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首页 【乔姆斯基】9·11

【乔姆斯基】9·11.pdf

【乔姆斯基】9·11

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2010-05-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【乔姆斯基】9·11pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

NoamChomskyCopyrightbyNoamChomskyIwouldliketothankDavidPetersonandShifraSternforinvaluableassistancewithcurrentmediaresearchparticularlyNOAMCHOMSKYCONTENTSEditor'sNoteNOTSINCETHEWAROFISTHEWARONTERRORISMWINNABLETHEIDEOLOGICALCAMPAIGNCRIMESOFSTATECHOICEOFACTIONCIVILIZATIONSEASTANDWESTCONSIDERABLERESTRAINTAppendixADEPARTMENTOFSTATEREPORTONFOREIGNTERRORISTORGANIZATIONS(OCTOBER,)AppendixBRECOMMENDEDREADINGAbouttheAuthorEDITOR'SNOTEWhatfollowsisasetofinterviewsconductedwithNoamChomskybyavarietyofinterviewersduringthefirstmonthfollowingtheattacksofSeptember,ontheWorldTradeCenterandthePentagonTheinterviewswereconductedlargelyviaemail,manywithforeignjournalistswhospeakandwriteEnglishasasecondlanguageAlthoughsomeinterviewswereconductedasearlyaseightdaysaftertheattacks,edits,additions,andrevisionsconsistentwiththelatestnewscontinuedupuntilthebookleftfortheprinteronOctoberAsaresult,interviewsdatedSeptembermaycontainreferencestoOctobereventsFurthermore,intheprocessofediting,sectionswerecutinwhichquestionsoranswerswererepeatedbetweeninterviewsHowever,occasionallyarepeatedfactorpointhasbeenintentionallyleftin,foremphasisAsChomskywrotemeduringtheeditingprocess,"ThesefactshavebeencompletelyremovedfromhistoryOnehastopracticallyscreamthemfromtherooftops"GregRuggieroNewYorkCityNOTSINCETHEWAROFBasedonaninterviewwithIManifesto(Italy),September,Q:ThefalloftheBerlinWalldidn'tclaimanyvictims,butitdidprofoundlychangethegeopoliticalsceneDoyouthinkthattheattacksofcouldhaveasimilareffectCHOMSKY:ThefalloftheBerlinWallwasaneventofgreatimportanceanddidchangethegeopoliticalscene,butnotinthewaysusuallyassumed,inmyopinionI'vetriedtoexplainmyreasonselsewhereandwon'tgointoitnowThehorrifyingatrocitiesofSeptemberaresomethingquitenewinworldaffairs,notinthetheirscaleandcharacter,butinthetargetFortheUnitedStates,thisisthefirsttimesincetheWarofthatthenationalterritoryhasbeenunderattack,oreventhreatenedManycommentatorshavebroughtupaPearlHarboranalogy,butthatismisleadingOnDecember,,militarybasesintwoUScolonieswereattackednotthenationalterritory,whichwasneverthreatenedTheUSpreferredtocallHawaiia"territory,"butitwasineffectacolonyDuringthepastseveralhundredyearstheUSannihilatedtheindigenouspopulation(millionsofpeople),conqueredhalfofMexico(infact,theterritoriesofindigenouspeoplesbutthatisanothermatter),intervenedviolentlyinthesurroundingregion,conqueredHawaiiandthePhilippines(killinghundredsofthousandsofFilipinos),and,inthepasthalfcenturyparticularly,extendeditsresorttoforcethroughoutmuchoftheworldThenumberofvictimsiscolossalForthefirsttime,thegunshavebeendirectedtheotherwayThatisadramaticchangeThesameistrue,evenmoredramatically,ofEuropeEuropehassufferedmurderousdestruction,butfrominternalwarsMeanwhileEuropeanpowersconqueredmuchoftheworldwithextremebrutalityWiththerarestofexceptions,theywerenotunderattackbytheirforeignvictimsEnglandwasnotattackedbyIndia,norBelgiumbytheCongo,norItalybyEthiopia,norFrancebyAlgeria