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Homi Bhabha_Nation and Narration.pdf

Homi Bhabha_Nation and Narratio…

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简介:本文档为《Homi Bhabha_Nation and Narrationpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含FirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedi符等。

FirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYReprinted,,,(twice),RoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThecollectionasawholeRoutledgeTheindividualcontributionstherespectiveauthorsTypesetinBernbyMayhewTypesetting,BristolPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyClaysLtd,StIvespicAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongressISBNContentsNotesoncontributorsviiAcknowledgementsixIntroduction:narratingthenationHomiKBhabhaWhatisanationErnestRenanTribeswithinnations:theancientGermansandthehistoryofmodernFranceMartinThornThenationallongingforformTimothyBrennanIrresistibleromance:thefoundationalfictionsofLatinAmericaDon'sSommerDenaturalizingculturalnationalisms:multiculturalreadingsof'Australia'SnejaGunewPostalpoliticsandtheinstitutionofthenationGeoffreyBenningtonLiteratureNationalism'sotherThecaseforrevisionSimonDuringSirJoshuaReynoldsandtheEnglishnessofEnglishartJohnBarrettDestinymademanifest:thestylesofWhitman'spoetryDavidSimpsonBreakfastinAmericaUncleTom'sculturalhistoriesRachelBowlbyviContentsTelescopicphilanthropy:professionalismandresponsibilityinBleakHouseBruceRobbinsEuropeanpedigreesAfricancontagions:nationality,narrative,andcommunalityinTutuola,Achebe,andReedJamesSneadEnglishreadingFrancisMulhemTheislandandtheaeroplane:thecaseofVirginiaWoolfGillianBeerDissemiNation:time,narrative,andthemarginsofthemodernnationHomiKBhabhaIndexNotesoncontributorsJohnBarrellisProfessorofEnglishintheSchoolofEnglishandAmericanStudiesattheUniversityofSussexGillianBeerisProfessorofLiteratureandNarrativeattheUniversityofCambridgeandaFellowofGirtonCollege,CambridgeHerpublicationsincludeDarwin'sPlots(),GeorgeEliot(),andArguingwiththePast()GeoffreyBenningtonisSeniorLecturerinFrenchatSussexUniversityHeisauthorofSententiousnessandtheNovel(),Lyotard:WritingtheEvent(),andofforthcomingbooksinFrenchonRousseauandDerridaHomiBhabhaisalecturerinEnglishattheUniversityofSussexHiscollectionofessays,TheLocationofCulture,istobepublishedbyRoutledgeRachelBowlbyteachesEnglishatSussexUniversitySheisauthorofJustLooking()onfemininity,consumerism,andthenovel,andVirginiaWoolf:FeministDestinations()TimothyBrennancurrentlyteachesEnglishandComparativeLiteratureatPurdueUniversityandisavisitingprofessorattheUniversityofMichiganHispublicationsincludeSalmanRushdieandtheThirdWorld()SimonDuringlecturesinEnglishattheUniversityofMelbourneSnejaGunewteachesinLiteraryStudiesatDeakinUniversity,Victoria,AustraliaShehaseditedDisplacements:MigrantStorytellers,Displacements:MulticulturalStorytellers,andcoeditedBeyondtheEcho:MulticulturalWomen'sWritingandTellingWays:AustralianWomen'sExperimentalWritingFrancisMulhernteachesatMiddlesexPolytechnicinnorthLondonHispublicationsincludeTheMomentof'Scrutiny'viiiNotesoncontributorsBruceRobbinsmaintainsaprofessionalaffiliationwiththeEnglishDepartmentofRutgersUniversityHeistheeditorofIntellectuals:Aesthetics,Politics,Academics(forthcoming)DavidSimpsonisProfessorofEnglishattheUniversityofColorado,BoulderHismostrecentbooksareThePoliticsofAmericanEnglish,()andWordsworth'sHistoricalImagination:ThePoetryofDisplacement()JamesSneadwas,untilhisdeathinthespringof,AssociateProfessorofEnglishandComparativeLiteratureattheUniversityofPittsburghHispublicationsincludeFiguresofDivision:WilliamFaulkner'sMajorNovels()DorisSommer,ProfessorofRomanceLanguagesandWomen'sandGenderStudiesatAmherstCollege,Massachusetts,haspublishedonavarietyofLatinAmericanwriters,andonWaltWhitmanSheisalsotheauthorofOneMasterforAnother:PopulismasPatriarchalRhetoricinDominicanNovels()MartinThornisatranslatorandfreelancewriter,workingatpresentonRepublics,NationsandTribes:TheAncientCityandtheModemWorld,astudytobepublishedbyVersoAcknowledgementsMygreatestdebtistomycontributorswhoseresponsetoanunusualideawasbothcreativeandcollaborativeThereareothers,lessvisible,whohavemadethisbookpossibleThelivelyparticipationofstudentsatSussexUniversityinmyNovelandNationseminarconvincedmeoftheneedforavolumeofthisnatureMycolleaguesatSussexprovidethekindofsupportandstimulationthatisnoteasilyfoundWithouttheenthusiasmandadviceofJanicePriceatRoutledgethisprojectwouldneverhavegotoffthegroundOnherownturfshecombinesthebookmaker'sracyinstinctforwhatmightbetruebutuntried,witharigorousdeterminationtogetitrightMyeditorJaneArmstrongwasalivetothemanypossibilitiesofthisvolumeandheropinionhasbeeninvaluableSarahPearsallandGiulianaBaraccodealtwiththeproductionprocessinawaythatwaspatientandforgivingAboveallIshouldliketothankJamesDonald,StephenFeuchtwangandRobertYoungforhavinglistenedandtalkedandreadwithsuchcommitmentthattheyturnedmytaskintoacommonpursuitJamesandRobertareeditors'editorsandtheyhavegenerouslycontributedto'cleaningup'themanuscriptJacquelineBhabha'sworkonimmigrationandrefugeelawemphasizedthehistoricalperspectiveofthediasporicandthehomelessonthenation'sstoryAmongstthoseofuswhohavesharedinmakingthisbook,JamieSneadhasaspecialplacethatmustnowremainemptyAtshortnotice,andinadversecircumstances,heagreedtowritehisessayHesentittome,shortlybeforehediedofalongillnessthathehadkeptprivateItwasthenthatIappreciatedhistruegenerosityWhilehonouringmydeadline,JamiewasdesperatelyinvolvedinhisowntragicraceagainsttimeHomiKBhabhaIntroduction:narratingthenationHomiKBhabhaNations,likenarratives,losetheiroriginsinthemythsoftimeandonlyfullyrealizetheirhorizonsinthemind'seyeSuchanimageofthenationornarrationmightseemimpossiblyromanticandexcessivelymetaphorical,butitisfromthosetraditionsofpoliticalthoughtandliterarylanguagethatthenationemergesasapowerfulhistoricalideainthewestAnideawhoseculturalcompulsionliesintheimpossibleunityofthenationasasymbolicforceThisisnottodenytheattemptbynationalistdiscoursespersistentlytoproducetheideaofthenationasacontinuousnarrativeofnationalprogress,thenarcissismofselfgeneration,theprimevalpresentoftheVolkNorhavesuchpoliticalideasbeendefinitivelysupersededbythosenewrealitiesofinternationalism,multinationalism,oreven'latecapitalism',onceweacknowledgethattherhetoricoftheseglobaltermsismostoftenunderwritteninthatgrimproseofpowerthateachnationcanwieldwithinitsownsphereofinfluenceWhatIwanttoemphasizeinthatlargeandliminalimageofthenationwithwhichIbeganisaparticularambivalencethathauntstheideaofthenation,thelanguageofthosewhowriteofitandthelivesoFthosewholiveitItisanambivalencethatemergesfromagrowingawarenessthat,despitethecertaintywithwhichhistoriansspeakofthe'origins'ofnationasasignofthe'modernity'ofsociety,theculturaltemporalityofthenationinscribesamuchmoretransitionalsocialrealityBenedictAnderson,whoseImaginedCommunitiessignificantlypavedthewayforthisbook,expressesthenation'sambivalentemergencewithgreatclarity:ThecenturyoftheEnlightenment,ofrationalistsecularism,broughtwithititsownmoderndarknessFewthingswere(are)suitedtothisendbetterthantheideaofnationIfnationstatesarewidelyconsideredtobe'new'and'historical',thenationstatestowhichtheygivepoliticalexpressionalwaysloomoutofanimmemorialpastandglideintoalimitlessfutureWhatIamproposingisthatNationalismhastobeunderstood,byaligningitnotwithselfconsciouslyheldpoliticalideologies,butwithlargeculturalsystemsthatprecededit,outofwhichaswellasagainstwhichitcameintobeing()Thenation's'comingintobeing'asasystemofculturalsignification,asHomiKBhabhatherepresentationofsocialliferatherthanthedisciplineofsocialpolity,emphasizesthisinstabilityofknowledgeForinstance,themostinterestingaccountsofthenationalidea,whethertheycomefromtheToryRight,theLiberalhighground,ortheNewLeft,seemtoconcurontheambivalenttensionthatdefinesthe'society'ofthenationMichaelOakeshott's'CharacterofamodernEuropeanstate'isperhapsthemostbrilliantconservativeaccountoftheequivocalnatureofthemodernnationThenationalspaceis,inhisview,constitutedfromcompetingdispositionsofhumanassociationassocietas(theacknowledgementofmoralrulesandconventionsofconduct)anduniversitas(theacknowledgementofcommonpurposeandsubstantiveend)Intheabsenceoftheirmergingintoanewidentitytheyhavesurvivedascompetingdogmassocietascumuniversitate'impostingaparticularambivalenceuponalltheinstitutionsofamodernstateandaspecificambiguityuponitsvocabularyofdiscourse'InHannahArendt'sview,thesocietyofthenationinthemodernworldis'thatcuriouslyhybridrealmwhereprivateinterestsassumepublicsignificance'andthetworealmsflowunceasinglyanduncertainlyintoeachother'likewavesintheneverendingstreamofthelifeprocessitselfNolesscertainisTomNairn,innamingthenation'themodernJanus',thatthe'unevendevelopment'ofcapitalisminscribesbothprogressionandregression,politicalrationalityandirrationalityintheverygeneticcodeofthenationThisisastructuralfacttowhichtherearenoexceptionsand'inthissense,itisanexact(notarhetorical)statementaboutnationalismtosaythatitisbynatureambivalent'ItistheculturalrepresentationofthisambivalenceofmodernsocietythatisexploredinthisbookIftheambivalentfigureofthenationisaproblemofitstransitionalhistory,itsconceptualindeterminacy,itswaveringbetweenvocabularies,thenwhateffectdoesthishaveonnarrativesanddiscoursesthatsignifyasenseof'nationness':theHeimlichpleasuresofthehearth,theunheimlichterrorofthespaceorraceoftheOtherthecomfortofsocialbelonging,thehiddeninjuriesofclassthecustomsoftaste,thepowersofpoliticalaffiliationthesenseofsocialorder,thesensibilityofsexualitytheblindnessofbureaucracy,thestraitinsightofinstitutionsthequalityofjustice,thecommonsenseofinjusticethelangueofthelawandtheparoleofthepeopleTheemergenceofthepolitical'rationality'ofthenationasaformofnarrativetextualstrategies,metaphoricdisplacements,subtextsandfigurativestrategemshasitsownhistoryItissuggestedinBenedictAnderson'sviewofthespaceandtimeofthemodernnationasembodiedinthenarrativecultureoftherealistnovel,andexploredinTomNairn'sreadingofEnochPowell'spostimperialracismwhichisbasedonthe'symbolfetishism'thatinfestshisfebrile,neoromanticpoetryToencounterthenationasitiswrittendisplaysatemporalityofcultureandsocialconsciousnessmoreintunewiththepartial,overdeterminedprocessbywhichtextualmeaningisproducedthroughthearticulationofdifferenceinlanguagemoreinkeepingwiththeproblemofclosurewhichplaysenigmaticallyinthediscourseofthesignSuchanapproachIntroductionconteststhetraditionalauthorityofthosenationalobjectsofknowledgeTradition,People,theReasonofState,HighCulture,forinstancewhosepedagogicalvalueoftenreliesontheirrepresentationasholisticconceptslocatedwithinanevolutionarynarrativeofhistoricalcontinuityTraditionalhistoriesdonottakethenationatitsownword,but,forthemostpart,theydoassumethattheproblemlieswiththeinterpretationof'events'thathaveacertaintransparencyorprivilegedvisibilityTostudythenationthroughitsnarrativeaddressdoesnotmerelydrawattentiontoitslanguageandrhetoricitalsoattemptstoaltertheconceptualobjectitselfIftheproblematic'closure'oftextualityquestionsthe'totalization'ofnationalculture,thenitspositivevalueliesindisplayingthewidedisseminationthroughwhichweconstructthefieldofmeaningsandsymbolsassociatedwithnationallifeThisisaprojectthathasacertaincurrencywithinthoseformsofcritiqueassociatedwith'culturalstudies'Despitetheconsiderableadvancethisrepresents,thereisatendencytoreadtheNationratherrestrictivelyeither,astheideologicalapparatusofstatepower,somewhatredefinedbyahasty,functionalistreadingofFoucaultorBakhtinor,inamoreUtopianinversion,astheincipientoremergentexpressionofthe'nationalpopular'sentimentpreservedinaradicalmemoryTheseapproachesarevaluableindrawingourattentiontothoseeasilyobscured,buthighlysignificant,recessesofthenationalculturefromwhichalternativeconstituenciesofpeoplesandoppositionalanalyticcapacitiesmayemergeyouth,theeveryday,nostalgia,new'ethnicities',newsocialmovements,'thepoliticsofdifference'TheyassignnewmeaningsanddifferentdirectionstotheprocessofhistoricalchangeThemostprogressivedevelopmentfromsuchpositionstake'adiscursiveconceptionofideologyideology(likelanguage)isconceptualisedintermsofthearticulationofelementsAsVolosinovsaid,theideologicalsignisalwaysmultiaccentualandJanusfaced'Butintheheatofpoliticalargumentthe'doubling'ofthesigncanoftenbestilledTheJanusfaceofideologyistakenatfacevalueanditsmeaningfixed,inthelastinstance,ononesideofthedividebetweenideologyand'materialconditions'ItistheprojectofNationandNarrationtoexploretheJanusfacedambivalenceoflanguageitselfintheconstructionoftheJanusfaceddiscourseofthenationThisturnsthefamiliartwofacedgodintoafigureofprodigiousdoublingthatinvestigatesthenationspaceintheprocessofthearticulationofelements:wheremeaningsmaybepartialbecausetheyareinmedicsresandhistorymaybehalfmadebecauseitisintheprocessofbeingmadeandtheimageofculturalauthoritymaybeambivalentbecauseitiscaught,uncertainly,intheactof'composing'itspowerfulimageWithoutsuchanunderstandingoftheperformativityoflanguageinthenarrativesofthenation,itwouldbedifficulttounderstandwhyEdwardSaidprescribesakindof'analyticpluralism'astheformofcriticalattentionappropriatetotheculturaleffectsofthenationForthenation,asaformofculturalelaboration(intheGramsciansense),isanagencyofambivalentnarrationthatholdscultureatitsmostproductiveposition,asaforcefor'subordination,fracturing,diffusing,HomiKBhabhareproducing,asmuchasproducing,creating,forcing,guiding'Iwrotetomycontributorswithagrowing,ifunfamiliar,senseofthenationasoneofthemajorstructuresofideologicalambivalencewithintheculturalrepresentationsof'modernity'Myintentionwasthatweshoulddevelop,inanicecollaborativetension,arangeofreadingsthatengagedtheinsightsofpoststructuralisttheoriesofnarrativeknowledgetextuality,discourse,enunciation,ecriture,'theunconsciousasalanguage'tonameonlyafewstrategiesinordertoevokethisambivalentmarginofthenationspaceTorevealsuchamarginis,inthefirstinstance,tocontestclaimstoculturalsupremacy,whetherthesearemadefromthe'old'postimperialistmetropolitannations,oronbehalfofthe'new'independentnationsoftheperipheryThemarginalor'minority'isnotthespaceofacelebratory,orUtopian,selfmarginalizationItisamuchmoresubstantialinterventionintothosejustificationsofmodernityprogress,homogeneity,culturalorganicism,thedeepnation,thelongpastthatrationalizetheauthoritarian,'normalizing'tendencieswithinculturesinthenameofthenationalinterestortheethnicprerogativeInthissense,then,theambivalent,antagonisticperspectiveofnationasnarrationwillestablishtheculturalboundariesofthenationsothattheymaybeacknowledgedas'containing'thresholdsofmeaningthatmustbecrossed,erased,andtranslatedintheprocessofculturalproductionThe'locality'ofnationalcultureisneitherunifiednorunitaryinrelationtoitself,normustitbeseensimplyas'other'inrelationtowhatisoutsideorbeyonditTheboundaryisJanusfacedandtheproblemofoutsideinsidemustalwaysitselfbeaprocessofhybridity,incorporatingnew'people'inrelationtothebodypolitic,generatingothersitesofmeaningand,inevitably,inthepoliticalprocess,producingunmannedsitesofpoliticalantagonismandunpredictableforcesforpoliticalrepresentationTheaddresstonationasnarrationstressestheinsistenceofpoliticalpowerandculturalauthorityinwhatDerridadescribesasthe'irreducibleexcessofthesyntacticoverthesemantic'Whatemergesasaneffectofsuch'incompletesignification'isaturningofboundariesandlimitsintotheinbetweenspacesthroughwhichthemeaningsofculturalandpoliticalauthorityarenegotiatedItisfromsuchnarrativepositionsbetweenculturesandnations,theoriesandtexts,thepolitical,thepoeticandthepainterly,thepastandthepresent,thatNationandNarrationseekstoaffirmandextendFrantzFanon'srevolutionarycredo:'Nationalconsciousness,whichisnotnationalism,istheonlythingthatwillgiveusaninternationaldimension'ItisthisinternationaldimensionbothwithinthemarginsofthenationspaceandintheboundariesinbetweennationsandpeoplesthattheauthorsofthisbookhavesoughttorepresentintheiressaysTherepresentativeemblemofthisbookmightbeachiasmatic'figure'ofculturaldifferencewherebytheantinationalist,ambivalentnationspacebecomesthecrossroadstoanewtransnationalcultureThe'other'isneveroutsideorbeyondusitemergesforcefully,withinculturaldiscourse,whenwethinkwespeakmostintima

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