下载

1下载券

加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 考研英语阅读

考研英语阅读.doc

考研英语阅读

肉肉越减越肥中
2010-04-04 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《考研英语阅读doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

新东方在线wwwkoolearncom网络课堂电子教材系列考研英语阅读分册考研英语阅读理解电子教材主讲:范猛欢迎使用新东方在线电子教材教材说明:本电子教材word文档下面的页码跟教材完全一样学员只需根据老师说的多少页找到相应的页面学习即可。请提前预习、认真学习、及时复习祝广大考研学子考研成功!阅读理解全真试题(年)UnitPassageTheAmericaneconomicsystemisorganizedaroundabasicallyprivateenterprise,marketorientedeconomyinwhichconsumerslargelydeterminewhatshallbeproducedbyspendingtheirmoneyinthemarketplaceforthosegoodsandservicesthattheywantmostPrivatebusinessmenstrivingtomakeprofits,producethesegoodsandservicesincompetitionwithotherbusinessmenandtheprofitmotive,operatingundercompetitivepressures,largelydetermineshowthesegoodsandservicesareproducedThus,intheAmericaneconomicsystemitisthedemandofindividualconsumers,coupledwiththedesireofbusinessmentomaximizeprofitsandthedesireofindividualstomaximizetheirincomes,thattogetherdeterminewhatshallbeproducedandhowresourcesareusedtoproduceitAnimportantfactorinamarketorientedeconomyisthemechanismbywhichconsumerdemandscanbeexpressedandrespondedtobyproducersIntheAmericaneconomy,thismechanismisprovidedbyapricesystem,aprocessinwhichpricesriseandfallinresponsetorelativedemandsofconsumersandsuppliesofferedbysellerproducersIftheproductisinshortsupplyrelativetothedemand,thepricewillbebidupandsomeconsumerswillbeeliminatedfromthemarketIf,ontheotherhand,producingmoreofacommodityresultsinreducingitscost,thiswilltendtoincreasethesupplyofferedbysellerproducerswhichinturnwilllowerthepriceandpermitmoreconsumerstobuytheproductThus,priceistheregulatingmechanismintheAmericaneconomicsystemTheimportantfactorinaprivateenterpriseeconomyisthatindividualsareallowedtoownproductiveresources(privateproperty),andtheyarepermittedtohirelabor,gaincontrolovernaturalresources,andproducegoodsandservicesforsaleataprofitIntheAmericaneconomy,theconceptofprivatepropertyembracesnotonlytheownershipofproductiveresourcesbutalsocertainrights,includingtherighttodeterminethepriceofaproductortomakeafreecontractwithanotherprivateindividualInLine,Para,"thedesireofindividualstomaximizetheirincomes"meansAAmericansareneversatisfiedwiththeirincomesBAmericanstendtooverstatetheirincomesCAmericanswanttohavetheirincomesincreasedDAmericanswanttoincreasethepurchasingpoweroftheirincomesThefirsttwosentencesinthesecondparagraphtellusthatAproducerscansatisfytheconsumersbymechanizedproductionBconsumerscanexpresstheirdemandsthroughproducersCproducersdecidethepricesofproductsDsupplyanddemandregulatepricesAccordingtothepassage,aprivateenterpriseeconomyischaracterizedbyAprivatepropertyandrightsconcernedBmanpowerandnaturalresourcescontrolCownershipofproductiveresourcesDfreecontractsandpricesThepassageismainlyaboutAhowAmericangoodsareproducedBhowAmericanconsumersbuytheirgoodsChowAmericaneconomicsystemworksDhowAmericanbusinessmenmaketheirprofitsPassageOnehundredandthirteenmillionAmericanshaveatleastonebankissuedcreditcardTheytheirownersautomaticcreditinstores,restaurants,andhotels,athome,acrossthecountry,andevenabroad,andtheymakemanybankingservicesavailableaswellMoreandmoreofthesecreditcardscanbereadautomatically,makingitpossibletowithdrawordepositmoneyinscatteredlocations,whetherornotthelocalbranchbankisopenFormanyofusthe"cashlesssociety"isnotonthehorizonit'salreadyhereWhilecomputersoffertheseconveniencestoconsumerstheyhavemanyadvantagesforsellerstooElectroniccashregisterscandomuchmorethansimplyringupsalesTheycankeepawiderangeofrecords,includingwhosoldwhat,when,andtowhomThisinformationallowsbusinessmentokeeptrackoftheirlistofgoodsbyshowingwhichitemsarebeingsoldandhowfasttheyaremovingDecisionstoreorderorreturngoodstosupplierscanthenbemadeAtthesametimethesecomputersrecordwhichhoursarebusiestandwhichemployeesarethemostefficient,allowingpersonnelandstaffingassignmentstobemadeaccordinglyAndtheyalsoidentifypreferredcustomersforpromotionalcampaignsComputersarereliedonbymanufacturersforsimilarreasonsComputeranalyzedmarketingreportscanhelptodecidewhichproductstoemphasizenow,whichtodevelopforthefuture,andwhichtodropComputerskeeptrackofgoodsinstock,ofrawmaterialsonhand,andevenoftheproductionprocessitselfNumerousothercommericalenterprises,fromtheaterstomagazinepublishers,fromgasandelectricutilitiestomilkprocessors,bringbetterandmoreefficientservicestoconsumersthroughtheuseofcomputersAccordingtothepassage,thecreditcardenablesitsownertoAwithdrawasmuchmoneyfromthebankashewishesBobtainmoreconvenientservicesthanotherpeopledoCenjoygreatertrustfromthestorekeeperDcashmoneywhereverhewishestoFromthelastsentenceofthefirstparagraphwelearnthatAinthefuturealltheAmericanswillusecreditcardsBcreditcardsaremainlyusedintheUnitedStatestodayCnowadaysmanyAmericansdonotpayincashDitisnowmoreconvenienttousecreditcardsthanbeforeThephrase"ringupsales"(Line,Para)mostprobablymeans""AmakeanorderofgoodsBrecordsalesonacashregisterCcallthesalesmanagerDkeeptrackofthegoodsinstockWhatisthispassagemainlyaboutAApproachestothecommercialuseofcomputersBconveniencesbroughtaboutbycomputersinbusinessCSignificanceofautomationincommercialenterprisesDAdvantagesofcreditcardsinbusinessPassageExceptionalchildrenaredifferentinsomesignificantwayfromothersofthesameageForthesechildrentodeveloptotheirfulladultpotentialtheireducationmustbeadaptedtothosedifferencesAlthoughwefocusontheneedsofexceptionalchildren,wefindourselvesdescribingtheirenvironmentaswellWhiletheleadingactoronthestagecapturesourattention,weareawareoftheimportanceofthesupportingplayersandthesceneryoftheplayitselfBoththefamilyandthesocietyinwhichexceptionalchildrenliveareoftenthekeytotheirgrowthanddevelopmentAnditisinthepublicschoolsthatwefindthefullexpressionofsociety'sunderstandingtheknowledge,hopes,andfearsthatarepassedontothenextgenerationEducationinanysocietyisamirrorofthatsocietyInthatmirrorwecanseethestrengths,theweaknesses,thehopes,theprejudices,andthecentralvaluesofthecultureitselfThegreatinterestinexceptionalchildrenshowninpubliceducationoverthepastthreedecadesindicatesthestrongfeelinginoursocietythatallcitizens,whatevertheirspecialconditions,deservetheopportunitytofullydeveloptheircapabilities"Allmenarecreatedequal"We'vehearditmanytimes,butitstillhasimportantmeaningforeducationinademocraticsocietyAlthoughthephrasewasusedbythiscountry'sfounderstodenoteequalitybeforethelaw,ithasalsobeeninterpretedtomeanequalityofopportunityThatconceptimplieseducationalopportunityforallchildrentherightofeachchildtoreceivehelpinlearningtothelimitsofhisorhercapacity,whetherthatcapacitybesmallorgreatRecentcourtdecisionshaveconfirmedtherightofallchildrendisabledornottoanappropriateeducation,andhaveorderedthatpublicschoolstakethenecessarystepstoprovidethateducationInresponse,schoolsaremodifyingtheirprograms,