(alsonotregardedbyFranceas"acolony")Itisnotsuprising,therefore,thatEuropeshouldbeutterlyshockedbytheterroristcrimesofSeptemberAgain,notbecauseofthescale,regrettablyExactlywhatthisportends,noonecanguessButthatitissomethingstrikinglynewisquiteclearMyimpressionisthattheseattackswon'tofferusnewpoliticalscenery,butthattheyratherconfirmtheexistenceofaprobleminsidethe"Empire"TheproblemconcernspoliticalauthorityandpowerWhatdoyouthinkThelikelyperpetratorsareacategoryoftheirown,butuncontroversially,theydrawsupportfromareservoirofbitternessandangeroverUSpoliciesintheregion,extendingthoseofearlierEuropeanmastersTherecertainlyisanissueof"politicalauthorityandpower"Inthewakeoftheattacks,theWallStreetJournalsurveyedopinionsof"moneyedMuslims"intheregion:bankers,professionals,businessmenwithtiestotheUnitedStatesTheyexpresseddismayandangeraboutUSsupportforharshauthoritarianstatesandthebarriersthatWashingtonplacesagainsttheindependentdevelopmentandpoliticaldemocracybyitspoliciesof"proppingupoppressiveregimes"Theirprimaryconcern,however,wasdifferent:Washington'spoliciestowardsIraqandtowardsIsrael'smilitaryoccupationAmongthegreatmassofpoorandsufferingpeople,similarsentimentsaremuchmorebitter,andtheyarealsohardlypleasedtoseethewealthoftheregionflowtotheWestandtosmallWesternorientedelitesandcorruptandbrutalrulersbackedbyWesternpowerSotheredefinitelyareproblemsoftheauthorityandpowerTheimmediatelyannouncedUSreactionwastodealwiththeseproblemsbyintensifyingthemThatis,ofcourse,notinevitableAgooddealdependsontheoutcomeofsuchconsiderationsIsAmericahavingtroublegoverningtheprocessofglobalizationandIdon'tmeanjustintermsofnationalsecurityorintelligencesystemsTheUSdoesn'tgovernthecorporateglobalizationproject,thoughitofcoursehasaprimaryroleTheseprogramshavebeenarousingenormousopposition,primarilyintheSouth,wheremassprotestscouldoftenbesuppressedorignoredInthepastfewyears,theprotestsreachedtherichcountriesaswell,andhencebecamethefocusofgreatconcerntothepowerful,whonowfeelthemselvesonthedefensive,notwithoutreasonThereareverysubstantialreasonsfortheworldwideoppositiontotheparticularformofinvestorrights"globalization"thatisbeingimposed,butthisisnottheplacetogointothat"Intelligentbombs"inIraq,"humanitarianintervention"inKosovoTheUSAneverusedtheword"war"todescribethatNowtheyaretalkingaboutwaragainstanamelessenemyWhyAtfirsttheUSusedtheword"crusade,"butitwasquicklypointedoutthatiftheyhopetoenlisttheiralliesintheIslamicworld,itwouldbeaseriousmistake,forobviousreasonsTherhetoricthereforeshiftedto"war"TheGulfWarofwascalleda"war"ThebombingofSerbiawascalleda"humanitarianintervention,"bynomeansanovelusageThatwasastandarddescriptionofEuropeanimperialistventuresinthethcenturyTocitesomemorerecentexamples,themajorrecentscholarlyworkon"humanitarianintervention"citesthreeexamplesof"humanitarianintervention"intheimmediatepreWorldWarIIperiod:Japan'sinvasionofManchuria,Mussolini'sinvasionofEthiopia,andHitler'stakeoveroftheSudetenlandTheauthorofcourseisnotsuggestingthatthetermisaptrather,thatthecrimesweremaskedas"humanitarian"WhethertheKosovointerventionindeedwas"humanitarian,"possiblythefirstsuchcaseinhistory,isamatteroffact:passionatedeclarationdoesnotsuffice,ifonlybecausevirtuallyeveryuseofforceisjustifiedinthesetermsItisquiteextraordinaryhowweaktheargumentsaretojustifytheclaimofhumanitarianintentintheKosovocasemoreaccurately,theyscarcelyexist,andtheofficialgovernmentreasonsarequitedifferentButthat'saseparatematter,whichI'vewrittenaboutinsomedetailelsewhereButeventhepretextof"humanitarianintervention"cannotbeusedinthenormalwayinthepresentcaseSoweareleftwith"war"Thepropertermwouldbe"crime"perhaps"crimeagainsthumanity,"asRobertFiskhasstressedButtherearelawsforpunishingcrimes:identifytheperpetrators,andholdthemaccountable,thecoursethatiswidelyrecommendedintheMiddleEast,bytheVatican,andmanyothersButthatrequiressolidevidence,anditopensdoorstodangerousquestions:tomentiononlythemostobviousone,whoweretheperpetratorsofthecrimeofinternationalterrorismcondemnedbytheWorldCourtyearsagoForsuchreasons,itisbettertouseavagueterm,like"war"Tocallita"waragainstterrorism,"however,issimplymorepropaganda,unlessthe"war"reallydoestargetterrorismButthatisplainlynotcontemplatedbecauseWesternpowerscouldneverabidebytheirownofficialdefinitionsoftheterm,asintheUSCode*orArmymanualsTodosowouldatoncerevealthattheUSisaleadingterroriststate,asareitsclientsPerhapsImayquotepoliticalscientistMichaelStohl:"Wemustrecognizethatbyconventionanditmustbeemphasizedonlybyconventiongreatpoweruseandthethreatoftheuseofforceisnormallydescribedascoercivediplomacyandnotasaformofterrorism,"thoughitcommonlyinvolves"thethreatandoftentheuseofviolenceforwhatwouldbedescribedasterroristicpurposeswereitnotgreatpowerswhowerepursuingtheverysametactic,"inaccordwiththeliteralmeaningofthetermUnderthe(admittedlyunimaginable)circumstancesthatWesternintellectualcultureswerewillingtoadopttheliteralmeaning,thewaragainstterrorismwouldtakequiteadifferentform,alonglinesspelledoutinextensivedetailinliteraturethatdoesnotentertherespectablecanon*"Anactofterrorism,meansanyactivitythat(A)involvesaviolentactoranactdangeroustohumanlifethatisaviolationofthecriminallawsoftheUnitedStatesoranyState,orthatwouldbeacriminalviolationifcommittedwithinthejurisdictionoftheUnitedStatesorofanyStateand(B)appearstobeintended(i)tointimidateorcoerceacivilianpopulation(ii)toinfluencethepolicyofagovernmentbyintimidationorcoercionor(iii)toaffecttheconductofagovernmentbyassassinationorkidnapping"(UnitedStatesCodeCongressionalandAdministrativeNews,thCongress,SecondSession,,Oct,volumepar,STATWestPublishingCo,)ThequoteIjustgaveiscitedinasurveyvolumecalledWesternStateTerrorism,editedbyAlexGeorgeandpublishedbyamajorpublisheryearsago,butunmentionableintheUnitedStatesStohl'spointisthenillustratedindetailthroughoutthebookAndtherearemanyothers,extensivelydocumentedfromthemostreliablesourcesforexample,officialgovernmentdocumentsbutalsounmentionableintheUS,thoughthetabooisnotsostrictinotherEnglishspeakingcountries,orelsewhereNATOiskeepingquietuntiltheyfindoutwhethertheattackwasinternalorexternalHowdoyouinterpretthisIdonotthinkthatthatisthereasonforNATO'shesitationThereisnoseriousdoubtthattheattackwas"external"IpresumethatNATO'sreasonsforhesitationarethosethatEuropeanleadersareexpressingquitepubliclyTheyrecognize,asdoeseveryonewithcloseknowledgeoftheregion,thatmassiveassaultonMuslimpopulationwouldbetheanswertotheprayersofbinLadenandhisassociates,andwouldleadtheUSanditsalliesintoa"diabolicaltrap,"astheFrenchforeignministerputitCouldyousaysomethingaboutconnivanceandtheroleofAmericansecretserviceIdon'tquiteunderstandthequestionThisattackwassurelyanenormousshockandsurprisetotheintelligenceservicesoftheWest,includingthoseoftheUnitedStatesTheCIAdidhavearole,amajoroneinfact,butthatwasinthes,whenitjoinedPakistaniintelligenceandothers(SaudiArabia,Britain,etc)inrecruiting,training,andarmingthemostextremeIslamicfundamentalistsitcouldfindtofighta"HolyWar"againsttheRussianinvadersofAfghanistanThebestsourceonthistopicisthebookUnholyWars,writtenbylongtimeMiddleEastcorrespondentandauthorJohnCooleyThereisnow,predictably,aneffortunderwaytocleanuptherecordandpretendthattheUSwasaninnocentbystander,andabitsurprisingly,evenrespectablejournals(nottospeakofothers)aresoberlyquotingCIAofficialsto"demonstrate"thatrequiredconclusioningrossviolationofthemostelementaryjournalisticstandardsAfterthatwarwasover,the"Afghanis"(many,likebinLaden,notAfghans),turnedtheirattentionelsewhere:forexample,toChechnyaandBosnia,wheretheymayhavereceivedatleasttacticUSsupportNotsurprisingly,theywerewelcomedbythegovernmentsinBosnia,manywerewelcomedbythegovernments,inBosnia,manyIslamicvolunteersweregrantedcitizenshipingratitudefortheirmilitaryservices(CarlottaGall,NewYorkTimes,October,)AndtowesternChina,wheretheyarefightingforliberationfromChinesedominationtheseareChineseMuslims,someapparentlysentbyChinatoAfghanistanasearlyastojoinaguerrillarebellionagainstthegovernment,laterjoiningtheCIAorganizedforcesaftertheRussianinvasionininsupportofthegovernmentRussiabackedandinstalled,muchastheUSinstalledagovernmentinSouthVietnamandtheninvadedto"defend"thecountryitwasattacking,tociteafairlycloseanalogAndinthesouthernPhilippines,NorthAfrica,andelsewhere,fightingforthesamecauses,astheyseeitTheyalsoturnedtheirattentiontotheirprimeenemiesSaudiArabia,Egypt,andotherArabstates,andbythes,alsototheUS(whichbinLadenregardsashavinginvadedSaudiArabiamuchasRussiainvadedAfghanistan)WhatconsequencesdoyouforeseefortheSeattlemovementDoyouthinkitwillsufferasaresult,orisitpossiblethatitwillgainmomentumItiscertainlyasetbackfortheworldwideprotestsagainstcorporateglobalization,whichagaindidnotbegininSeattleSuchterroristatrocitiesareagifttotheharshestandmostrepressiveelementsonallsides,andaresuretobeexploitedalreadyhavebeeninfacttoacceleratetheagendaofmilitarization,regimentation,reversalofsocialdemocraticprograms,transferofwealthtonarrowsections,andunderminingdemocracyinanymeaningfulformButthatwillnothappenwithoutresistance,andIdoubtthatitwillsucceed,exceptintheshorttermWhataretheconsequencesfortheMiddleEastInparticularfortheIsraeliPalestinianconflictTheatrocitiesofSeptemberwereadevastatingblowforthePalestinians,astheyinstantlyrecognizedIsraelisopenlyexultinginthe"windowofopportunity"itnowhastocrushPalestinianswithimpunityInthefirstfewdaysaftertheattack,IsraelitanksenteredPalestiniancities(Jenin,Ramallah,Jerichoforthefirsttime),severaldozenPalestinianswerekilled,andIsrael'sirongriponthepopulationtightened,exactlyaswouldbeexpectedAgain,thesearethecommondynamicsofacycleofescalationviolence,familiarthroughouttheworld:NorthernIreland,IsraelPalestine,