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首页 ANCIENT TRADE ROUTES FROM CARTHAGE.pdf

ANCIENT TRADE ROUTES FROM CARTHAGE.pdf

ANCIENT TRADE ROUTES FROM CARTH…

上传者: cesar 2010-04-29 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《ANCIENT TRADE ROUTES FROM CARTHAGEpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含AmericanGeographicalSocietyAncientTradeRoutesfromCarthageintotheSaharaAuth符等。

AmericanGeographicalSocietyAncientTradeRoutesfromCarthageintotheSaharaAuthor(s):CountByronKhundeProrokSource:GeographicalReview,Vol,No(Apr,),ppPublishedby:AmericanGeographicalSocietyStableURL:http:wwwjstororgstableAccessed::YouruseoftheJSTORarchiveindicatesyouracceptanceofJSTOR'sTermsandConditionsofUse,availableathttp:wwwjstororgpageinfoaboutpoliciestermsjspJSTOR'sTermsandConditionsofUseprovides,inpart,thatunlessyouhaveobtainedpriorpermission,youmaynotdownloadanentireissueofajournalormultiplecopiesofarticles,andyoumayusecontentintheJSTORarchiveonlyforyourpersonal,noncommercialusePleasecontactthepublisherregardinganyfurtheruseofthisworkPublishercontactinformationmaybeobtainedathttp:wwwjstororgactionshowPublisherpublisherCode=agsEachcopyofanypartofaJSTORtransmissionmustcontainthesamecopyrightnoticethatappearsonthescreenorprintedpageofsuchtransmissionJSTORisanotforprofitservicethathelpsscholars,researchers,andstudentsdiscover,use,andbuilduponawiderangeofcontentinatrusteddigitalarchiveWeuseinformationtechnologyandtoolstoincreaseproductivityandfacilitatenewformsofscholarshipFormoreinformationaboutJSTOR,pleasecontactsupportjstororgAmericanGeographicalSocietyiscollaboratingwithJSTORtodigitize,preserveandextendaccesstoGeographicalReviewhttp:wwwjstororgANCIENTTRADEROUTESFROMCARTHAGEINTOTHESAHARAByCOUNTBYRONKHUNDEPROROKGeneralDirectoroftheExcavationsofCarthageThenewexcavationsnowinprogressatCarthage'haverevealedmanyobjectsandelementsstrangetothePhoeniciancultureoftheancientcityIntheTempleofTanithavebeenfoundworksofartisticdesignpurelyEgyptiansomeoftheobjectsdiscoveredareoforiginunknownothersprobablyderivefromtheinteriorofAfricaIthasbeenfrequentlypointedoutthat,greatasistheobstacleimposedbytheSahara,ithasneverbeenacompletebarriertointercourseandinprehistorictimesprobablywaslesssothantodayGselldescribesNorthAfrica(Barbary)asaveritableisland,"theIsleoftheWest,"astheArabssay,surroundedbytheMediterraneanSea,theAtlanticOcean,anda"seaofsand"TheestablishmentofthePhoeniciancolonies,especiallyCarthage(ooBC),ontheMediterraneancoastsofAfricamusthavegreatlystimulatedatransSaharantradewhicharcheologyindicateswasalreadyinprogressandwecanimaginethataspecialimpetusmusthavebeengivenbythefamousvoyageofHannotothewesterncoastofAfricainBC,asisrelatedinthePeriplusofScylaxtheGreekForthetransSaharantrafficingoldandpreciousstones,ivoryandelephants,andslaves,CarthagewasthecentraloutletItremainsforustotracetheroutesofthisoldtradeModernmeansofscientificexplorationarenowopeninguptothegeographerandarcheologistareasthathithertohavebeendifficultanddangerousofaccessEspeciallyisthistrueoftheautomobileandairplaneThegreatexplorersofAfrica,suchmenasBarth,Rohlfs,andDuveyrier,wereintrepidpioneersbuttheirresearcheswererestrictedbecauseoftheslowrateoftravelbycamelandbecauseoftheantagonismofdeserttribes,nowforthemostpartsubjugatedManyanexpeditionsentouttoexploretheSaharahasmetdeathatthehandsoftheTuaregsAterribledisasterwasthatwhichovercameColonelFlatters'expeditionwhengomenperished(ii)Inthecourseofourworkthecomingseasonwehopetobringbackspecimensoftheextremelypoisonousdesertplant(Hyoscyamusfalezlez)which,mixedwithdatesandgivenbytreacherousnativestotheillfatedexpedition,contributedtothefinaldisasterItwasonlyinIIthatFatherFoucauldwasmassacredbyTuaregsatTamanrassetonthesouthernedgeoftheAhaggarTheconquestofthedesertbymodernmeansoflocomotionwasbeendescribedbyEFGautierintheprecedingnumberoftheSeetheauthor'spaper:RecentResearchesonthePeninsulaofCarthage,GeogrJourn,Vol,I,ppIIStephaneGsell:L'AlgeriedansF'antiquite,newedit,Algiers,r,piIFIGFIGFIGiPanoramaoverthesiteofRomanCarthageFIGTheendoftheRomanroadthatinantiquityreachedtheislandofJerbabyacausewaynowsubmergedInsummerthewaterislowenoughforcamelstocross,whenceitisknowntotheArabsasthe"camelbridge"''GULFTUNISIAlJtaaTUNISOBoeISDoOeeniW>,VQ*^X~~~~~~~~~~~~~KILOMETERS*BuUaeilasaTtnssaThibeebOSgghwanv*RomanroadsDuggae~aghwasIvesteancientnamnea^i,vr,reufTebessamoderntetccpVeenegeeojo'v*j=eVt)taX*<AmeRalrwan,jmreSufes,'TeapaustdheeeOtIetataerc~~~~~~~~~~~~~Oah~diaTebessnntESa|sKvamerza~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~r,,<,,t,r,,tC'tLUMIAMaeennooRoeyefwe,anag*vs,EE''>^s$iGoNsANarA~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,,,*,"'aar,,,,e,,,andolaCANARYIS'Aghadamenii,,onDZwiraataaCHEGEOoRBlancwtRSbAIAanrWthagiTM~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'mEOEGReEeeEW,Aeeman~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'lean(Tissot,withadditionsfromMuller)ScaleI'OBelow:mapofnorthernAfricatoshowsituationofCarthageinrelationtotheSaharaasawholeScaleapproximatelyI'Soooo~~~~~~~~~~~~~rFIGFIGFIGFIGTheamphitheaterofThysdrus(ElJem),oneofthefinestmonumentsofRomanruleinNorthAfricaFIGTracesoftheRomanroadatTacape(Gabes)FIGInthecountryoftheMatmatas(southoftheroadfromGab~stoMWdenine)Hereareprehistoriccaves,the"eagle'snest,"andcavedwellingsofthemodernBerberinhabitantsandasymbolofthepeacethathasrenderedtheserefugesunnecessarytheFrenchgarrison'ITHEGEOGRAPHICALREVIEWGeographicalReviewButtheconqueststillseemsonlypartialMGautierremindedusofthetragicdeathofGeneralLaperrineinanairplaneaccidentintheAdrardesIforhasinIThelatestnewsconcerningthewidelyadvertisedplanofanautomobiletouristroutetoTimbuktuisthatMCitroenhasbeencompelledtoabandonitbecauseoftheattitudeoftheSaharantribesmenBut,whateverthefateofcommercialtransSaharanschemes,theauto,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~FIGFIGFIGSandThestrangemanystorieddwellingsofMedenine,knownasghorfa(seereferenceinfootnote)mobilewillbecomeanindispensableadjuncttoscientificexpeditionsThesavingthatcanbeeffectedbyitsuseisimmenseWhatittookDuveyrierandColonelFlatterstenweekstotraversecannowbedoneinasmanydaysOurtask,however,istoexploremethodicallythegroundthatiscrossedTwentyyearsagoadetailedscientificstudyofthegreatcentralplateauoftheSahara,theAhaggar,wouldhavebeenimpossibleItisourhopetoexploremethodicallyandprogressivelythislittleknownregionTocomprehendtheimportanceofCarthageasacenterofroutestotheinterioronemustrealizeitssituationinrelationtotheAhaggarmassifandthedepressionofFezzanlyingbetweenthisandtheTibestimassifTherouteofFezzanoffersthebestnaturalroadtotheSudanasregardstopogEFGautier:TheTransSaharanRailway,GeogrRev,VolI,I,ppICARTHAGEANDTHESAHARAIraphyandwatersupplyOnecannotdobetterthanquotethefollowingsummary:FortransSaharancommunicationstheFezzanoffersthemostimportanthistoricalrouteaftertheNileAnintimationofthisistobefoundinthepersistenceoftheancientgeographicalnamesMonsAter,Phazania,JermaGarama,whichpreservestheillustriousnameoftheGaramantesandontheeventswhichexplainthispersistencewehavehistoricallightTheSyrteswerealmostcompletelyunderCarthaginiandominion,anditisclearthattheCarthaginianswereinterestedintransSaharancommerceHerodotus,fiveFIGFIGIOFIGThePunicmauisoleumatDugga,restoredbytheServicedesAntiquitsFIGioThecapitolofThuigga(Dugga)centuriesbeforeChrist,knewtheroadofFezzanTheRomanEmpire,successorofCarthage,exercisedmoreorlesscontroloverPhazaniatimeandagainitsentthithermilitaryexpeditionsHistoryhaspreservedtherecordoftwoRomanexpeditionsthatpushedtheirwaythroughFezzantothecountryofthehippopotamiTheEmpireleftarcheologicalmonumentsthereasfarsouthasGarama(todayJerma),theancientcapitalofFezzanPlinygivesusdetailedinformationconcerningthetworoadswhichstillconnectTripolitaniaandFezzanThelongerandeasier,becauseitiswellfurnishedwithsourcesofwater,passesbySoknaandMonsAterTheRomansunderVespasianinADdiscoveredanotherroutetothewestwhichreducedthejourneybytendaysbutwhichwasmuchharderThisistheroutefromTripolitoMurzukfollowedbyBarth,whocrossedthesolitudesoftheHammadaelHlomraAllthisisperfectlydefiniteknowledgeThiscountry,whoseexistencefortwomillenniumshasbeenboundupwithitssituationonahighway,ITHEGEOGRAPHICALREVIEWnaturallyoffereditsfacilitiestoEuropeanexplorersItwasbyFezzanthatBarthsucceededincarryingoutthefirstscientificjourneyacrosstheSaharatothecentralSudanAfterhimRohlfs,Duveyrier,andNachtigalwerecordiallyreceivedintheFezzanandsojournedthereItisthemostopenpartoftheSaharaCARTHAGETOGHADAMESBYGIGTHISOnthewesternborderoftheFezzanbetweenJermaandCarthageliesGhadames,theancientCydamussubduedbytheRomanBalbusinhismarchontheGaramantesThereisnodoubtthatGhadameshasbeenagreattradingcenterfromearliesttimesDuveyrierfoundthereEgyptiansculpturesandbelievesthattheplacehasbeeninhabitedsinceitsprehistoricfoundation'Hespeakswithgreatadmirationoftheenterpriseofitsinhabitants,theorganizationandextentofthetransSaharantradeinevidenceatthetimeofhisvisitLastyearourexpeditionvisitedtheprobableroutesandtradingpostsbetweenCarthageandthedesertThefirstoftheseroutesledviaGigthistothesouthoftheGulfofGabesThissectionconstitutedapartofthegreatRomanroadofthelittoralrunningwestandeastofCarthagetothefarthestextremitiesofRomanAfricaRegardingitandtheotherRomanroadsinAfricatwopricelessdocumentshavecomedowntousfromthelaterdaysoftheEmpire,theAntonineItineraryandthatknownastheTabulaPeutingerianaTheformergivesthedistancesandpositionsofstationsalongtheroadsandrestingplaces(mansiones)butomitsinterveningtownsorvillagesThePeutingertablegivesallthemilitaryroads,thestationsandcities,templesandbathsandstorehousesonthewayInsomeinstancesthetwodocumentssupplementeachother,theAntonineItinerary,forinstance,givingdatafortheTunisianinterior(Byzacium)andtheSyrtianSeaareawherethePeutingertableisdeficientTissothasdiscussedtheidentificationoftheroadsintheTunisianregionontheseandotherbases,andmorerecentlytheyhavebeeninterpretedbyKonradMillerFromCarthageourroad,avoidingtheprotuberanceofCapeBon,proceedssouthtotheRomanPutput,whenceitrunsalongtheshorebytheancientAphrodisium,Hadrumetum(Susa),LeptisMinor,andThapsusThencethemainhighwayrunsthroughThysdrus(ElJem),oneofthechieffociontheroute,nolessthansixroadsmeetinghereBeforeGigthisisreachedwepasstheimportantstationofTacape(Gabes)andtheportforthelesserSyrtis(GulfofGabAs)TheRomanroadisvisibleeveryfewmilesalongtheway,andmanyoldbridgesandmilestonesaretobeseenThemilestonesareparticularlyilluminatingTheystandsolidlyuprightinheavystonebasesAttheheadisoftenthenameoftheemperorunderwhoserulethestonewaserectedEFGautier:LeSahara,Paris,I,ppIHenriDuveyrier:LesTouaregduNord,Voli,Paris,I,ppCharlesTissot:Geographiecompareedelaprovinceromained'Afrique,vols,Paris,i,ireferenceinVol,ppIOKonradMiller:ItinerariaRomana,Stuttgart,IIFIGIIFIGIFIGSIIandIRuinsofThugga(Dugga)inlthemidstofcenturyoldolivetreesThuggalayslightlyoffthemilitaryroadfromCarthagetoThevesteIFIGIE~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~FIGFIGThegreatruinsofThuburboMajusnowbeingexcavatedbytheServicedesAntiquitsFIGIThefineRomanbridgeatSufetula(Sbeitla)FIGIFIGiFIGxsThethreetemplesofSufetula(Sbeitla)Littleisknownofthem:theywereprobablydedicatedtoJupiter,Juno,andMinervaFIGiTriumphalarchofSufetula(Sbeitla)erectedunderDiocletian'THEGEOGRAPHICALREVIEWthencomethedistancestoandfromagreatcenter,oftenCarthageThedateofcompletionoftheroadisgiven,andthecarryingoutofimprovementsundersuchandsuchanemperorTheinscriptionsalsogivealistofthedifficultiestobeencounteredaheadmarshes,mountains,torrents,I*FIGIReconstructedRomanbridgeintheSelja,arouteleadingtotheSaharawaterlessstretches,etc,andtheyindicatetheclassofroad,whetheramainhighwayoralocalarteryTheroutetoGigthis,however,wasPhoenicianbeforeitwasRoman,andonthewaywepassthePunicemporiaonthesitesofthepresentMahdia,Slakta,andTina(Thenae)AncientGigthisitselfwasthehalfwaycitytoOea(Tripoli),LeptisMagna,andCydamus(Ghadames)ThecountryimmediatelysouthofGigthisoffersmuchofinterestinhumangeographybothancientandmodernHere,forinstance,arethecuriousandoften~~~~~~likhuesvradescribedcavedwellingsAtMe'deninetherearecelliehussvrastorieshigh,andatMatmatatherearehouseshavingseveralstoriesundergroundMatmataoccupiesadefensivesiteinthehills'AFrenchfortressSeenoteon"TheRuralHabitationsofTunisia"inthisnumberoftheReviewCfJRussellSmith:TheDesert'sEdge,BullAmerGeogrSoc,Vol,II,ppICARTHAGEANDTHESAHARAIhasbeenestablishedthereneartheRomanoutpostofantiquityfacingTripolitaniaandtheSaharaNorthofGigthisliestheislandofJerba(theancientMeninx),inancientdaysreachedbyacausewayfourkilometerslong(seeFig)Today,asthen,itscultivationisinmostflourishingFIGiAgatewaytotheSahara:thegorgesofSeljacondition,thankstotheindustryofitsinhabitantsTheislandandtheadjacentmainlandwerethelandofthelotuseatersFromGigthistracesofancientruinsandroutesareseenleadingsouthacrossthemountainsfromtheJebelDwiratinthedirectionofGhadamesandthefarthermostSaharaInidentificationoftheoldtraderoutesattentionshouldbecalledtotheimportanceofthewatersources,thoughofcoursesomehavebeendugmorerecentlyandsomehavebeenfilledinTocolonizenorthernAfricainantiquity,astoday,twothingswereessentialwaterandmeansofcommunicationInthesummermonthsthereisverylittlerainfallThevastconstructionsbuiltbytheRomansandstillstandingseemtoindicatethattheclimatehasnotchangedmateriallyintwentycenturiesAtCarthagethe"CisternsoftheDevil,"PastheyarecalledbytheArabs,arestillused:theyholdmillionsofgallonsofwaterOnourwaysouthwepassedmanyaqueTHEGEOGRAPHICALREVIEWductsofbeautifulworkmanship,notablyatAphrodisiumandSbeitla(onoursecondroute)BetweenCarthageandMtZaghwanthereisanaqueductgokilometersinlengththatusedtocarrysixmilliongallonsofwateradaytothemetropolis,supplyingapopulationof,soulsCARTHAGETOTHESAHARABYSBEITLAANDNEFTAItwasbythisgreataqueduct,passingtheRomanUthinaandThuburboMajusontheway,thatwetookoursecondrouteoutofCarthagetothedesertBoththecitiesmentionedareatpresentbeingexcavatedbytheServicedesAntiquites,andarichharvestisbeingreapedFromThuburboMajustheoldroadleadstoSbiba,theancientSufes,thentoSbeitla,theancientSufetulaTheroadnowpassesthroughaveritableparkofruins,anopenairmuseum,withasuccessionofsplendidedificessilhouettedagainstthebluebackgroundoftheAfricanskyPartsoftheRomanroadareinanexcellentstateofpreservationhereThenextgreatruinsarethoseofCillium(Kasserine)andThelepteHereaportionoftheroadrecallstheAppianWaynearRome,foritislinedwithtombsVariousmethodsadoptedbytheRomansfortheprotectionoftheroadsareillustratedinthissectionInoneplace,forinstance,wheretheearthisclayeyandeasilywashedawayretainingwallshavebeenbuiltthatthrowtheWaterintosluicespassingundertheroadInsomeplacesdamshavebeenbuilttokeeptheriversincheckSouthofTheleptetheroadrunsthroughthewonderfulgorgesofSelja,calledbytheArabsthegatewayoftheSaharaIntheircolorsthegorgesrecalltheGrandCanyonoftheColorado,andtheirfantasticallycarvedwallshavecausedthemtobecursedinthelegendsoftheArabsTheRomanroaddisappearsonthesideofthegorge,butwecantraceremainsofaRomanaqueductthatcarriedthewatersoftheSeljaRiverintonowwaterlessdesertcountryThereareprehistoricsitesinthegorgesofSeljaandthemountainsaroundGafsa,Tamerza,andRedeyefTheCarthaginianExplorationSocietyisundertakingaseparateexpeditiontoexcavateandexplorethemTheroutenowapproachestheedgeoftheSaharaandleadstoNefta(theancientNepta)andtoTozeur(theancientThusurus),theregionwhereinearlytimesdweltthefamoustribesoftheGaetuliNeftaandTozeurareontheborderoftheregionofthegreatshotts,thelegendaryLakesoftheTritonsItisthoughtthatthelakesonceconnectedwiththeGulfofGabes:themouthoftheriveroftheTritons(nowknownastheWadMalah)isplacednearGabesNeftahasbeennamedbytheArabs"MesraesSahara"(PortoftheSahara)Thismayoncehavebeentrueliterally,asitisnowfigurativelyTissotspeaksoftheremainsofaRomangalleyfoundbytheArabsintheShottelJeridHealsogivesaneffectivedescriptionofthecrossingofthelakes,verydifficultexceptinsummerwhentheydryupIno,Tijeni,theArabhistorian,recountsTissot,opcit,VolI,pI:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:::s~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:Wi,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~''=XI~:~!J!I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,,I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~::i:::i:

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