsofcommunitiestheycreatedModernChinesethoughtdealswiththepressingquestionofwhatvaluesshouldguideChinainaglobalcontextNeoConfucianismiscaughtinthemiddleItisakindofConfucianism,butonethatclaimstoberediscoveringwhatConfuciusandMenciusreallymeantandthatoftenspeaksthroughitsinterpretationsoftheancienttextsZhuXi,itsConfucius,wrotetoomuchratherthantoolittle,andheassumedreadersalreadywellschooledinConfuciusandtheClassicsSomemodernscholarsholdthatitgavetraditionalethicsanewphilosophicalfoundationbycooptingbasicconceptsfromBuddhismandDaoism,althoughthefirstNeoConfuciansthoughttheyweremakingBuddhismandDaoismunnecessaryItwastheorthodoxyofthelateimperialsystemandforthatreasonwascondemnedbythoseseekingtocreateamodernnationstateAndthemodernphilosopherswhohaveINeoConfucianisminHistorybecometheprimaryinterpretersofNeoConfuciandoctrinearecaughtupwithquestionsoffindinganintellectualandmoralbasisforaChinainaglobalcontextNeoConfucianismis,moreover,noteasytoteach,orsomycolleaguestellmeitistooabstruse,tooesotericItisasdifficulttograspasmedievalChristianitywouldbeinaChinesecollegeclassroomNeoConfucianswerenotgreatlyinterestedinhistoryorliterature,excepttotheextenttheycouldputtheminserviceoftheirownprogramofmoralcultivation,andfewhistoriansorliteraryscholarshavewantedtospendmuchtimeonNeoConfucianismSomewouldsaythereisgoodreasonforthis,thatNeoConfucianismwaslittlemorethantheideologicaljustificationfortheorderofthingsduringthelastthousandyearsofimperialChina'shistory:asocietystagnatingundertheexploitationofanevermoreautocraticstateandarulingclassthathadturnedinonitself,ignoringeverythingthatwashappeninginsocietyandtheworldaroundthemIdisagreewitheverysinglephraseintheprecedingsentence,butitisstill,Ifear,awayofsummingupthefinalmillenniumof"premodern"or"traditional"ChinaAnditisnotentirelywithoutabasisinhistoricalfact,itsdefenderswillremindyou,pointingtothepervasivenessoftheChinesecivilserviceexaminationsystemTheexaminationsystemextendedtoeverycountyschoolfromtheeleventhcenturyon,andineveryoneofthoseschoolsstudentspracticedwritingessaysbasedontheNeoConfucianFourBooksAlthough,ofcourse,theydidnotdosountiltwohundredyearsafterNeoConfucianphilosophyfirstappeared,andonlythen,in,attheorderoftherulingMongols,whowerenotChinesebuthadincorporatedallofChinaintotheirempirefortyyearsbeforeAllthishasmadeitdifficult,orperhapssimplylesspressing,tothinkaboutNeoConfucianisminhistoryThislackofattentionisallthemoreironicgivenhowmuchNeoConfucianswrotemanyimportantphilosophicalwritingshavebeentranslatedintoEnglishandhowmuchwecanknowaboutthetimesandplacesinwhichtheylivedNeoConfucianismwasspreadingatpreciselythemomentwhencommercialprintingwasbecomingcommon,andmanycountieshadaprinterortwo,thusensuringthatmoretextswereputintocirculationandmoresurvivedcommunitieswereinvestinginlocalschoolsandacademies,providingintellectualswithcareersandstudentswithplacesNeoConfucianisminHistorytogatherlocalhistoricalrecordswerebeingcompiled,givinglocalpeopleawaytorecordtheiraccomplishmentsandprovidinguswithdetailsunavailableforearlierperiodsandprivatewealthwasincreasing,makingitpossibleforNeoConfucianstoraisethemoneynecessarytoprinttheirbooks,buildtheirshrinesandacademies,organizecharitableactivities,andgainfamelocallywhentheycouldnotnationallyInotherwords,wecanknowmoreabouttheNeoConfuciansthemselvesandtheworldinwhichtheylivedthanwecanaboutintellectualsofanyearlierperiodButhowdidNeoConfuciansfitintotheworldinwhichtheylivedandwhatdifferencedidtheymakeThesearenotquestionsthateitherthephilosophicallyorthehistoricallymindedhaveaskedinmuchdepth,althoughfordifferentreasons:thephilosophicallymindedrightlydenythatsocialinterestsexplainphilosophicalideas,andthehistoricallymindedrightlydoubtthatideologydeterminesthecourseofhistoryIfindmyselfcaughtinthemiddle,betweenthosewhothinkthatweareallNeoConfucianbyourverynatureashumanbeingsandthosewhothinkNeoConfucianphilosophyissolipsisticdrivelIseeNeoConfucianismasamovementthatfromthetwelfthcenturyintotheseventeenthprofoundlyinfluencedthewaypeopleunderstoodtheworldaroundthemandmadechoicesabouthowtorespondtothatworld,andthusIseeitasofthegreatesthistoricalconsequenceInlookingatNeoConfuciansintheirtimeswemustbehistorical,andinunderstandingtheirideasweneedtobephilosophicalIhopethatdoingsowillspeaktothestudyofbothphilosophyandhistoryinChina'spastThisisagoodmomenttobeconsideringtheconnectionsbetweenNeoConfucianismandhistory,becausesomuchhasbeendonetoreviseourunderstandingofthehistoryofChina'smiddleperiodandofthesouth,whereNeoConfucianismfirstbecameestablishedamongthesocialandpoliticaleliteAmoreinterestingstoryhasbeenemerging,makingitfareasiertoseehowNeoConfucianswerespeakingtotheirtimesDuringthepasttwodecades,therehasalsobeenanexplosionofinterestinNeoConfucianisminChina,somethingthatmaybemorethanapassingacademicinterestForNeoConfucianismbegan,inthelateeleventhcentury,asoneofseveralattemptstofindanalternativetotheorthodoxyofthatday,whichheldthatthehumanconditioncouldbeimprovedonlyifthestateworkedtotransformsocial,economic,andculturallifeNeoCotifucianisminHistoryThisisaninterpretive,attimespolemical,inquiryintotheNeoConfucianengagementwiththeliteratiasthesocialandpoliticalelite,withlocalsociety,andwiththeimperialstateduringtheSong,Yuan,andMingdynasties,fromtheeleventhcenturyintotheseventeenthItisalsoareflectiononwhatmakesthisperioddifferentfromprecedingperiodsandthekindsofquestionsthatwemightaskinthinkingaboutitIhavetriedtoofferaninquiryintoNeoConfucians'engagementwiththeworld,ratherthanthekindofhistoryofNeoConfucianphilosophythathasalreadybeenwritteninmanylanguagesInwriting,IhavetriedtorememberthatwestillneedbooksforthosewhodonotalreadyhavethekindofknowledgeofChinesehistoryandthoughtthattheNeoConfuciansassumed,althoughattimesthistendstolengthenmyexplanationsIhopethatthosewhostudyChinesethoughtwillfindthehistoricalcontextworthreexamining,andthatthosewhostudyChina'shistorywillfindNeoConfuciansandtheirideasworththinkingaboutIbeginwithanaccountofthemanydifferencesbetweentheworldofthegreatTangempireattheheightofitspowerinthemideighthcenturyandthesmaller,butnolessambitiousstateofSongintheeleventhThedifferencesallthatwaslostandallthatwasnewsetthestageforareexaminationoftheideologicalgroundsoftheimperialstateandtheroleofliteratiinitThisreexamination,thesubjectofChapter,resultedinwhatweknowasthe"NewPolicies,"theconcertedefforttocreategovernmentinstitutionsthatwouldtransformsocietybyincreasingwealthandspreadingeducationononehandandstrengthenthestateontheotherTheNeoConfucians,whosehistoryissurveyedinChapter,beganonthemargins,asmoralthinkerswhoopposedtheNewPoliciesInthelatetwelfthandthirteenthcenturies,despitethecourt'sattempttosuppressthem,theysucceededinpersuadinglargenumbersofliteratitosharetheirvisionWhatthatvisionentailedisthesubjectofthefinalfourchaptersChapterarguesthattheNeoConfucians'viewofpoliticsshiftedmoralauthorityawayfromthepoliticalsystemandtowardtheindividual,withanewconceptionoftheselfasgroundsformoralityinsocietyandpoliticsThebasisforthisshiftwasatheoryoflearning,setoutinChapter,whichexplainshow,throughthepracticeofNeoConfucianteachingsandthestudyofNeoConfuciantexts,onecanrealizeone'sinnatepotentialtobeamoralactorinsociety,apotentialthateveryhumanbeingpossessesNeoConfucianisminHistoryequallyasoneofthelivingthingsinthelargerorganismofthenaturalworldMuchofNeoConfucianwritingwasdevotedtotheoriesoflearning,andthepracticeofteachingandlecturing,sometimestoaudiencesnumberinginthetensofthousands,wasknownas"discoursingonlearning"Learningwasmeant,ultimately,toenabletheindividualconsistentlyandspontaneouslytodothemorallycorrectthingwhateverthecircumstancesBut,asChapterargues,theideathatachoicecouldbecalledmorallyrightrestedonabeliefessentialtotheNeoConfucianideaofmorality:abeliefinunityandcoherenceasthefundamentalnatureofallthingsintheuniverseIneffect,theidealizedunityofempirewasinternalizedandmadethefoundationforindividualmoralityandsocialactionThefinalchapterarguesthat,asNeoConfuciansputtheirlearningintopracticeinlocalsociety,theycreatedanewsocialideal,inwhichsocietyatthelocallevelwouldbeled,withthebackingofthestate,bythevoluntaryeffortsofliteratiThespreadofthisethicinthesouthduringthethirteenthandfourteenthcenturiesculminated,duringtheearlyMingdynasty,inthestate'spromotionofNeoConfucianlearningandmandatingthecreationofselfsupervisinglocalcommunitiesthroughoutthecountryWhentheselegislatedinstitutionsbegantofail,NeoConfucianlearningregaineditssocialmission,andwiththatcameaseconderaoflocalactivismandliterativoluntarismEvenafterNeoConfucianismlostitsholdonthecenterofintellectualcultureintheseventeenthcentury,itcontinuedasthefoundationoflocaleducationandthelateimperialordercontinuedtoacceptlocaleliteleadershipasnecessarytothestate'sownexistenceItisthecontentionofthisbookthatNeoConfucianismmadethatorderpossibleTheNewWorldoftheEleventhCentury:andIComparedThefirstNeoConfuciansappearedinthelatterhalfoftheeleventhcenturyduringaperiodofintenseideologicaldebate,whenmanyclaimedthattheyhadfoundtheonewayoflearning,thewayoflearningthatallcouldshareandthatcouldguidealltheirchoicesTheNeoConfuciansdifferedintheparticularstheyweremoreconcernedthanmostwithpersonalethicsbuttheysharedtheircontemporaries'generalbeliefthatthereoughttobearealbasisforknowledge,meaning,andactionThesearchforcertaintyintheeleventhcenturywasbothaproductofthebeliefthatnow,atlast,ithadbecomepossible

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