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首页 【瓦尔特·考夫曼】尼采:哲学家、心理学家、无政府主义者

【瓦尔特·考夫曼】尼采:哲学家、心理学家、无政府主义者.pdf

【瓦尔特·考夫曼】尼采:哲学家、心理学家、无政府主义者

九月虺
2010-04-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【瓦尔特·考夫曼】尼采:哲学家、心理学家、无政府主义者pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

NietzschePHILOSOPHER,PSYCHOLOGIST,ANTICHRISTBYWALTERKAUFMANNFourthEditionPRINCETON,NEWJERSEYPRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESSTOMYWIFEANDCHILDRENHAZEL,DINAH,ANDDAVIDCopyright©,byPrincetonUniversityPressPublishedbyPrincetonUniversityPress,Princeton,NewJerseyIntheUnitedKingdom:PrincetonUniversityPress,Chichester,WestSussexALLRIGHTSRESERVEDLCCISBNThirdRevisedandEnlargedEdition,FourthEdition,FIRSTPRINCETONPAPERBACKEDITION,TheauthorwishestothanktheManuscriptDivisionofthePrincetonUniversityLibraryforpermissiontoreproducetheNietzscheletterthatappearsonpagesandtheHoughtonLibraryatHarvardUniversityforpermissiontoreproducetheNietzscheletterthatappearsonpagesTheothertwolettersthatarereproducedarefromtheauthor'sowncollectionhttp:pupprincetoneduPREFACETOTHEFOURTHEDITION()Sincethepublicationofthethirdedition,thisbookhascomeofageandisnowabouttoenteruponitssecondquarterofacenturyWhenIbegantoworkonNietzsche,hewasineclipsebothinhisnativeGermanyandintheEnglishspeakingworld,anditseemedneedfultodissociatehimfromtheNazisandtoshowthathehadbeenagreatphilosopherThebookhassucceededonbothcounts,andnowNietzscheisstudiedmorewidelythaneverbeforeEvenintheUnitedStates,wherefewprofessorspaidmuchseriousattentiontoNietzscheinthes,theliteratureonhimisgrowingIfthenarrowdepartmentalismofouruniversitiesshoulddeclinefurtherandgivewaytointerdisciplinarystudiesofahighorder,thenumberofreallyperceptivestudiesofNietzschewouldsurelyincreaseThethirdeditionofthisbookwasveryextensivelyrevisedandexceededtheoriginaleditionbymorethanahundredpagesMeanwhile,thenewGermancriticaleditionofNietzsche'sworkshasgatheredmomentumandrequiressomecomments,asdoesthediscoveryofapagethatNietzscheaskedhispublishertoinsertinEcceHomoAllthiswillbefoundinanewsectionattheendoftheAppendix(ff)UptothatpointthepaginationofthethirdeditionhasbeenretainedThereferencestothisbookinmytranslation,withcommentary,ofTheGayScience()arethereforestillinorderPartVoftheBibliographyhasbeenrevisedthoroughly,andPartVI(WorksaboutNietzsche)hasbeenexpandedBecauseNietzsche'srelationtoDostoevskyisofspecialinterest,alongarticleonthissubjecthasbeensummarizedbriefly(seeMiller)ivNIETZSCHE:PHILOSOPHER,PSYCHOLOGIST,ANTICHRISTTherequirementthateveryadditionbeforepagehadtobebalancedbyanomissionhasmadeitdifficulttomakechangesinthetextNevertheless,revisionshavebeenmadeonmorethanfortypagesbefore,includingix,x,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,andThefollowingchangesmakesomedifferenceintheaccountgivenofNietzsche'sideas:hiscritiqueofsystems(,),thequestionwhetherhewasanatheist(),hisrevaluation(),howonebecomeswhatoneis(ff),thediscoveryofthewilltopower(theroleofhypothesisversusinduction:,,,),masterandslavemoralityandautonomy(),breeding(),andtheeternalrecurrence(,)Onasliphasbeencorrected,andonacoupleofsentenceshavebeeninsertedtocallattentiontotwoimagesinwhichIhavelongrecognizedselfportraitsofNietzsche:"an'artisticSocrates'"and"theSocrateswhopracticesmusic"TheoldtitleofChapterseemstohaveledsomewriterstosupposethatthechapterdealsonlywith"Nietzsche'sAdmirationforSocrates,"whileignoringthepassagesthataresharplycriticalofSocratesThosewhohavereadthechapterwillhavefoundthatittakesnoteofallpassagesinwhichSocratesisdiscussedaswellassomeinwhichheisnotnamedoutrightToavoidmisunderstanding,thetitlehasbeenchangedto"Nietzsche'sAttitudeTowardSocrates"SometimesIamaskedabouttherelationofmyownviewstoNietzsche'sIhavealwaystriedtoresisttheexegeticaltemptationofreadingmyownideasintothetexts,aswellasthecensoriousattitudeofdogmatichistorianswhoconstantlypassjudgment,sayingmoreorless:hesaid,butIsayuntoyouIhavedevelopedmyownviewsofChristianityinCritiqueofReligionandPhilosophyandinTheFaithofaHereticIhavearguedforviewsverydifferentfromNietzsche'sinTragedyandPhilosophyandmymoralphilosophyistobefoundinWithoutGuiltandJusticeButthepresentvolumeisdevotedtoNietzscheFinally,Iwanttothankthosewhohavecalledmyattentiontopointsthatrequiredrevision:notablyIvanSoll(,inanarticle),JohnWilcox(manypoints,mostlyinhisbook),andAlanSpiroandTomFerguson(manypoints,entrenous)IhavebeenfortunateindeedtohavehadSpiroandFergusoninaseminarinthefallofandasassistantsinthespringofPrefacetotheThirdEditionixMeanwhileIhavetriedtomakeamends,butletmefirstconcludethatthisbookdiffersfrommanyotherstudiesofNietzscheinthiswayalso:itisnotastudyof"NietzscheandX"orastudyof"NietzscheasY"butanattempttodojusticetoNietzsche'sthoughtasawholeAndfrommostotherbooksthathavetriedtodothat,itdiffersinthethreerespectsmentionedIIIHowdoesthepresenteditiondifferfromitspredecessors(A)Ihavebroughtituptodatebytakingaccountofworkspublishedinrecentyears(a)TwoGermaneditions(and)ofNietzsche'slateworksandnotesespeciallyofTheAntichrist,EcceHomo,andTheWilltoPowercreatedaninternationalsensation,thoughtheyareunsound:adetailedcritiqueofbothisofferedinanewAppendix(b)NobookaboutNietzschehascausedanequalsensationCommentsonvariousstudieswillbefoundinthenotes,theAppendix,andtheBibliographytheIndexshowswhere(c)TwodiscoverieshaveabearingonNietzsche'sbiographyandcharacterKarlSchlechta'sdemonstrationthatthefewlatelettersinwhichNietzschecomplimentedhissisterwerenotgenuineisgristtomymillRudolphBinion'simposingstudyofLouAndreasSaloméshowsthatshe,too,tamperedwiththetruthandwithsomedocuments,andthrowsnewlightonNietzsche'srelationshiptoherIreadBinion'sbookbeforepublication,studiedscoresofunpublishedlettersanddraftsforlettersthatarerelevant,andthenrevisedandgreatlyenlargedmyaccountofNietzsche'sfriendshipandbreakwithPaulRéeandLou,inChapter(B)PreviouslyunpublishedlettersarenotonlycitedinChaptersomemorearereproducedinfacsimileneartheendofthisvolumeanddiscussedatlengthinanothermajoradditionNietzschewasafascinatinghumanbeingaswellasagreatphilosopher,andthisneweditionprovidesanopportunitytodojusticetothemannolessthanthethinker(C)Therearemanysmalleradditionsthroughoutthebook,includinganewsectionattheendoftheEpilogue(D)Myownpublicationsposespecialproblems,butdidnotrequireanyexpansionofthebookOnthecontrary,thereisnoNietzsche,Werke,III(),ffPREFACETOTHETHIRDEDITION()IAmanwhohaspublishedsixbooks,allofthemaboutNietzsche,saysonpageofthefifthofthem:"ThiscompelledtheauthoronceagaintooccupyhimselfintensivelynotonlywithNietzsche,whichinanycaseisnotoneofthepleasantthingsinlife,butalsowiththeNietzscheliterature,whichis,withfewexceptions,insufferable