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首页 【保罗·约翰逊】知识分子.pdf

【保罗·约翰逊】知识分子.pdf

【保罗·约翰逊】知识分子.pdf

上传者: 九月虺 2010-04-07 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《【保罗·约翰逊】知识分子pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含<faNTELLECTUALSAlsobyPaulJohnson:AHistoryoftheJewsAHistoryoftheEnglishPeop符等。

<faNTELLECTUALSAlsobyPaulJohnson:AHistoryoftheJewsAHistoryoftheEnglishPeopleModernTimes:TheWorldfromtheTwentiestotheEightiesNTELLECTUALSPaulJohnsonHarperRow,Publishers,NewYorkCambridge,Philadelphia,SanFranciscoLondon,MexicoCity,SaoPaulo,Singapore,SydneyThisbookwasoriginallypublishedininGreatBritainbyGeorgeWeidenfeldNicolsonLimitedItisherereprintedbyarrangementwithGeorgeWeidenfeldNicolsonLimitedINTELLECTUALSCopyrightbyPaulJohnsonAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaNopartofthisbookmaybeusedorreproducedinanymannerwhatsoeverwithoutwrittenpermissionexceptinthecaseofbriefquotationsembodiedincriticalarticlesandreviewsForinformationaddressHarperRow,Publishers,Inc,EastrdStreet,NewYork,NYPublishedsimultaneouslyinCanadabyFitzhenryWhitesideLimited,TorontoFIRSTLISEDITIONLIBRARYOFCONGRESSCATALOGCARDNUMBERISBNRRDTomyfirstgrandchildSamuelJohnsonContentsJeanJacquesRousseau:'AnInterestingMadman'Shelley,ortheHeartlessnessofIdeasKarlMarx:'HowlingGiganticCurses'HenrikIbsen:'OntheContrary!'Tolstoy:God'sElderBrotherTheDeepWatersofErnestHemingwayBertoltBrecht:HeartofIceBertrandRussell:ACaseofLogicalFiddlesticksJeanPaulSartre:'ALittleBallofFurandInk'EdmundWilson:ABrandfromtheBurningTheTroubledConscienceofVictorGollanczLies,DamnedLiesandLillianHellmanTheFlightofReasonNotesIndexvuAcknowledgements^jHISbookisanexaminationofthemoralandjudgmentalcreOdentialsofcertainleadingintellectualstogiveadvicetohuma^nityonhowtoconductitsaffairsIhavetriedtomakeitfactualanddispassionateandwhereverpossibleIhaveusedtheworks,letters,diaries,memoirsandreportedspeechofthoseunderscrutinyFordetailsoftheirlivesIhavemadeuseofanumberofbiographies,themostimportantofwhichareasfollowsForRousseauIfoundthemostusefulwasLesterGCrocker,JeanJacquesRousseau:TheQuest,(NewYork,)andJeanJacquesRousseau:ThePropheticVoice,(NewYork,),thoughIalsorelishedJHHuizinga'svigorouspolemic,TheMakingofaSaint:theTragiComedyofJJRousseau(London,)ForShelleyIhavereliedmostonRichardHolmes'ssuperbbook,Shelley:ThePursuit(London,),eventhoughIdonotagreewithhimabouttheillegitimatechildForMarxIturnedchieflytoRobertPayne'sMarx(London,)IbsenhasamodelbiographerinMichaelMeyer,HenrikIbsen:iTheMakingofaDramatist,(London,)iiTheFarewelltoPoetry,r(London,)HiTheTopofaColdMountain,(London,),butIalsousedHansHeiberg,Ibsen:PortraitoftheArtist(trans,London,)andBergliotIbsen,TheThreeIbsens(trans,London,)OfthemanyTolstoybiographies,HollowedmostErnestJSimmons,LeoTolstoy(London,),butImadeusealsoofEdwardCrankshaw'sformidablycriticalaccount,Tolstoy:TheMakingofaNovelist(London,)ForEmersonIusedtheworksofJoelPorte,notablyhisRepresentativeMan:RalphWaldoEmersoninHisTime(NewYork,)ForHemingwayIusedthetwoexcellentrecentIXAcknowledgementsbiographies,JeffreyMeyers,Hemingway:ABiography(London,)andKennethSLynn,Hemingway(London,),aswellastheearlierworkbyCarlosBaker,Hemingway:ALifeStory(NewYork,)ForBrechtIusedRonaldHayman,BertoldBrecht:ABiography(London,)andMartinEsslin'sbrilliantstudy,BertoltBrecht:AChoiceofEvils(London,)ForRussell,thechiefsourceforthebiographicalfactswasRonaldWClark,TheLifeofBertrandRussell(London,)ForSartreIusedespeciallyAnnieCohenSolai:Sartre:ALife(trans,London,)andClaudeFrancisandFernandeGontier,SimonedeBeauvoir(trans,London,)TheindispensablesourceforGollanczisRuthDudleyEdwards'sfullandfairmindedaccount,VictorGollancz:ABiography(London,),andforLillianHellman,WilliamWright'smasterlypieceofdetectivework,LillianHellman:TheImage,theWoman(London,),butIalsofoundusefulDianeJohnson'sbook,TheLifeofDashiellHammett(London,)ForthelastchapterImadeparticularuseofDavidPryceJones,CyrilConnolly:DiariesandMemoir(London,),HilaryMills,Mailer:ABiography(NewYork,),KathleenTynan,TheLifeofKennethTynan(London,),RobertKatzandPeterBerling,LoveisColderthanDeath:TheLifeandTimesofRainerWernerFassbinder(London,)andFernMarjaEckman,TheFuriousPassageoffamesBaldwin(London,)ToalltheseauthorsIamgratefulReferencestosomeofthemanyotherworksconsultedwillbefoundinthesourcenotesxJeanJacquesRousseau:'AnInterestingMadman'VERthepasttwohundredyearstheinfluenceofintellectualshasgrownsteadilyIndeed,theriseofthesecularintellectualhasbeenakeyfactorinshapingthemodernworldSeenagainstthelongperspectiveofhistoryitisinmanywaysanewphenomenonItistruethatintheirearlierincarnationsaspriests,scribesandsoothsayers,intellectualshavelaidclaimtoguidesocietyfromtheverybeginningButasguardiansofhieraticcultures,whetherprimitiveorsophisticated,theirmoralandideologicalinnovationswerelimitedbythecanonsofexternalauthorityandbytheinheritanceoftraditionTheywerenot,andcouldnotbe,freespirits,adventurersofthemindWiththedeclineofclericalpowerintheeighteenthcentury,anewkindofmentoremergedtofillthevacuumandcapturetheearofsocietyThesecularintellectualmightbedeist,scepticoratheistButhewasjustasreadyasanypontifforpresbytertotellmankindhowtoconductitsaffairsHeproclaimed,fromthestart,aspecialdevotiontotheinterestsofhumanityandanevangelicaldutytoadvancethembyhisteachingHebroughttothisselfappointedtaskafarmoreradicalapproachthanhisclericalpredecessorsHefelthimselfboundbynocorpusofrevealedreligionThecollectivewisdomofthepast,thelegacyoftradition,theprescriptivecodesofancestralexperienceexistedtobeselectivelyfollowedorwhollyrejectedentirelyashisowngoodsensemightdecideForthefirsttimeinhumanhistory,andwithgrowingconfidenceandaudacity,menarosetoassertthattheycoulddiagnosetheillsofsocietyandcurethemwiththeirownunaidedintellects:more,thattheycoulddeviseformulaewherebynotmerelythestructureofsocietyaiIntellectualsbutthefundamentalhabitsofhumanbeingscouldbetransformedforthebetterUnliketheirsacerdotalpredecessors,theywerenotservantsandinterpretersofthegodsbutsubstitutesTheirherowasPrometheus,whostolethecelestialfireandbroughtittoearthOneofthemostmarkedcharacteristicsofthenewsecularintellectualswastherelishwithwhichtheysubjectedreligionanditsprotagoniststocriticalscrutinyHowfarhadtheybenefitedorharmedhumanity,thesegreatsystemsoffaithTowhatextenthadthesepopesandpastorsliveduptotheirprecepts,ofpurityandtruthfulness,ofcharityandbenevolenceTheverdictspronouncedonbothchurchesandclergywereharshNow,aftertwocenturiesduringwhichtheinfluenceofreligionhascontinuedtodecline,andsecularintellectualshaveplayedanevergrowingroleinshapingourattitudesandinstitutions,itistimetoexaminetheirrecord,bothpublicandpersonalInparticular,IwanttofocusonthemoralandjudgmentalcredentialsofintellectualstotellmankindhowtoconductitselfHowdidtheyruntheirownlivesWithwhatdegreeofrectitudedidtheybehavetofamily,friendsandassociatesWeretheyjustintheirsexualandfinancialdealingsDidtheytell,andwrite,thetruthAndhowhavetheirownsystemsstooduptothetestoftimeandpraxisTheinquirybeginswithJeanJacquesRousseau(),whowasthefirstofthemodernintellectuals,theirarchetypeandinmanywaysthemostinfluentialofthemallOldermenlikeVoltairehadstartedtheworkofdemolishingthealtarsandenthroningreasonButRousseauwasthefirsttocombineallthesalientcharacteristicsofthemodernPromethean:theassertionofhisrighttorejecttheexistingorderinitsentiretyconfidenceinhiscapacitytorefashionitfromthebottominaccordancewithprinciplesofhisowndevisingbeliefthatthiscouldbeachievedbythepoliticalprocessand,notleast,recognitionofthehugepartinstinct,intuitionandimpulseplayinhumanconductHebelievedhehadauniqueloveforhumanityandhadbeenendowedwithunprecedentedgiftsandinsightstoincreaseitsfelicityAnastonishingnumberofpeople,inhisowndayandsince,havetakenhimathisownvaluationInboththelongandtheshorttermhisinfluencewasenormousInthegenerationafterhisdeath,itattainedthestatusofamythHediedadecadebeforetheFrenchRevolutionofbutmanycontemporariesheldhimresponsibleforit,andsoforthedemolitionoftheancienrégimeinEuropeThisviewwassharedbybothLouisxviandNapoleonEdmundBurkesaidoftherevolutionaryelites:ThereisagreatdisputeamongtheirleaderswhichofthemisthebestresemblanceofRousseauHeistheirstandardfigureofperfection'AsRobespierrehimselfJeanJacquesRousseau:'AnInterestingMadman'putit:'Rousseauistheonemanwho,throughtheloftinessofhissoulandthegrandeurofhischaracter,showedhimselfworthyoftheroleofteacherofmankind'DuringtheRevolutiontheNationalConventionvotedtohavehisashestransferredtothePanthéonAttheceremonyitspresidentdeclared:'ItistoRousseauthatisduethehealthgivingimprovementthathastransformedourmorals,customs,laws,feelingsandhabitsAtamuchdeeperlevel,however,andoverafarlongerspanoftime,RousseaualteredsomeofthebasicassumptionsofcivilizedmanandshiftedaroundthefurnitureofthehumanmindThespanofhisinfluenceisdramaticallywidebutitcanbegroupedunderfivemainheadingsFirst,allourmodernideasofeducationareaffectedtosomedegreebyRousseau'sdoctrine,especiallybyhistreatiseEmile()Hepopularizedandtosomeextentinventedthecultofnature,thetastefortheopenair,thequestforfreshness,spontaneity,theinvigoratingandthenaturalHeintroducedthecritiqueofurbansophisticationHeidentifiedandbrandedtheartificialitiesofcivilizationHeisthefatherofthecoldbath,systematicexercise,sportascharacterforming,theweekendcottageSecond,andlinkedtohisrevaluationofnature,Rousseautaughtdistrustoftheprogressive,gradualimprovementsbroughtaboutbytheslowmarchofmaterialistcultureinthissenseherejectedtheEnlightenment,ofwhichhewaspart,andlookedforafarmoreradicalsolutionHeinsistedthatreasonitselfhadseverelimitationsasthemeanstocuresocietyThatdidnotmean,however,thatthehumanmindwasinadequatetobringaboutthenecessarychanges,becauseithashidden,untappedresourcesofpoeticinsightandintuitionwhichmustbeusedtooverrulethesterilizingdictatesofreasonInpursuitofthislineofthought,RousseauwrotehisConfessions,finishedin,thoughnotpublisheduntilafterhisdeathThisthirdprocesswasthebeginningbothoftheRomanticmovementandofmodernintrospectiveliterature,forinithetookthediscoveryoftheindividual,theprimeachievementoftheRenaissance,agiantstagefurther,delvingintotheinnerselfandproducingitforpublicinspectionForthefirsttimereaderswereshowntheinsideofaheart,thoughandthistoowastobeacharacteristicofmodernliteraturethevisionwasdeceptive,theheartthusexhibitedmisleading,outwardlyfrank,inwardlyfullofguileThefourthconceptRousseaupopularizedwasinsomewaysthemostpervasiveofallWhensocietyevolvesfromitsprimitivestateofnaturetourbansophistication,heargued,maniscorrupted:hisnaturalselfishness,whichhecallsamourdesoi,istransformedintoafarmoreperniciousinstinct,amourpropre,whichcombinesvanityandselfesteem,eachIntellectualsmanratinghimselfbywhatothersthinkofhimandthusseekingtoimpressthembyhismoney,strength,brainsandmoralsuperiorityHisnaturalselfishnessbecomescompetitiveandacquisitive,andsohebecomesalienatednotonlyfromothermen,whomheseesascompetitorsandnotbrothers,butfromhimselfAlienationinducesapsychologicalsicknessinman,characterizedbyatragicdivergencebetweenappearanceandrealityTheevilofcompetition,ashesawit,whichdestroysman'sinborncommunalsenseandencouragesallhismosteviltraits,includinghisdesiretoexploitothers,ledRousseautodistrustprivateproperty,asthesourceofsocialcrimeHisfifthinnovation,then,ontheveryeveoftheIndustrialRevolution,wastodeveloptheelementsofacritiqueofcapitalism,bothintheprefacetohisplayNarcisseandinhisDiscourssurl'inégalité,byidentifyingpropertyandthecompetitiontoacquireitastheprimarycauseofalienationThiswasathoughtdepositMarxandothersweretomineruthlessly,togetherwithRousseau'srelatedideaofculturalevolutionTohim,'natural'meant'original'orpreculturalAllculturebringsproblemssinceitisman'sassociationwithotherswhichbringsouthisevilpropensities:asheputsitinEmile,'Man'sbreathisfataltohisfellowmen'Thusthecultureinwhichmanlived,itselfanevolving,artificialconstruct,dictatedman'sbehaviour,andyoucouldimprove,indeedtotallytransform,hisbehaviourbychangingthecultureandthecompetitiveforceswhichproduceditthatis,bysocialengineeringTheseideasaresowiderangingastoconstitute,almostbythemselves,anencyclopaediaofmodernthoughtItistruethatnotallofthemwereoriginaltohimHisreadingwaswide:Descartes,Rabelais,Pascal,Leibnitz,Bayle,Fontenelle,Corneille,Petrarch,Tasso,andinparticularhedrewonLockeandMontaigneGermainedeStaël,whobelievedhepossessed'themostsublimefacultieseverbestowedonaman'declared:'Hehasinventednothing'But,sheadded,'hehasinfusedallwithfire'Itwasthesimple,direct,powerful,indeedpassionate,mannerinwhichRousseauwrotewhichmadehisnotionsseemsovividandfresh,sothattheycametomenandwomenwiththeshockofarevelationWho,then,wasthisdispenserofsuchextraordinarymoralandintellectualpower,andhowdidhecometoacquireitRousseauwasaSwiss,borninGenevainandbroughtupaCalvinistHisfatherIsaacwasawatchmakerbutdidnotflourishinhistrade,beingatroublemaker,ofteninvolvedinviolenceandriotsHismother,SuzanneBernard,camefromawealthyfamily,butdiedofpuerperalfevershortlyafterRousseau'sbirthNeitherparentcamefromthetightcircleoffamilieswhichformedtherulingoligarchyofGenevaandcomposedtheCouncilofJeanJacquesRousseau:'AnInterestingMadman'TwoHundredandtheInnerCouncilofTwentyFiveButtheyhadfullvotingandlegalprivilegesandRousseauwasalwaysveryconsciousofhissuperiorstatusItmadehimanaturalconservativebyinterest(thoughnotbyintellectualconviction)andgavehimalifelongcontemptforthevotelessmobTherewasalsoasubstantialamountofmoneyinthefamilyRousseauhadnosistersbutabrother,sevenyearshisseniorHehimselfstronglyresembledhismother,andthusbecamethefavouriteofhiswidowedfatherIsaac'streatmentofhimoscillatedbetweenlachrymoseaffectionandfrighteningviolenceandeventhefavouredJeanJacquesdeploredthewayhisfatherbroughthimup,latercomplaininginEmile:'Theambition,greed,tyrannyandmisguidedforesightoffathers,theirnegligenceandbrutalinsensitivity,areahundredtimesmoreharmfultochildrenthantheunthinkingtendernessofmothersHowever,itwastheelderbrotherwhobecamethechiefvictimofthefather'ssavageryInhewassenttoareformatory,atthefather'srequest,onthegroundsthathewasincorrigiblywickedinheranawayandwasneverseenagainRousseauwasthus,ineffect,anonlychild,asituationhesharedwithmanyothermodernintellectualleadersBut,thoughindulgedinsomeways,heemergedfromchildhoodwithastrongsenseofdeprivationandperhapshismostmarkedpersonalcharacteristicselfpityDeathdeprivedhimquicklyofbothhisfatherandhisfostermotherHedislikedthetradeofengravingtowhichhewasapprenticedSoin,agedfifteen,heranawayandbecameaconverttoCatholicism,inordertoobtaintheprotectionofacertainMadameFrançoiseLouisedeWarens,wholivedinAnnecyThedetailsofRousseau'searlycareer,asrecordedinhisConfessions,cannotbetrustedButhisownletters,andthevastresourcesoftheimmenseRousseauindustry,havebeenusedtoestablishthesalientfactsMadamedeWarenslivedonaFrenchroyalpensionandseemstohavebeenanagentbothoftheFrenchgovernmentandoftheRomanCatholicChurchRousseaulivedwithher,atherexpense,forthebestpartoffourteenyears,ForsomeofthistimehewasherlovertherewerealsoperiodswhenhewanderedoffonhisownUntilhewaswellintohisthirties,Rousseauledalifeoffailureandofdependence,especiallyonwomenHetriedatleastthirteenjobs,asanengraver,lackey,seminarystudent,musician,civilservant,farmer,tutor,cashier,musiccopier,writerandprivatesecretaryInhewasgivenwhatseemedtheplumpostofsecretarytotheFrenchAmbassadorinVenice,theComtedeMontaiguThislastedelevenmonthsandendedinhisdismissalandflighttoavoidarrestbytheVenetianSenateMontaigustated(andhisversionistobepreIntellectualsferredtoRousseau'sown)thathissecretarywasdoomedtopovertyonaccountofhisViledisposition'and'unspeakableinsolence',theproductofhis'insanity'and'highopinionofhimself',ForsomeyearsRousseauhadcometoseehimselfasabornwriterHehadgreatskillwithwordsHewasparticularlyeffectiveatputtingthecaseforhimselfinletters,withouttooscrupulousaregardforthefactsindeed,hemighthavemadeabrilliantlawyer(OneofthereasonsMontaigu,amilitaryman,cametodislikehimsomuchwasRousseau'shabit,whentakingdictation,ofyawningostentatiouslyorevenstrollingtothewindow,whiletheAmbassadorstruggledforaword)InRousseaumetayounglaundress,ThérèseLevasseur,tenyearshisjunior,whoagreedtobecomehismistressonapermanentbasisThisgavesomekindofstabilitytohisdriftinglifeInthemeantimehehadmetandbeenbefriendedbyDenisDiderot,thecardinalfigureoftheEnlightenmentandlatertobeeditorinchiefoftheEncyclopédieLikeRousseau,Diderotwast

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