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首页 RECENT EXCAVATIONS AT CARTHAGE.pdf

RECENT EXCAVATIONS AT CARTHAGE.pdf

RECENT EXCAVATIONS AT CARTHAGE.…

上传者: cesar 2010-04-29 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《RECENT EXCAVATIONS AT CARTHAGEpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含RecentExcavationsatCarthage:AReviewArticleAuthor(s):CMWellsSource:American符等。

RecentExcavationsatCarthage:AReviewArticleAuthor(s):CMWellsSource:AmericanJournalofArchaeology,Vol,No(Apr,),ppPublishedby:ArchaeologicalInstituteofAmericaStableURL:http:wwwjstororgstableAccessed::YouruseoftheJSTORarchiveindicatesyouracceptanceofJSTOR'sTermsandConditionsofUse,availableathttp:wwwjstororgpageinfoaboutpoliciestermsjspJSTOR'sTermsandConditionsofUseprovides,inpart,thatunlessyouhaveobtainedpriorpermission,youmaynotdownloadanentireissueofajournalormultiplecopiesofarticles,andyoumayusecontentintheJSTORarchiveonlyforyourpersonal,noncommercialusePleasecontactthepublisherregardinganyfurtheruseofthisworkPublishercontactinformationmaybeobtainedathttp:wwwjstororgactionshowPublisherpublisherCode=aiaEachcopyofanypartofaJSTORtransmissionmustcontainthesamecopyrightnoticethatappearsonthescreenorprintedpageofsuchtransmissionJSTORisanotforprofitservicethathelpsscholars,researchers,andstudentsdiscover,use,andbuilduponawiderangeofcontentinatrusteddigitalarchiveWeuseinformationtechnologyandtoolstoincreaseproductivityandfacilitatenewformsofscholarshipFormoreinformationaboutJSTOR,pleasecontactsupportjstororgArchaeologicalInstituteofAmericaiscollaboratingwithJSTORtodigitize,preserveandextendaccesstoAmericanJournalofArchaeologyhttp:wwwjstororgBOOKREVIEWSAuthorsandpublishersarerespectfullyrequestedtonotethatallreviewcopiesmustbesentdirectlytoDrKarenDVitelli,PrograminClassicalArchaeology,IndianaUniversity,NorthIndianaAvenue,Bloomington,IndianaTherevieweditorwillbegladtoreceiveanysuggestionsfromauthorsastonamesofpossiblereviewersUndernocircumstancesshouldabookbesenttoaspecificreviewerThefollowingareexcludedfromreviewandshouldnotbesent:offprintsreeditionsexceptthosewithgreatandsignificantchangesjournalvolumesexceptthefirstinanewseriesmonographsofverysmallsizeandscopeandbooksdealingwiththearchaeologyoftheNewWorldRECENTEXCAVATIONSATCARTHAGE:AREVIEWARTICLEMICHIGANTEAM:JohnHumphreyed,ExcavationsatCarthage,,ConductedbytheUniversityofMichigan(InstitutNationald'Archeologieetd'Art,AmericanSchoolsofOrientalResearch)Vol:TunisVols:KelseyMuseum,AnnArbor,,FIRSTCANADIANTEAM:PierreSenayed,CarthageVol(CahiersdesEtudesAnciennesCEA):MontrealVol(CEA):MontrealVol(CEA):TroisRivieresFRENCHTEAM:SergeLanceled,Byrsa:RapportsPreliminairesdesFouilles()(InstitutNationald'Archeologieetd'ArtdeTunisMissionarcheologiquefranaiseaCarthageCollectiondel'EcolefranpaisedeRome)ParisandRomeAdozencountrieshavesentteamstoparticipateinthe"SaveCarthage"campaignsponsoredbyUNESCOandorganizedbytheTunisianInstitutNationald'Archeologieetd'ArtTheresulthasbeennotonlyavastincreaseinourknowledgeofCarthagefromPunictimesthroughtotheArabconquestandbeyond,butasalutaryreevaluationofpreviousworkandoldassumptionsCarthagehasbeenastimulatingplacetoworkinforthesepastfewyears,partlybecauseithasbroughttogetherarchaeologistsfromsuchdifferentbackgroundsandtraditionsthattheyhavehadconstantlytojustify,tothemselves,ifnotinprint,theirmethodsandprioritiesThelapidaryphraseonceappliedtothegreatexcavationsatHalterninGermanyinthepreyearsappliesequallytoCarthageinthes:"DasganzeGrabungsgelandewurdeeineArchaologenschule"TeamshavedifferedfundamentallyintheirapproachtopublicationAtoneextreme,forinstance,theGermanandItalianteamshavesofarpublishedvirtuallynothing,althoughthoseofuswhowereprivilegedtohavevisitedtheirsiteswhileexcavationwasinprogressknowhowimportanttheirresultsareOtherteamshavepublishedannualreports,liketheBritishunderHenryHurstintheAntiquariesJournal,ortheSecondCanadianTeamunderthepresentreviewerandEdithWightmaninEchosdumondeclassiqueClassicalNewsandViewsOthershaveproducedsubstantialpreliminaryorinterimreports,liketheFrench,theDanes,theSwedes,andtheAmericanPunicTeamunderLEStagerThePolishteam,whichundertookaseasonofgeophysicalprospectionin,publisheditsresultstwoyearslaterButthetwoteamswhichmostexplicitlycommittedthemselvestopublishingeachyear'smaterialinextensowithaminimumofdelaywerethosefromtheUniversityofMichiganandtheUniversityofQuebec(theFirstCanadianTeam)ThevolumesunderreviewcomprisefourfromMichiganandthreefromQuebec,dealingineachcasewiththeworkofthefirsttwoseasons(morevolumeshaveappearedsince),plusthefirstofaseriesofvolumestobepublishedbytheFrenchteamBoththeMichiganandtheQuebecteamsproducedtheirfirstvolumes,withapreliminaryreportontheirfirstseason'sexcavation,withinafewmonthsHumphrey,havingfinishedhisfirstseasoninJuly,wroteinNovember,intheprefacetothefirstMichiganvolume:"Therapiditywithwhichthepresentvolumehasbeencompiledandprintedmaybejustified,ifjustificationisneeded,intermsofthewiderarchaeologicaleffortswhicharenowbeingmadeatCarthageItisplainlyintheinterestsofallthoseinvolvedtobeabletoprofitfromtheworkofotherswhiletheirownresearchesarestillproceeding"SenaytooinhisintroductiontothefirstQuebecvolumespeaksof"uneprogrammationtresserreepourproduiredanslesplusbrefsdelaiscerapportpreliminaireetlepublier"Letnooneunderestimatetheeffortinvolved,andanycriticismswhichmaybemadeshouldbetemperedbythereflectionthatthesevolumeswoulddoubtlesshavebeenmorepolishedhadtheirauthorsandeditorsnotmadespeedofpublicationapriorityTheMichiganteamwasexcavatingasitelyingbetweentheByrsaandtheharborsItisthereforelikelytohavebeenoccupiedfromPunictimesonwardItwas,however,decidedtoconcentrateontheperiodafterADEarlierlevelswerenotdisturbedExcavationcenteredonahouse,calledtheHouseoftheGreekCharioteers,afteramosaicfoundtherein,andtheecclesiasticalcomplexadjoininganearlyChristianbasilicaOccupationherecontinuedrightuptotheArabconquest(),andbeyondThesevolumescontainmorethansimpleAMERICANJOURNALOFARCHAEOLOGYreportsontheexcavationsandfindsVolume,inadditiontothe"PreliminaryFieldReport"byHumphreyandhisassistants,includesKMDDunbabinonmosaicsandpavements,JWHayesandJARileyonpottery,TVButtreyoncoins,andbriefnotesbyMHenigontwogemstonesandbyARosenbergonconservationmethodsTheinclusionofthislastitemillustrateswellthedesiretoshareknowledgeandsetupadiscussionofaimsandmethodswhiletherewasstilltimeforteamstoinfluenceoneanother'sprocedures,whichwasoneofthegoalsoftheseMichiganvolumesVolumecontainsastratigraphicreportontheseasonandalocuslist,Hayesonpotteryandglass,twovaluablearticlesbyRGBullardontheenvironmentalgeologyofRomanCarthageandonthemarblesusedforanopussectilefloor,areviewbyHumphreyofthePolishteam'swork,modifyingsomeoftheirconclusionsbasedongeophysicaldataaboutthecircus,areportonlampsfromCarthageintheMichigancollection(nothingtodowiththepresentexcavations),andasuperbcollectionofphotographsofCarthagetakenin,beforemodernbuildingstartedVolumeincludessectionsbyWHCFrendontheearlyChristianchurchatCarthage,JWEadieandHumphreyontopography,RLVannonthecisternsoftheMichigansite,withapromiseofmoredetailedstudyofcisternsandwatersupplylater(nowfulfilledwiththeappearanceofVolume,),DSReeseonthefaunalremains,FrendandHumphreyonChristianinscriptions,andagainastratigraphicreport,locuslists,andareportonotherworkintheseason,byHumphreyandhisassistantdirector,SPEllisVolumecontainsacontributionbyEllisonfieldtechniques,especiallytherecordingsystem,andonrobbertrenches,whichareanotablefeatureontheMichigansiteandelsewhereatCarthageItalsohasasubstantialpotteryreportbyHayes,assistedbyRiley,withButtreyandRBHitchneronthecoins,Humphreyontheuseofnumismaticevidence,Dunbabinonpavements,RIFordandNMilleronpaleoethnography,Vannonmortarsamples,andanarticlebyFMClover,"CarthageintheAgeofAugustine"ThislistgivessomeideaoftherichnessofthecontentsThequalityofthespecializedreportsishighHumphreymustbecongratulatedasmuchfortheskillwithwhichhechosehiscollaboratorsasfortheenergywithwhichheachievedsuchrapidpublicationThesevolumeswereasusefultootherteamsworkinginthesameperiodatCarthageasHumphreyhopedtheywouldbe:expertocredeThisbeingso,IhopeitisnotungeneroustorecordthatfindingthepreciseinformationonewantsisnotalwayseasyNodoubtthedifficultyresultsfromthespeedwithwhichthereportswerewrittenButcrossreferencingisminimal,andtherecordingsystemisnotalwayseasytofollowOnegetsusedtothedesignationofsquareswithsubscriptdigits(whysubscript),givingrisetosuchphrasesas"lociPUandMVand"Butthenonecomestoareportona"smallprobe"in"insulaD,K"embracing"partsofsquaresMCandB,"andonelongsforacrossreferencetoahandyplanIstheprintingoflocuslistsinextenso,occupyingpagesofvolumeandofvolume,trulynecessaryIftheaimistopublishalltherawdataonwhichinterpretationsarebased,thelocuslistsalreadyenshrineanelementofsubjectiveinterpretation,albeitskilledanddisciplinedsubjectivity,intheseparationofonelocusfromanother,inthedecisionthatheretherearetwodistinctstrata,herepreciselyistheinterfacebetweenonefeatureandanotherAllexcavationrecordsshouldbekeptandmadeavailabletoresearcherswishingtoconsultthematCarthagetheUNESCOsupportedDocumentationCenter(CEDAC)isbuildingupanarchiveofallteams'recordsonmicrofilmButistheexpenditureoftimeandcostinvolvedinpublishingcompletelistsbetweenhardcoversjustifiedNorindeedarethelists,aspublishedinthesevolumes,easytouse:easierinvolume,wheresimpleplansshowingwhereeachlocusliesappearadjacenttothetext,butquitedifficultinvolume,whereindividuallocicanonlybeidentified,ifatall,onthefoldingmapsattheendofthevolume,themselvesbynomeanseasytoconsultortorelatetooneanotherAlthoughthesearepreliminaryreports,whoseconclusionsmayneedtoberevisedinthelightoffurtherseasons'work,theexcavatorsmightnonethelesshavesummarizedtheirconclusionsinaclearerandmoreaccessibleform,asisdonebyHumphreyandJGPedleyin"RomanCarthage,"ScientificAmerican(an)EdSeealsoHumphreyinPedleyed,NewLightonAncientCarthage(AnnArbor)chArchaeologicalreportsarenotwrittenexclusivelyforotherarchaeologistsTheMichigancontributiontotheCarthageprojectisoneofthemostsignificant,andamodelofwhatcanbeachievedbyskillful,painstakingexcavationofadifficultand,atfirstsight,undramaticsiteItdeservestobewidelyknownThesiteexcavatedbytheFirstCanadianTeamunderPSenayisdifferentItsmainfeatureisthesocalledCircularMonument,inthenortheasternquarterofthecity,nearthetheaterWhatevertheMonumentis,itisundeniablydramaticBeforethepresentexcavationsstarted,twoconcentriccirclesofconcretepiersroseoutoftheravagescausedbypreviousexcavators,themostrecentofwhom,somethirtyyearsago,hadthoughtfullyplantedthemonumentwithfigtreesAsSenaysays,withevidentfeeling,"Toutcelan'aguerecontribueapreserverlesvestigesarchitecturaux,"andonecansympathizewithhiminthedauntingtaskwhichhefacedofremovinghispredecessors'spoilLittlewonderthatthefirstseasonlefttheteamstillinthedarkastothedateandfunctionofthemonument(vol,pp)ThefirstvolumeindeedcontainslittleofinterestVolume,however,ismoresubstantial,withtheexcavationreportonthesecondseason(),whilevolumecontainsreportsonfindsfromthefirsttwoseasons,withKMDDunbabinononeofthemosaics,LGuimondonthecoinsandagainonthepaintedplaster,MGazailleandAJABOOKREVIEWSFBeaulieuonthepottery,FChelbiandGTherrienonthepottery,andSenayandMBeauregardonthegeometricrhythmsofthemonumentTheconclusionsdrawnfromthesecondseason'sworkareunequivocallystated:ninemajorphasesaredistinguished,andtheconstructionofthemonumentissetinphase,datedtothesecondhalfofthethcentury,atwhichdateitismostlikelytobe"unedificecultuelchretien"(vol,p)Thereweremajoralterationsinthefirstquarterofthethcentury,probablyintheslaterinthecentury,themonumentfellintodisuse,toberestoredandsubstantiallyalteredaftertheByzantinereconquestItremainstobeseenwhethertheseconclusionswillstanduptofurtherinvestigationCertainlytheydonotseemwhollyjustifiedbytheevidencepublishedhereSomephrasesinspiredisquiet:havetheexcavatorsbeentoocategorical,toodogmaticWhatdoesitmeanwhenweread:"Ilestdifficiledepreciserlenombrederefectionsquecetteoccupationbyzantinepeutrecouvrircependant,pourlaclartedel'expose,onzeniveauxd'occupationoudedestructionontetedelimites"(vol,p)Elsewherewehearof"larelativesimplicitestratigraphique"ofthesite,duetothefactthat"lescouchessesuccedentverticalementlesinterruptionsetlesbouleversementssontsurtoutlefaitdespoliationsoudefouillesmodernes"(vol,p)Butrobbertrenchesdonotusuallymakethestratigraphysimple,andtheyarethemselvesavitalelementinworkingoutthehistoryofthesiteTheplansandsectionsareexcessivelyschematicandoftenimpossibletorelatetothetextTheyshowthedifferent"operations"and"sousoperations"tohavebeenquiteseparatefromoneanother,andonecannothelpwonderingtowhatextentitisreallypossibletoproducesodefinitiveandclearanaccountofthestratigraphyandphasingforthewholesite,orwhetherfutureseasonswillrevealmorelocalvariationThedatingproposeddependsofcourseonthepotteryandcoins,buttheseartifactsarenotpresentedinawaythatmakesiteasytotesttheevidenceInthecoinlists,itisstrangethat,whereButtreyintheMichiganvolumesrefershisVandalcoinsbacktoWroth,GuimondhererefersbackonlytoButtreyItisalsooddtofindtwothccoinslistedas"modern"TheandpotteryreportsarearrangedaccordingtodifferentprinciplesThereportisarrangedbydeposits,althoughonlyforoneareaofthesiteisthepotterydescribedindetailTherearenospecificcrossreferencestotheexcavationreportinvolumeThefinalsentencesreadlikeaconfessionofdespairbeforeaconfusedstratigraphyandafailuretoallowforthephenomenon,socommoninthisareaofCarthage,ofredispositionofearliermaterial:"Queconclureapartirdecetecartentrelaceramiqueitaliotethisapparentlymeansasinglesherd"fabriqueenItalieentrelesannees"etlasigilleeclairetardiveSinonquelessecteursetudiesrevelentuneoccupationfortancienne,etqu'ilsontetebouleversesnonseulementalaperiodepostLezine,maisencoreauxperiodesd'abandondusiteetd'implantationdumonument"(p)Isitpresumptuoustosuggestthatanydisturbanceshouldshowupinthestratigraphicrecord,andthatthepresenceofonesinglesherdoftherdcBCinacontextwhereapparently,apartfromonesherdofArretine,onestclampfragment,andonendcsherd,everythingelseisthcorlater,isnotevidenceforveryearlyoccupationThereportonthepottery,ontheotherhand,isarrangedbyperiodsandtypes,namelyblackgloss,Puniccoarsewares,andRoman,followed,however,byacataloguesetoutaccordingtolocusnumbersOnceagain,onewonderswhetherthereisnotatendencytoconfusethedateofthepotteryinagivendepositwiththedateatwhichthatdepositwaslaiddownWearetoldthatthePuniccoarsewares("ceramiquepuniquecommune,"comprisingmostlyamphorasherds)arefrequentinmostlayersandevenonthesurface,theirfrequencybeingexplainedbythepresenceofaPuniclayer,"tresprobablementcontemporainedeladestructiondeavantJesusChrist,"inEllButthecatalogueofpotteryfromEll,althoughcontainingafairamountofwhatisdescribedas"ceramiquepuniquecommune,"seemstoconsistexclusivelyofdepositsdatedexplicitlytotheAugustanageorthestcAC,apartfromonelocus,describedas"debrispunique,"whichseemstocomprisesixsherds,fourofthemRoman(p)IhavenosolutiontooffertothismysteryWecomefinallytotheFrenchvolume,ByrsaIThisisdividedintofourpartsPartsurveysacenturyofexcavationontheByrsa,fromBeuleonwardsBecauseitdominatesthelandscape,becauseitwasfromearlyonidentifiedwiththehistoricByrsa,thishillwasamagnetfordiggersThischapter,byLancelandDeneauve,isatourdeforce,whichmakessenseofthescatteredandinadequaterecordsoftheirpredecessorsandservesasanessentialpreliminarytotheexcavationscarriedoutsincebywhatarenowtwoFrenchteams,oneunderSLancelinvestigatingthePuniclevelsburieddeepbeneaththeRomanfillonthesoutheasternsideofthehill,theotherunderPGrosandJDeneauveinvestigatingtheRomanstructureswhichonceoccupiedthegreatplatformontopofthehillcreatedunderAugustusandnowoccupiedbytheCarthagemuseumandtheformercathedralPartsanddealwiththeexcavations,mostlyinthePunicareaHereLancel,likeSenayattheCircularMonument,hadtocopewiththedepredationsofhispredecessors,andheeloquentlydeplorestheravagesofweatherandofstonerobbersonthestructureswhichhispredecessorsuncoveredandleftexposedHisownaccountisamodeloflucidityBeneaththeBCdestructionlayerwasawellpreservedresidentialquarterThePuniclayoutfollowedthecontoursofthehill:"lesaxestournentaveclacollineetlesmaisonssemblentavoirassezsouplementepouseunreliefdontlescontraintesdemeuraient,malgrequelquesnivellements"(pp)Thissignificantdiscoverycorrectsearlierexcavators'erroneoushypothesesExcavationselseAMERICANJOURNALOFARCHAEOLOGYAMERICANJOURNALOFARCHA

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