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首页 Max_Protestantism and the Spirit of Capitalism.…

Max_Protestantism and the Spirit of Capitalism.pdf

Max_Protestantism and the Spiri…

上传者: 2010-05-15 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Max_Protestantism and the Spirit of Capitalismpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含PROTESTANTISMANDTHESPIRITOFCAPITALISMGetanybookforfreeon:wwwAbikacomPROTES符等。

PROTESTANTISMANDTHESPIRITOFCAPITALISMGetanybookforfreeon:wwwAbikacomPROTESTANTISMANDTHESPIRITOFCAPITALISMByMaxWeberGetanybookforfreeon:wwwAbikacomPROTESTANTISMANDTHESPIRITOFCAPITALISMGetanybookforfreeon:wwwAbikacomTABLEOFCONTENTSChapter:RELIGIOUSAFFILIATIONANDSOCIALSTRATIFICATIONChapter:THESPIRITOFCAPITALISMChapter:LUTHER'SCONCEPTIONOFTHECALLINGChapter:THERELIGIOUSFOUNDATIONSOFWORLDLYASCETICISMChapter:ASCETICISMANDTHESPIRITOFCAPITALISMCHAPTERRELIGIOUSAFFILIATIONANDSOCIALSTRATIFICATIONAglanceattheoccupationalstatisticsofanycountryofmixedreligiouscompositionbringstolightwithremarkablefrequencyasituationwhichhasseveraltimesprovokeddiscussionintheCatholicpressandliterature,andinCatholiccongressesinGermany,namely,thefactthatbusinessleadersandownersofcapital,aswellasthehighergradesofskilledlabor,andevenmorethehighertechnicallyandcommerciallytrainedpersonnelofmodernenterprises,areoverwhelminglyProtestantThisistruenotonlyincaseswherethedifferenceinreligioncoincideswithoneofnationality,andthusofculturaldevelopment,asinEasternGermanybetweenGermansandPolesThesamethingisshowninthefiguresofreligiousaffiliationalmostwherevercapitalism,atthetimeofitsgreatexpansion,hashadafreehandtoalterthesocialdistributionofthepopulationinaccordancewithitsneeds,andtodetermineitsoccupationalstructureThemorefreedomithashad,themoreclearlyistheeffectshownItistruethatthegreaterrelativeparticipationofProtestantsintheownershipofcapital,inmanagement,andtheupperranksoflaboringreatmodernindustrialandcommercialenterprises,mayinpartbeexplainedintermsofhistoricalcircumstances,whichextendfarbackintothepast,andinwhichreligiousaffiliationisnotacauseoftheeconomicconditions,buttoacertainextentappearstobearesultofthemParticipationintheaboveeconomicfunctionsusuallyinvolvessomepreviousownershipofcapital,andgenerallyanexpensiveeducationoftenbothThesearetodaylargelydependentonthepossessionofinheritedwealth,oratleastonacertaindegreeofmaterialwellbeingAnumberofthosesectionsoftheoldEmpirewhichweremosthighlydevelopedeconomicallyandmostfavoredbynaturalresourcesandsituation,inparticularamajorityofthewealthytownswentovertoProtestantisminthesixteenthcenturyTheresultsofthatcircumstancefavortheProtestantseventodayintheirstruggleforeconomicexistenceTherearisesthusthehistoricalquestion:whywerethedistrictsofhighesteconomicdevelopmentatthesamePROTESTANTISMANDTHESPIRITOFCAPITALISMGetanybookforfreeon:wwwAbikacomtimeparticularlyfavorabletoarevolutionintheChurchTheanswerisbynomeanssosimpleasonemightthinkTheemancipationfromeconomictraditionalismappears,nodoubt,tobeafactorwhichwouldgreatlystrengthenthetendencytodoubtthesanctityofthereligioustradition,asofalltraditionalauthoritiesButitisnecessarytonote,whathasoftenbeenforgotten,thattheReformationmeantnottheeliminationtheChurch'scontrolovereverydaylife,butratherthesubstitutionofanewformofcontrolfortheprevious,oneItmeanttherepudiationofacontrolwhichwasverylax,atthattimescarcelyperceptibleinpractice,andhardlymorethanformal,infavorofaregulation,ofthewholeofconductwhich,penetratingtoalldepartmentsofprivateandpubliclife,wasinfinitely,burdensomeandearnestlyenforcedTheruleoftheCatholicChurch,"punishingtheheretic,butindulgenttothesinner",asitwasinthepastevenmorethantoday,isnowtoleratedbypeoplesofthoroughlymoderneconomiccharacter,andwasbornebytherichestandeconomicallymostadvancedpeoplesonearthatabouttheturnofthefifteenthcenturyTheruleofCalvinism,ontheotherhand,asitwasenforcedinthesixteenthcenturyinGenevaandinScotland,attheturnofthesixteenthandseventeenthcenturiesinlargepartsoftheNetherlands,intheseventeenthinNewEngland,andforatimeinEnglanditself,wouldbeforusthemostabsolutelyunbearableformofecclesiasticalcontroloftheindividualwhichcouldpossiblyexistThatwasexactlywhatlargenumbersoftheoldcommercialaristocracyofthosetimes,inGenevaaswellasinHollandandEngland,feltaboutitAndwhatthereformerscomplainedofinthoseareasofhigheconomicdevelopmentwasnottoomuchsupervisionoflifeonthepartoftheChurch,buttoolittleNowhowdoesithappenthatatthattimethosecountrieswhichweremostadvancedeconomically,andwithinthemtherisingbourgeoismiddleclasses,notonlyfailedtoresistthisunexampledtyrannyofPuritanism,butevendevelopedaheroisminitsdefenseForbourgeoisclassesassuchhaveseldombeforeandneversincedisplayedheroismItwas"thelastofourheroisms",asCarlyle,notwithoutreason,hassaidButfurther,andespeciallyimportant:itmaybe,ashasbeenclaimed,thatthegreaterparticipationofProtestantsinthepositionsofownershipandmanagementinmoderneconomiclifemaytodaybeunderstood,inpartatleast,simplyasaresultofthegreatermaterialwealththeyhaveinheritedButtherearecertainotherphenomenawhichcannotbeexplainedinthesamewayThus,tomentiononlyafewfacts:thereisagreatdifferencediscoverableinBaden,inBavaria,inHungary,inthetypeofhighereducationwhichCatholicparents,asopposedtoProtestant,givetheirchildrenThatthepercentageofCatholicsamongthestudentsandgraduatesofhighereducationalinstitutionsingenerallagsbehindtheirproportionofthetotalpopulation,"may,tobesure,belargelyexplicableintermsofinheriteddifferencesofwealthButamongtheCatholicgraduatesthemselvesthepercentageofthosegraduatingfromtheinstitutionspreparing,inparticular,fortechnicalstudiesandindustrialandcommercialoccupations,butingeneralfromthosepreparingformiddleclassbusinesslife,lagsstillfartherbehindthepercentageofProtestantsOntheotherhand,CatholicspreferthesortoftrainingwhichthehumanisticGymnasiumaffordsThatisacircumstancetowhichtheaboveexplanationdoesnotapply,butwhich,onthecontrary,isonereasonwhysofewCatholicsareengagedincapitalisticenterprisePROTESTANTISMANDTHESPIRITOFCAPITALISMGetanybookforfreeon:wwwAbikacomEvenmorestrikingisafactwhichpartlyexplainsthesmallerproportionofCatholicsamongtheskilledlaborersofmodernindustryItiswellknownthatthefactoryhastakenitsskilledlabortoalargeextentfromyoungmeninthehandicraftsbutthisismuchmoretrueofProtestantthanofCatholicjourneymenAmongjourneymen,inotherwords,theCatholicsshowastrongerpropensitytoremainintheircrafts,thatistheymoreoftenbecomemastercraftsmen,whereastheProtestantsareattractedtoalargerextentintothefactoriesinordertofilltheupperranksskilledlaborandadministrativepositionsTheexplanationofthesecasesisundoubtedlythatthementalandspiritualpeculiaritiesacquiredfromtheenvironment,herethetypeofeducationfavoredbythereligiousatmosphereofthehomecommunityandtheparentalhome,havedeterminedthechoiceofoccupation,andthroughittheprofessionalcareerThesmallerparticipationofCatholicsinthemodernbusinesslifeofGermanyisallthemorestrikingbecauseitrunscountertoatendencywhichhasbeenobservedatalltimesincludingthepresentNationalorreligiousminoritieswhichareinapositionofsubordinationtoagroupofrulersarelikely,throughtheirvoluntaryorinvoluntaryexclusionfrompositionsofpoliticalinfluence,tobedrivenwithpeculiarforceintoeconomicactivityTheirablestmembersseektosatisfythedesireforrecognitionoftheirabilitiesinthisfield,sincethereisnoopportunityintheserviceoftheStateThishasundoubtedlybeentrueofthePolesinRussiaandEasternPrussia,whohavewithoutquestionbeenundergoingamorerapideconomicadvancethaninGalicia,wheretheyhavebeenintheascendantIthasinearliertimesbeentrueoftheHuguenotsinFranceunderLouisXIV,theNonconformistsandQuakersinEngland,and,lastbutnotleast,theJewfortwothousandyearsButtheCatholicsinGermanyhaveshownnostrikingevidenceofsucharesultoftheirpositionInthepasttheyhave,unliketheProtestants,undergonenoparticularlyprominenteconomicdevelopmentinthetimeswhenthey,werepersecutedoronlytolerated,eitherinHollandorinEnglandOntheotherhand,itisafactthattheProtestants(especiallycertainbranchesofthemovementtobefullydiscussedlater)bothasrulingclassesandasruled,bothasmajorityandasminority,haveshownaspecialtendencytodevelopeconomicrationalismwhichcannotbeobservedtothesameextentamongCatholicseitherintheonesituationorintheotherThustheprincipalexplanationofthisdifferencemustbesoughtinthepermanentintrinsiccharacteroftheirreligiousbeliefs,andnotonlyintheirtemporaryexternalhistoricopoliticalsituationsItwillbeourtasktoinvestigatethesereligionswithaviewtofindingoutwhatpeculiaritiestheyhaveorhavehadwhichmighthaveresultedinthebehaviorwehavedescribedOnsuperficialanalysis,andonthebasisofcertaincurrentimpressions,onemightbetemptedtoexpressthedifferencebysayingthatthegreaterotherworldlinessofCatholicism,theasceticcharacterofitshighestideals,musthavebroughtupitsadherentstoagreaterindifferencetowardthegoodthingsofthisworldSuchanexplanationfitsthepopulartendencyinthejudgmentofbothreligionsOntheProtestantsideitisusedasabasisofcriticismofthose(realorimagined)asceticidealsofthe'Catholicwayoflife,whiletheCatholicsanswerwiththeaccusationthatmaterialismresultsfromthesecularizationofallidealsthroughProtestantismOnerecentwriterhasattemptedtoformulatethedifferenceoftheirattitudestowardeconomiclifeinthefollowingmanner:"TheCatholicisquieter,havinglessoftheacquisitiveimpulseheprefersalifeofthegreatestpossiblesecurity,evenwithasmallerincome,toalifeofriskPROTESTANTISMANDTHESPIRITOFCAPITALISMGetanybookforfreeon:wwwAbikacomandexcitement,eventhoughitmaybringthechanceofgaininghonorandrichesTheproverbsaysjokingly,'eithereatwellorsleepwell'InthepresentcasetheProtestantpreferstoeatwell,theCatholictosleepundisturbed"Infact,thisdesiretoeatwellmaybeacorrectthoughincompletecharacterizationofthemotivesofmanynominalProtestantsinGermanyatthepresenttimeButthingswereverydifferentinthepast:theEnglish,Dutch,andAmericanPuritanswerecharacterizedbytheexactoppositeofthejoyofliving,afactwhichisindeed,asweshallsee,mostimportantforourpresentstudyMoreover,theFrenchProtestants,amongothers,longretained,andretaintoacertainextentuptothepresent,thecharacteristicswhichwereimpressedupontheCalvinisticChurcheseverywhere,especiallyunderthecrossinthetimeofthereligiousstrugglesNevertheless(orwasit,perhaps,asweshallasklater,preciselyonthataccount)itiswellknownthatthesecharacteristicswereoneofthemostimportantfactorsintheindustrialandcapitalisticdevelopmentofFrance,andonthesmallscalepermittedthembytheirpersecutionremainedsoIfwemaycallthisseriousnessandthestrongpredominanceofreligiousinterestsinthewholeconductoflifeotherworldliness,thentheFrenchCalvinistswereandstillareatleastasotherworldlyas,forinstance,theNorthGermanCatholics,towhomtheirCatholicismisundoubtedlyasvitalamatterasreligionistoanyotherpeopleintheworldBothdifferfromthepredominantreligioustrendsintheirrespectivecountriesinmuchthesamewayTheCatholicsofFranceare,intheirlowerranks,greatlyinterestedintheenjoymentoflife,intheupperdirectlyhostiletoreligionSimilarly,theProtestantsofGermanyaretodayabsorbedinworldlyeconomiclife,andtheirupperranksaremostindifferenttoreligionHardlyanythingshowssoclearlyasthisparallelthat,withsuchvagueideasasthatoftheallegedotherworldlinessofCatholicism,andtheallegedmaterialisticjoyoflivingofProtestantism,andotherslikethem,nothingcanbeaccomplishedforourpurposeInsuchgeneraltermsthedistinctiondoesnotevenadequatelyfitthefactsoftoday,andcertainlynotofthepastIf,however,onewishestomakeuseofitatall,severalotherobservationspresentthemselvesatoncewhich,combinedwiththeaboveremarks,suggestthatthesupposedconflictbetweenotherworldliness,asceticism,andecclesiasticalpietyontheoneside,andparticipationincapitalisticacquisitionontheother,mightactuallyturnouttobeanintimaterelationshipAsamatteroffactitissurelyremarkable,tobeginwithquiteasuperficialobservation,howlargeisthenumberofrepresentativesofthemostspiritualformsofChristianpietywhohavesprungfromcommercialcirclesInparticular,verymanyofthemostzealousadherentsofPietismareofthisoriginItmighteexplainedasasortofreactionagainstmammonismonthepartofsensitivenaturesnotadaptedtocommerciallife,and,asinthecaseofFrancisofAssisi,manPietistshavethemselvesinterpretedtheprocessoftheirconversioninthesetermsSimilarly,theremarkablecircumstancethatsomanyofthegreatestcapitalisticentrepreneursdowntoCecilRhodeshavecomefromclergymen'sfamiliesmightbeexplainedreactionagainsttheirasceticupbringingButthisformofexplanationfailswhereanextraordinarycapitalisticbusinesssenseiscombinedinthesamepersonsandgroupswiththemostintensiveformsofapietywhichpenetratesanddominatestheirwholelivesSuchcasesarenotisolated,butthesetraitsarecharacteristicofmanyofthemostimportantChurchesandsectsinthehistoryofProtestantismEspeciallyCalvinism,whereverithasappeared,hasshownthiscombinationHoweverlittle,inthetimeofthePROTESTANTISMANDTHESPIRITOFCAPITALISMGetanybookforfreeon:wwwAbikacomexpansionoftheReformation,it(oranyotherProtestantbelief)wasboundupwithanyparticularsocialclass,itischaracteristicandinacertainsensetypicalthatinFrenchHuguenotChurchesmonksandbusinessmen(merchants,craftsmen)wereparticularlynumerousamongtheproselytes,especiallyatthetimeofthepersecutionEventheSpaniardsknewthatheresy(ietheCalvinismoftheDutch)promotedtrade,andthiscoincideswiththeopinionswhichSirWilliamPettyexpressedinhisdiscussionofthereasonsforthecapitalisticdevelopmentoftheNetherlandsGotheinrightlycallstheCalvinisticdiasporatheseedbedofcapitalisticeconomyEveninthiscaseonemightconsiderthedecisivefactortobethesuperiorityoftheFrenchandDutcheconomicculturesfromwhichthesecommunitiessprang,orperhapstheimmenseinfluenceofexileinthebreakdownoftraditionalrelationshipsButinFrancethesituationwas,asweknowfromColbert'sstruggles,thesameevenintheseventeenthcenturyEvenAustria,nottospeakofothercountries,directlyimportedProtestantcraftsmenButnotalltheProtestantdenominationsseemtohavehadanequallystronginfluenceinthisdirectionThatofCalvinism,eveninGermany,wasamongthestrongest,itseems,andthereformedfaithmorethantheothersseemstohavepromotedthedevelopmentofthespiritofcapitalism,intheWupperthalaswellaselsewhereMuchmoresothanLutheranism,ascomparisonbothingeneralandinparticularinstances,especiallyintheWupperthal,seemstoproveForScotland,Buckle,andamongEnglishpoets,KeatshaveemphasizedthesesamerelationshipsEvenmorestriking,asitisonlynecessarytomention,istheconnectionofareligiouswayoflifewiththemostintensivedevelopmentofbusinessacumenamongthosesectswhoseotherworldlinessisproverbialastheirwealth,especiallytheQuakersandtheMennonitesThepartwhichtheformerhaveplayedinEnglandandNorthAmericafelltothelatterinGermanyandtheNetherlandsThatinEastPrussiaFrederickWilliamItoleratedtheMennonitesasindispensabletoindustry,inspiteoftheirabsoluterefusaltorefusalperformmilitaryservice,isonlyoneofthenumerouswellknowncaseswhichillustratesthefact,though,consideringthecharacterofthatmonarch,itisoneitisoneofthemoststrikingFinally,thatthiscombinationofintensepietywithjustasstrongadevelopmentofbusinessacumen,wasalsocharacteristicofthePietists,commonknowledgeItisonlynecessarytothinkoftheRhinecountryandofCalwInthispurelyintroductorydiscussionitisunnecessarytopileupmoreexamplesForthesefewalreadyallshowonething:thatthespiritofhardwork,ofprogress,orwhateverelseitmightmaybecalled,theawakeningofwhichoneisinclinedtoascribetoProtestantism,mustnotbeunderstood,asthereisatendencytodo,asjoyoflivingnorinanyothersenseasconnectedwiththeEnlightenmentTheoldProtestantismofLuther,Calvin,Knox,Voet,hadpreciouslittletodowithwhattodayiscalledprogressTowholeaspectsofmodernlifewhichthemostextremereligionistwouldnotwishtosuppresstoday,itwasdirectlyhostileIfanyinnerrelationshipbetweencertainexpressionsoftheoldProtestantspiritandmoderncapitalisticcultureistobefound,wemustattempttofindit,forbetterorworse,notinitsallegedmoreorlessmaterialisticoratleastantiasceticjoyofliving,butinitspurelyreligiouscharacteristicsMontesquieusays(EspritdesLois,BookXX,chap)oftheEnglishthatthey"hadprogressedthefarthestofallpeoplesoftheworldinthreeimportantthings:inpiety,incommerce,andinfreedom"IsitnotpossiblethattheirPROTESTANTISMANDTHESPIRITOFCAPITALISMGetanybookforfreeon:wwwAbikacomcommercialsuperiorityandtheiradaptationtofreepoliticalinstitutionsareconnectedinsomewaywiththatrecordofpietywhichMontesquieuascribestothemAlargenumberofpossiblerelationships,vaguelyperceived,occurtouswhenweputthequestioninthiswayItwillnowbeourtasktoformulatewhatoccurstousconfusedlyasclearlyasispossible,consideringtheinexhaustiblediversitytobefoundinallhistoricalmaterialButinordertodothisitisnecessarytoleavebehindthevagueandgeneralconceptswithwhichwehavedealtuptothispoint,andattempttoPenetrateintothepeculiarcharacteristicsofandthedifferencesbetweenthosegreatworldsofreligiousthoughtwhichhaveexistedhistoricallyinthevariousbranchesofChristianityBeforewecanproceedtothat,however,afewremarksarenecessary,firstonthepeculiaritiesofthephenomenonofwhichweareseekinganhistoricalexplanation,thenconcernin

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