theBalkans,andelsewhereHowdoyoujudgethereactionofAmericansTheyseemedprettycoolheaded,butasSaskiaSassenrecentlysaidinaninterview,"Wealreadyfeelasthoughweareatwar"Theimmediatereactionwasshock,horror,anger,fear,adesireforrevengeButpublicopinionismixed,andcountercurrentsdidnottakelongtodevelopTheyarenowevenbeingrecognizedinmainstreamcommentaryToday'snewspapers,forexampleInaninterviewyougavetotheMexicandailyLaJornada,yousaidthatwearefacedwithanewtypeofwarWhatexactlydidyoumeanItisanewtypeofwarforthereasonsmentionedinresponsetoyourfirstquestion:thegunsarenowaimedinadifferentdirection,somethingquitenewinthehistoryofEuropeanditsoffshootsAreArabs,bydefinition,necessarilyfundamentalist,theWest'snewenemyCertainlynotFirstofall,noonewithevenashredofrationalitydefinesArabsas"fundamentalist"Secondly,theUSandtheWestgenerallyhavenoobjectiontoreligiousfundamentalismassuchTheUSinfact,isoneofthemostextremereligiousfundamentalistculturesintheworldnotthestate,butthepopularcultureIntheIslamicworld,themostextremefundamentaliststate,apartfromtheTaliban,isSaudiArabia,aUSclientstatesinceitsoriginstheTalibanareinfactanoffshootoftheSaudiversionofIslamRadicalIslamistextremists,oftencalled"fundamentalists"wereUSfavoritesinthes,becausetheywerethebestkillerswhocouldbefoundInthoseyears,aprimeenemyoftheUSwastheCatholicChurch,whichhadsinnedgrievouslyinLatinAmericabyadopting"thepreferentialoptionforthepoor,"andsufferedbitterlyforthatcrimeTheWestisquiteecumenicalinitschoiceofenemiesThecriteriaaresubordinationandservicetopower,notreligionTherearemanyotherillustrationsISTHEWARONTERRORISMWINNABLEBasedonseparateinterviewswithHartfordCourantonSeptember,andDavidBarsamianonSeptember,Q:Isthenation'ssocalledwaronterrorismwinnableIfyes,howIfno,thenwhatshouldtheBushadministrationdotopreventattacksliketheonesthatstruckNewYorkandWashingtonCHOMSKY:Ifwewanttoconsiderthisquestionseriously,weshouldrecognizethatinmuchoftheworldtheUSisregardedastheleadingterroriststate,andwithgoodreasonWemightbearinmind,forexample,thatintheUSwascondemnedbytheWorldCourtfor"unlawfuluseofforce"(internationalterrorism)andthenvetoedaSecurityCouncilresolutioncallingonallstates(meaningtheUS)toadheretointernationallawOnlyoneofcountlessexamplesButtokeeptothenarrowquestiontoterrorismofothersdirectedagainstusweknowquitewellhowtheproblemshouldbeaddressed,ifwewanttoreducethethreatratherthanescalateitWhenIRAbombsweresetoffinLondon,therewasnocalltobombWestBelfast,orBoston,thesourceofmuchofthefinancialsupportfortheIRARather,stepsweretakentoapprehendthecriminals,andeffortsweremadetodealwithwhatlaybehindtheresorttoterrorWhenafederalbuildingwasblownupinOklahomaCity,therewerecallsforbombingtheMiddleEast,anditprobablywouldhavehappenedifthesourceturnedouttobethereWhenitwasfoundtobedomestic,withlinkstotheultrarightmilitias,therewasnocalltoobliterateMontanaorIdahoRather,therewasasearchfortheperpetrator,whowasfound,broughttocourt,andsentenced,andtherewereeffortstounderstandthegrievancesthatliebehindsuchcrimesandtoaddresstheproblemsJustabouteverycrimewhetherarobberyinthestreetsorcolossalatrocitieshasreasons,andcommonlywefindthatsomeofthemareseriousandshouldbeaddressedThereareprope

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