"lOvertwentyyearshavepassedsinceIsubmittedmydoctoralthesison"Nietzsche'sTheoryofValues"totheDepartmentofPhilosophyatHarvard,andsincethenIhavewrittenextensivelyonNietzsche(thoughnothinglikesixbooks)andtranslatedtenofhisbooks,ifImayforthemomentincludeTheWilltoPowerunderthisheadingbutifanything"compelled"metooccupymyselfsointensivelywithNietzscheitwasmyloveofhisbooksAgreementrarelyinvolveslove,andlovedoesnotnecessarilyentailagreementMostofmybooksarenotaboutNietzsche,andovertheyearsIhavedevelopedmyownviewsonmanyoftheproblemswithwhichNietzschedealtTheliteratureaboutNietzscheisanothermatterentirelyIn,whenIvisitedCDBroadatTrinityCollege,Cambridge,hementionedamannamedSalterIaskedwhetherhewastheSalterwhohadwrittenabookonNietzsche,towhichBroad,oneofthemosteminentBritishphilosophersofhisgeneration,replied:"Dearnohedidnotdealwithcrackpotsubjectslikethathewroteaboutpsychicalresearch"(BroadhadbeenPresidentoftheSocietyforPsychicalResearch)ErichPodach:seesectionIIoftheAppendix,belowviNIETZSCHE:PHILOSOPHER,PSYCHOLOGIST,ANTICHRISTAllsortsofmen,includingsomecrackpots,havewrittenaboutNietzsche,butamongthosewhohavecontributedtotheliteratureareThomasMannandCamus,JaspersandHeidegger,andleadingpoetsaswellasrenownedscholarsNoothermodernphilosopher,atleastsinceKantandHegel,hasbeensohighlyesteemedbysomanyillustriouswritersYetmanystudies,includingsomebyveryhonorablemen,arebasedonscholarshipsoshoddyitalmostdefiesbeliefThisdoesnotmeanthattheNietzscheliteratureisworsethansecondaryliteratureonotherfascinatingmenandsubjectsIfErichPodach,whofindstheNietzscheliterature,"withfewexceptions,insufferable,"hadnotconcentratedexclusivelyonNietzschebuthadalsodoneresearchonKierkegaardorChristianity,onJudaismortheBible,hemighthavefoundmostoftheliteraturenolessrepellentWhoeverdigsforgoldmustclearawayalotofrubbishOrmustheWoulditnotdotobypasstheaccumulatederrorsandconfusions,concentratingsolelyontheprimarymaterialsThisadvicecouldmeantwodifferentthingsThosewhoignorethesecondaryliteratureusuallyfallintoscoresoferrorsandconfusionsfromwhichsomeoftheirpredecessorsmighthavesavedthemAndifonereadstheliteraturebutdoesnotrefertoitinprint,wherearereaderstofindguidance,confrontedwithawealthofstudiesmanyofwhicharequiteuninformedObviously,thethingtodoistoloselittletimeoverincompetentwriterswhoareunlikelytobetakenseriouslybymanyreaders,buttobefirmandforthright,facedwith"menofpositionandfortune"AndtoalludetoanotherAristotelianformulation:oneshouldnotsacrificethetruthtofriendshipThisbookisaboutNietzsche,butitisalsoaguidetomuchoftheNietzscheliteratureIfoneisnotcontenttoofferjustanotherviewofhim,thereisnoalternativeSoundmethodrequiresthatwedonotmerelymarshaltheevidenceforourownviews:wemustgooutofourwayalsotoconfrontevidencethatonthefaceofitcontradictsourviews(inthepresentcase,passagesinNietzschethatdonotseemtofitourimage)andalternativeconstructions(thoseproposedbyotherwritersonthesubject)IfnootherstudyofNietzschedealssothoroughlywithrivalinterpretations,demonstratingwhytheyareuntenable,itisalsotruethatmostotherwritersonNietzschetendtofastenonafewsnippetsfromhisworks,heedlessofthefactthatscoresofotherPrefacetotheThirdEditionviisnippetsmightbeusedtosupportverydifferentexegesesTheytreatNietzschethewaymosttheologianstreatScriptureorthewaymanytheologiansgerrymanderthewritingsofrivalfaithsinordertocomeupwithbogeymenItwasthesurpassingmeritofKarlJaspers'Nietzsche()thathecounseledNietzsche'sreadersnevertorestcontentuntiltheyhadalsofoundpassagescontradictingthosefoundfirstThisshouldhavespelledtheendofthetheologicaleraofNietzscheexegesis,butofcourse,itdidnot:somerecentstudiesareasarbitraryasanyAlas,Jaspers'owninterpretationrestscontentwithsuperficialcontradictionsandignoresthecontextofthesnippetsonhisfilecards,thedevelopmentofNietzsche'sthought,andthedifferencebetweenNietzsche'sbooksandnotesInsum,thesearesomeofthedifferencesbetweenthisbookandmostotherstudiesofNietzsche:(a)IloveNietzsche'sbooksbutamnoNietzschean(b)Thedevelopment,thecontext,andtheinterrelationsofNietzsche'sviewsaregivenanunusualamountofattention(c)SoareapparentlynegativeevidenceandrivalinterpretationsIIAfourthpointmightbeaddedWhenIwasworkingontheoriginaledition,ayoungcolleagueinanotherdepartmentexpressedsurprise:"IthoughtNietzschewasdeadasadoornail"Todayfewphilosophersaremorealive,andmillionsarediscussinghispronouncementthat"Godisdead"ButitwouldbeamistaketoassociateNietzscheprimarilywithafewtheologiansAfterall,theyaremakingnewsnotbecausetheyechoNietzsche'swordsmorethanfourscoreyearslater,butbecause,whiledoingthis,theyinsistonremainingChristiantheologiansItisplainwhatNietzschewouldhavethoughtofthat:aslittleashewouldhavethoughtofmostmovementsthathavesoughtthesanctionofhisnameByNietzschehadbeenlinkedinturnwithevolution,withdepthpsychology,andwiththeNazisbutintheEnglishspeakingworldhehadnotcomeintohisownasaphilosopherIntheUnitedStates,mybookprobablydiditssharetogetNietzschetobetakenseriouslyasaphilosopherbutsoonitbeSeeChap,sectionI,belowviiiNIETZSCHE:PHILOSOPHER,PSYCHOLOGIST,ANTICHRISTcamefashionabletoseehimasaprecursorofexistentialismInHeidegger'stwovolumeNietzscheappearedinGerman,andinanAmericantranslationofJaspers'NietzscheappearedRJHollingdale'sNietzsche,thefirstdecentbiographyinEnglish,alsocameoutinandsodidpaperbackreprintsofGeorgeAMorgan,Jr,andCraneBrinton,originallypublishedin,andArthurDanto'sattempttolinkNietzschewithanalyticalphilosophyObviously,Nietzschecanbe,andhasbeen,linkedwithavastvarietyofintellectualfashionsmovementsaswellasmenbutitisclearthatanyattempttodefinehissignificanceandmeaningmainlyintermsofonesuchjuxtapositionisboundtobemisleadingThisisnottosaythatall"NietzscheandX"titlesareworthless,butitmayhelptorestoreperspectiveifonenotesthatXhasbeen,amongothersandIconfinemyselftoitemslistedinthebibliographyattheendofthisvolumeBachofen,thebourgeoisspirit,Burckhardt,Carlyle,Christ,Christianity,Dostoevsky,Emerson,theFrench,theGermanfuture,Goethe,Hitler,Kierkegaard,thelabyrinth,Luther,ThomasMann,NationalSocialism,nihilism,thepreSocratics,Schopenhauer,Tolstoy,thetransformationofman,Wagner,Wittgenstein,andwomenEvenso,thereisstillroomforgoodmonographsonNietzsche'srelationtotheGreekphilosophers,toFrenchliterature,andtolinguisticphilosophyButnostudyofthatsortcouldpossiblyprovidethekeytoNietzscheHishousehasmanymansions,andanyattempttofindthecluetoeverythinginsomenook,orinasimilaritybetweenadetailhereandatrifleinanotheredifice,orinaguestglimpsedintheparlor,issimplemindedThesubtitleofmybookstillseemsrighttome:Nietzschewasaphilosopheraboveall,butnotonlythathewasalsoapsychologistandhedefinedhisownsignificanceverylargelyintermsofhisoppositiontoChristianityTodohimfulljustice,onemightaddthathewasapoetaswellandthefirsteditionofthisbookdidhavean"Appendix:NietzscheasaPoet"TwomenwhospokeverygenerouslyofthebookconvincedmethatevensoIhadnotdonejusticetoNietzscheasapoetandwriter:ThomasMannandAJPTaylorNowonder:IhadbeenreactingagainsttheviewthatNietzschewasprimarilyagreatstylist,andtheburdenofmybookhadbeentoshowthathewasagreatthinkerxNIETZSCHE:PHILOSOPHER,PSYCHOLOGIST,ANTICHRISTneednowfortheAppendixon"NietzscheasaPoet,"alreadyomittedinthesecondeditiontosavespaceForinmyTwentyGermanPoets:ABilingualCollectionIincludedallthepoemsfromtheoldAppendix,alongwithsomeofNietzsche'sotherpoemsandseveralpoemsabouthim,andtriedtorelatehimbothtohispredecessorsandtothoseinfluencedbyhim*IhavealsodealtwithNietzscheasapoetinthreeessaysthatatfirstappearedseparatelybuteventuallyfoundtheirwayintomyFromShakespearetoExistentialism(Chapters)NorwasthereanyneedtoduplicatetheintroductionsandcommentarieswrittenformynewtranslationsofNietzsche,orotherrelevantessaysandbookreviews:theyarelistedintheBibliographytothisvolumeButinmanycasesIhavesubstitutedmynewtranslationsfortheoldones(E)TheBibliography,omittedinthesecondedition,hasbeenverygreatlyexpandedandbroughtuptodatetheIndex,truncatedinthesecondedition,hasbeenexpanded,tooandthefootnotes,collectedattheendofthebookinthesecondedition,areonceagainprintedonthepagestowhichtheyreferIntheoriginaleditioneachchapterhadamottoAlthoughIpleadedthatIhadoftenplacedthemostcrucialquotationsatthebeginning,thesemottosweredeletedinthesecondeditiontosavespaceTheyarenowrestoredFinally,Ihavemadehundredsofminorchanges,mostlystylisticMyfather,BrunoKaufmann(),helpedmewithhiscommentsonpartsofearlydraftsTobeginwith,hisviewofNietzschehadbeenverydifferentfrommineperhapshewasmyfirstconvertAsIsaidintheoriginalAcknowledgments,hisfaithinmyworkwasaninspiration*Nowsupersededbyanenlargededition:TwentyfiveGermanPoets,WWNorton,NewYork,PREFACETOTHESECONDEDITION()NietzschehasgrownonmesincethisbookwasfirstpublishedIstilldonotagreewithhim,butmorethaneverheseemstomeoneofthemostinterestingthinkersofalltimeFew,ifany,sincePlatocanmatchthebreadth,depth,andpassionofhismindTofindfaultwithNietzscheiseasyAsHegelhassaidinthePrefacetohisfirstbook:"Nothingiseasierthantojudgewhathassubstanceandqualitytocomprehenditisharderandwhatishardestistocombinebothfunctionsandproduceanaccountofit"ToswimagainstthestreamisfuninanycaseinaconformistageitisadutyandinwritingaboutNietzscheanyotherattitudewouldbesufficientproofthattheauthorisbasicallyuncongenialtohissubjectInthisbookIhavetriedtobuckthecurrentprejudiceagainstNietzscheIfanyfurtherjustificationisneeded,IcanonlyexpressthehopethatthosewhodolikewisewillfindhimrichlyrewardingForthisneweditionIhavemadehundredsofminorchanges,nonegreaterthanstrikingoutaboutapageearlyinChapterbecauseInolongerseemuchpointinitTheAppendixwhichofferedsomeofNietzsche'spoemsintheoriginalandintranslationhasbeenomittedforreasonsofspacetheIndexhasbeenabridgedandmostoftheBibliographyhasbeenomittedbutthenotescontainamplereferencestotheliteratureBothtextandnotesareofferedunabridgedTheVikingPresshaskindlygrantedmepermissiontosubstitutetheimprovedwordingofmytranslationsinThePortableNietzscheforsomeofthequotationsintheoriginaleditionThesix

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