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首页 the_cambridge_companion_to_wittgenstein

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TheCambridgeCompaniontoWITTGENSTEINEditedbyHansSlugaDavidCStemUniversityofCalifomia,BerkeleyUniversityofCalifomia,BerkeleyCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSPublishedbythePressSyndicateoftheUniversItyofCambndgeThePIttBuilding,TrumpmgtonStreet,CambridgeCBIRPWestthStreet,NewYork,NYIIII,USAStamfordRoad,Oakleigh,Melbourne,Australia©CambndgeUniversityPressFirstpublishedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataTheCambridgecompaniontoWittgensteineditedbyHansSluga,DavidGStempcmIncludesbibliographicalreferences(p)ISBN(hardcover)ISBN(pbk)IWittgenstein,Ludwig,ISluga,HansDIIStem,DavidGBWCdCAcatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNhardbackpaperbackCIPCONTENTSContributorsAbbreviationsLudwigWittgenstein:LifeandworkAnintroductionHANSSLUGAWittgenstein'scritiqueofphilosophyROBERTIFOGELINPictures,logic,andthelimitsofsenseinWittgenstein'sTractatusTHOMASRICKETTSFittingversustracking:WittgensteinonrepresentationDONNAMSUMMERFIELDPhilosophyasgrammarNEWTONGARVERpagevllIXAphilosophyofmathematicsbetweentwocampsI'llSTEVEGERRARDNecessityandnormativityHANSJOHANNGLOCKWittgenstein,mathematics,andethics:ResistingtheattractionsofrealismCORADIAMONDVviContentsNotesandafterthoughtsontheopeningofWittgenstein'sInvestigationsSTANLEYCAVELLMind,meaning,andpracticeBARRYSTROUD"Whosehouseisthat"WittgensteinontheselfHANSSLUGAThequestionoflinguisticidealismrevisitedDAVIDBLOORFormsoflife:MappingtheroughgroundNAOMISCHEMANCertaintiesofaworldpicture:TheepistemologicalinvestigationsofOnCertaintyMICHAELKOBERTheavailabilityofWittgenstein'sphilosophyDAVIDGSTERNBibliographyIndexCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,HANSSLUGALudwigWittgenstein:LifeandworkAnintroductioniLudwigWittgensteinoccupiesauniqueplaceintwentiethcenturyphilosophyandheisforthatreasondifficulttosubsumeundertheusualphilosophicalcategoriesWhatmakesitdifficultisfirstofalltheunconventionalcastofhismind,theradicalnatureofhisphilosophicalproposals,andtheexperimentalformhegavetotheirexpressionThedifficultyismagnifiedbecausehecametophilosophyundercomplexconditionswhichmakeitplausibleforsomeinterpreterstoconnecthimwithFrege,Russell,andMoore,withtheViennaCircle,OxfordLanguagePhilosophy,andtheanalytictraditioninphilosophyasawhole,whileothersbringhimtogetherwithSchopenhauerorKierkegaard,withDerrida,ZenBuddhism,oravantgardeartAddtothisaculturallyresonantbackground,anatypicallife(atleastforamodernphilosopher),andaforcefulyettroubledpersonalityandthedifficultyiscompleteTosomehemayappearprimarilyasatechnicalphilosopher,buttoothershewillbefirstandforemostanintriguingbiographicalsubject,aculturalicon,oranexemplaryfigureintheintellectuallifeofthecenturyOurfascinationwithWittgensteinis,soitseems,afunctionofourbewildermentoverwhohereallyisandwhathisworkstandsforIILudwigWittgensteinwasborninViennainastheyoungestsonofKarlWittgenstein,aselfmadeentrepreneurandoneoftherichestmenintheAustriaofhistimeThefamilywasonbothsideslargelyCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,HANSSLUGALudwigWittgenstein:LifeandworkAnintroductionILudwigWittgensteinoccupiesauniqueplaceintwentiethcenturyphilosophyandheisforthatreasondifficulttosubsumeundertheusualphilosophicalcategoriesWhatmakesitdifficultisfirstofalltheunconventionalcastofhismind,theradicalnatureofhisphilosophicalproposals,andtheex­perimentalformhegavetotheirexpressionThedifficultyismagni­fiedbecausehecametophilosophyundercomplexconditionswhichmakeitplausibleforsomeinterpreterstoconnecthimwithFrege,Russell,andMoore,withtheViennaCircle,OxfordLanguagePhilosophy,andtheanalytictraditioninphilosophyasawhole,whileothersbringhimtogetherwithSchopenhauerorKierkegaard,withDerrida,ZenBuddhism,oravantgardeartAddtothisacultur­allyresonantbackground,anatypicallife(atleastforamodemphilosopher),andaforcefulyettroubledpersonalityandthediffi­cultyiscompleteTosomehemayappearprimarilyasatechnicalphilosopher,buttoothershewillbefirstandforemostanintriguingbiographicalsubject,aculturalicon,oranexemplaryfigureintheintellectuallifeofthecentury'OurfascinationwithWittgensteinis,soitseems,afunctionofourbewildermentoverwhohereallyisandwhathisworkstandsforIILudwigWittgensteinwasborninViennainastheyoungestsonofKarlWittgenstein,aselfmadeentrepreneurandoneoftherichestmenintheAustriaofhistimeThefamilywasonbothsideslargelyICambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,THECAMBRIDGECOMPANIONTOWITTGENSTEINofJewishextractionbuthadbecomeChristianizedacoupleofgenerationsearlierWittgenstein'sgreatgrandfather,MosesMayer,hadadoptedthefamily'snew,distinguishednameandhadbaptizedhissonunderthenameHermannChristianThoughtheJewishheritagehad,thus,apparentlybeenleftbehind,itwastoprovealastingburdenonLudwigWittgenstein'sownmindIntheearlysheconsidereditnecessaryto"confess"hisJewishnesstohisclosestassociates*AndalludingtoathoughtfromOttoWeininger'sSexandCharacterhewroteinhisdiary:"EventhegreatestofJewishthinkersisnomorethantalented(Myselfforinstance)"(CV,p)TohisfriendDruryhesaidataboutthesametime:"IamnotareligiousmanbutIcannothelpseeingeveryproblemfromareligiouspointofview"Andheaddedtothismuchlater:"MythoughtsareonehundredpercentHebraic"*IfWittgenstein'sthinkingwas,indeed,onehundredpercentHebraic,hiswasaprofoundlyselfdoubtingJudaismwhichhadalwaysthepossibilityofcollapsingintoadestructiveselfhatred(asitdidinWeininger'scase)butwhichalsoheldanimmensepromiseofinnovationandgeniusItwasastateofmindthatlayatthecoreoflateViennesecultureandoftheachievementsofmenlikeFreud,Mauthner,Kraus,andSchoenbergItwasalsowhatmadeWittgenstein'sphilosophicalachievementspossibleAtthesametimeitremainedforhimaconstantsourceofpainandofconstantconflictwithpaternalauthorityWittgenstein'sfatherhadmadehimselfaleaderintheAustroHungariansteelindustrythroughtheforceofhisdomineeringpersonalityButthesequalitieswerealsothesourceofpersistenttensionsinhisrelationswithhisfivesonsandthreedaughtersKarlWittgensteinhadpreciseexpectationsforeachofthemandinsistedthathissonsshouldfollowhiminbusinessSuchpressuresjoinedtoavulnerabilityinheritedfromthemother'ssideofthefamilyeventuallyledtothesuicideofthreeofLudwig'solderbrothersHe,too,sufferedfromdepressionsandforlongperiodsconsideredkillinghimselfbecauseheconsideredhislifeworthless,butthestubbornnessinheritedfromhisfathermayhavehelpedhimtosurviveHowproblematictherelationsbetweenfatherandsonwereisillustratedbyLudwig'sabandonmentofthepursuitofengineeringonwhichhehadembarkedathisfather'sinsistencewhenthelatterfellseriouslyillandhewasensconcedabroadattheUniversityofManchesterItisequallytellingthat,afterhisfather'sdeath,hegavepartofhisCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,THECAMBRIDGECOMPANIONTOWITTGENSTEINofJewishextractionbuthadbecomeChristianizedacoupleofgenera­tionsearlierWittgenstein'sgreatgrandfather,MosesMayer,hadadoptedthefamily'snew,distinguishednameandhadbaptizedhissonunderthenameHermannChristianThoughtheJewishheritagehad,thus,apparentlybeenleftbehind,itwastoprovealastingburdenonLudwigWittgenstein'sownmindIntheearlySheconsidereditnecessaryto"confess"hisJewishnesstohisclosestassociatesAndalludingtoathoughtfromOttoWeininger'sSexandCharacterhewroteinhisdiary:"EventhegreatestofJewishthinkersisnomorethantalented(Myselfforinstance)"(CVp)TohisfriendDruryhesaidataboutthesametime:"IamnotareligiousmanbutIcannothelpseeingeveryproblemfromareligiouspointofview"Andheaddedtothismuchlater:"MythoughtsareonehundredpercentHebraic"IfWittgenstein'sthinkingwas,indeed,onehundredpercentHebraic,hiswasaprofoundlyselfdoubtingJuda­ismwhichhadalwaysthepossibilityofcollapsingintoadestructiveselfhatred(asitdidinWeininger'scase)butwhichalsoheldanim­mensepromiseofinnovationandgeniusItwasastateofmindthatlayatthecoreoflateViennesecultureandoftheachievementsofmenlikeFreud,Mauthner,Kraus,andSchoenbergItwasalsowhatmadeWittgenstein'sphilosophicalachievementspossibleAtthesametimeitremainedforhimaconstantsourceofpainandofcon­stantconflictwithpaternalauthorityWittgenstein'sfatherhadmadehimselfaleaderintheAustro­Hungariansteelindustrythroughtheforceofhisdomineeringper­sonalityButthesequalitieswerealsothesourceofpersistentten­sionsinhisrelationswithhisfivesonsandthreedaughtersKarlWittgensteinhadpreciseexpectationsforeachofthemandinsistedthathissonsshouldfollowhiminbusinessSuchpressuresjoinedtoavulnerabilityinheritedfromthemother'ssideofthefamilyeventu­allyledtothesuicideofthreeofLudwig'solderbrothersHe,too,sufferedfromdepressionsandforlongperiodsconsideredkillinghimselfbecauseheconsideredhislifeworthless,butthestubborn­nessinheritedfromhisfathermayhavehelpedhimtosurviveHowproblematictherelationsbetweenfatherandsonwereisillustratedbyLudwig'sabandonmentofthepursuitofengineeringonwhichhehadembarkedathisfather'sinsistencewhenthelatterfellseriouslyillandhewasensconcedabroadattheUniversityofManchesterItisequallytellingthat,afterhisfather'sdeath,hegavepartofhisCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,IntroductioninheritanceawaytodeservingartistsandtheresttohissiblingsThroughthecourseofWittgenstein'slifewedetecthisneedtorejectpaternalauthoritynotonlythatofhisownfatherintheflesh,butsubsequentlyalsothatofhisspiritualfatherBertrandRussellandeventuallythatoftheentire"greatstreamofEuropeanandAmericancivilization'ashewroteinthesThisspiritofrebellionwascharacteristicofthecultureoffindesiecleViennainwhichhegrewupTheWittgensteinfamilybelongedtothatsmallsocialgroupfromwhichtheartistic,intellectual,andscientificachievementsofthatcultureemergedSuchillustriousfiguresoflateImperialViennaasJohannesBrahmsandGustavMahler,KarlKraus,SigmundFreud,andAdolfLoos,GustavKlimtandOskarKokoschkaareall,insomewayorother,linkedtothefamily'snameThoughWittgensteinspenthisacademiclifeinEngland,theeffectsofhisearlyupbringingareclearlyvisibleinhisthinkingAmongthosewhoinfluencedhisthoughtweresuchcharacteristicallyViennesefiguresasthephysicistRudolfBoltzmann,thephilosophersErnstMachandMoritzSchlick,SigmundFreudandthephilosopherofsexualityOttoWeininger,thecriticandphilosopheroflanguageFritzMauthner,thepoliticalandculturalsatiristKarlKraus,andAdolfLoos,thearchitectWittgensteinfoundinthemanexhilaratingsenseofthenew,linkedinacharacteristicallyViennesefashiontoasweepingpessimismandskepticismForFreudandWeininger,KrausandMauthner,asformanyothers,includingWittgensteinhimself,theworldwascastinthelightofSchopenhauer'sromanticpessimismThereemerged,thus,aparadoxicalcombinationofconservatismandavantgardism,anostalgiccommitmenttotheidealsofadissolvingpastlinkedtoasearchfornewformsandideasAdolfLoos'sdesignofaskyscraperintheformofagiganticDoriccolumnis,perhaps,emblematicforthispeculiarconjunctionInWittgenstein'sworkitshowsitselfinapreoccupationwithlanguageandthemind,withmathematicsandscience,socharacteristicforthenewcurrentsinViennesethinking,coupledtoanexceedinglysomberviewoflifeandaprofoundlyexistentialconceptionoftheselfWittgenstein'sconfidencethathehaddiscoveredanewkindofphilosophizingisthustiedtohisunvaryingcertaintythatweliveindarktimesIntheprefacetothePhilosophicalInvestigationshewrotedespondentlyin:"Itisnotimpossiblethatitshouldfalltothelotofthiswork,initspovertyCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,IntroductioninheritanceawaytodeservingartistsandtheresttohissiblingsThroughthecourseofWittgenstein'slifewedetecthisneedtorejectpaternalauthoritynotonlythatofhisownfatherintheflesh,butsubsequentlyalsothatofhisspiritualfatherBertrandRussellandeventuallythatoftheentire"greatstreamofEuropeanandAmeri­cancivilization,"ashewroteintheISThisspiritofrebellionwascharacteristicofthecultureoffinde­sieceViennainwhichhegrewupTheWittgensteinfamilybe­longedtothatsmallsocialgroupfromwhichtheartistic,intellec­tual,andscientificachievementsofthatcultureemergedSuchillustriousfiguresoflateImperialViennaasJohannesBrahmsandGustavMahler,KarlKraus,SigmundFreud,andAdolfLoos,GustavKlimtandOskarKokoschkaareall,insomewayorother,linkedtothefamily'snameThoughWittgensteinspenthisacademiclifeinEngland,theeffectsofhisearlyupbringingareclearlyvisibleinhisthinkingAmongthosewhoinfluencedhisthoughtweresuchchar­acteristicallyViennesefiguresasthephysicistRudolfBoltzmann,thephilosophersErnstMachandMoritzSchlick,SigmundFreudandthephilosopherofsexualityOttoWeininger,thecriticandphi­losopheroflanguageFritzMauthner,thepoliticalandculturalsati­ristKarlKraus,andAdolfLoos,thearchitectWittgensteinfoundinthemanexhilaratingsenseofthenew,linkedinacharacteristicallyViennesefashiontoasweepingpessi­mismandskepticismForFreudandWeininger,KrausandMauthner,asformanyothers,includingWittgensteinhimself,theworldwascastinthelightofSchopenhauer'sromanticpessimismThereemerged,thus,aparadoxicalcombinationofconservatismandavant­gardism,anostalgiccommitmenttotheidealsofadissolvingpastlinkedtoasearchfornewformsandideasAdolfLoos'sdesignofaskyscraperintheformofagiganticDoriccolumnis,perhaps,emble­maticforthispeculiarconjunctionInWittgenstein'sworkitshowsitselfinapreoccupationwithlanguageandthemind,withmathemat­icsandscience,socharacteristicforthenewcurrentsinViennesethinking,coupledtoanexceedinglysomberviewoflifeandapro­foundlyexistentialconceptionoftheselfWittgenstein'sconfidencethathehaddiscoveredanewkindofphilosophizingisthustiedtohisunvaryingcertaintythatweliveindarktimesIntheprefacetothePhilosophicalInvestigationshewrotedespondentlyinI:"Itisnotimpossiblethatitshouldfalltothelotofthiswork,initspovertyCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,THECAMBRIDGECOMPANIONTOWITTGENSTEINandinthedarknessofthistime,tobringlightintoonebrainoranotherbut,ofcourse,itisnotlikely"(PI,pvi)TohisfriendDruryhehadsaidearlier:''Thedarkagesarecomingagain"ThesewerenotjustpersonalfearsThewritingsofRobertMusilandHermannBroch,withwhomWittgensteinhadmuchincommon,giveoneavividsenseofhowpervasivethisuneasewasinfindesiecleViennaThehistoricalcontextofWittgenstein'slifeissharplyilluminatedbythefactthathewasbornonlyafewdaysapartfromAdolfHitlerItisoneoftheironiesofhistorythatthefuturephilosopherandthefuturedictatoractuallyattendedthesameschoolforayearThereis,however,noevidencethatthetwogottoknoweachotherinthatperiodNevertheless,itisintriguingtoconsiderthewaysinwhichtheirlifepathsweresimilarSociallyandeconomicallytheybelonged,ofcourse,todifferentworldsWhileWittgensteinwasbornintoaJewishbourgeoisiethathadbenefitedfromtheHabsburgempire,HitlerwastheillegitimatechildofaminorcustomsofficialontheAustrianGermanborderandgrewupwithoutaffinitiesfortheempireWhileWittgensteinstudiedabroadinBerlin,Manchester,andCambridgeandthusbecameacquaintedwiththemostavantgardeideas,HitlerwaslivinginViennaasahomelesshousepainter,seekingadmissiontothelocalAcademyofArtandimbibingadarkbrewofracistandantiSemiticdoctrinesWhatunitedthetwomendespitethesedifferenceswastheFirstWorldWarwhichbothofthemexperiencedaslowlevelfrontlinesoldiersItwasanexperiencethatprovedtraumaticforbothofthemLikemanyothermembersof''thegenerationof"theycameoutofthewaralienatedfromthecultureintowhichtheyhadbeenbornInconsequence,HitlerdecidedonacareerasapoliticalagitatorandWittgensteinabandonedhisearlierlifestyleofluxury,adoptedanaustere,almostmonkishexistence,rethoughthisphilosophicalcommitments,andturnedawayfromwhatmightotherwisehavebeenanormalacademiccareerItis,perhaps,mereaccident,yetitremainsilluminatingthatbothofthemfoundphilosophicalinspirationinSchopenhauerThefactthatWittgensteinissuchacharacteristicfigureofthecultureofhistimeassuresthathewillcontinuetodrawtheattentionofscholarsandthegeneralpublicaslongasfindesiecleViennaanditsphilosophical,scientific,political,andculturalidealscontinuetobeobjectsofcuriosityLookedatinthiswiderhistoricalCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,THECAMBRIDGECOMPANIONTOWITTGENSTEINandinthedarknessofthistime,tobringlightintoonebrainoranotherbut,ofcourse,itisnotlikely"(PI,pvi)TohisfriendDruryhehadsaidearlier:"Thedarkagesarecomingagain"ThesewerenotjustpersonalfearsThewritingsofRobertMusilandHermannBroch,withwhomWittgensteinhadmuchincommon,giveoneavividsenseofhowpervasivethisuneasewasinfindesieceViennaThehistoricalcontextofWittgenstein'slifeissharplyillumi­natedbythefactthathewasbornonlyafewdaysapartfromAdolfHitlerItisoneoftheironiesofhistorythatthefuturephilosopherandthefuturedictatoractuallyattendedthesameschoolforayearThereis,however,noevidencethatthetwogot

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