adaptinginstructiontochildrenwhoareexceptional,tothosewhocannotprofitsubstantiallyfromregularprogramsInparagrahtheauthorcitestheexampleoftheleadingactoronthestagetoshowthatAthegrowthofexceptionalchildrenhasmuchtodowiththeirfamilyandthesocietyBexceptionalchildrenaremoreinfluencedbytheirfamiliesthannormalchildrenareCexceptionalchildrenarethekeyinterestofthefamilyandsocietyDtheneedsofthesocietyweighmuchheavierthantheneedsoftheexceptionalchildrenThereasonthattheexceptionalchildrenreceivesomuchconcernineducationisthatAtheyareexpectedtobeleadersofthesocietyBtheymightbecomeaburdenofthesocietyCtheyshouldfullydeveloptheirpotentialsDdisabledchildrendeservespecialconsiderationThispassagemainlydealswithAthedifferencesofchildrenintheirlearningcapabilitiesBthedefinitionofexceptionalchildreninmodernsocietyCthespecialeducationalprogramsforexceptionalchildrenDthenecessityofadaptingeducationtoexceptionalchildrenFromthispassagewelearnthattheeducationalconcernforexceptionalchildrenAisnowenjoyinglegalsupportBdisagreeswiththetraditionofthecountryCwasclearlystatedbythecountry'sfoundersDwillexertgreatinfluenceovercourtdecisionsPassage"Ihavegreatconfidencethatbytheendofthedecadewe'llknowinvastdetailhowcancercellsarise,"saysmicrobiologistRobertWeinberg,anexpertoncancer"But,"hecautions,"somepeoplehavetheideathatonceoneunderstandsthecauses,thecurewillrapidlyfollowConsiderPasteur,hediscoveredthecausesofmanykindsofinfections,butitwasfiftyorsixtyyearsbeforecureswereavailable"Thisyear,percentofthe,peoplewhosufferfromcancerwillsurviveatleastfiveyearsIntheyear,theNationalCancerInstituteestimates,thatfigurewillbepercentForsomeskincancers,thefiveyearsurvivalrateisashighaspercentButothersurvivalstatisticsarestilldiscouragingpercentforlungcancer,andpercentforcancerofthepancreasWithasmanyasvarietiesinexistence,discoveringhowcancerworksisnoteasyTheresearchersmadegreatprogressintheearlys,whentheydiscoveredthatoncogenes,whicharecancercausinggenes,areinactiveinnormalcellsAnythingfromcosmicraystoradiationtodietmayactivateadormantoncogene,buthowremainsunknownIfseveraloncogenesaredrivenintoaction,thecell,unabletoturnthemoff,becomescancerousTheexactmechanismsinvolvedarestillmysterious,butthelikelihoodthatmanycancersareinitiatedatthelevelofgenessuggeststhatwewillneverpreventallcancers"Changesareanormalpartoftheevolutionaryprocess,"saysoncologistWilliamHayward,EnvironmentalfactorscanneverbetotallyeliminatedasHaywardpointsout,"Wecan'tprepareamedicineagainstcosmicrays"Theprospectsforcure,thoughstilldistant,arebrighter"First,weneedtounderstandhowthenormalcellcontrolsitself,Second,wehavetodeterminewhethertherearealimitednumberofgenesincellswhicharealwaysresponsibleforatleastpartofthetroubleIfwecanunderstandhowcancerworks,wecancounteractitsaction"TheexampleofPasteurinthepassageisusedto​ApredictthatthesecretofcancerwillbedisclosedinadecadeBindicatethattheprospectsforcuringcancerarebrightCprovethatcancerwillbecuredinfiftytosixtyyearsDwarnthatthereisstillalongwaytogobeforecancercanbeconqueredTheauthorimpliesthatbytheyear,AtherewillbeadrasticriseinthefiveyearsurvivalrateofskincancerpatientsBpercentofheskincancerpatientstodaywillstillbelivingCthesurvivalstatisticswillbefairlyevenamongpatientswithvariouscancersDtherewon'tbeadrasticincreaseofsurvivalrateofallcancerpatientsOncogenesarecancercausinggenes​​AthatarealwaysinoperationinahealthypersonBwhichremainunharmfulsolongastheyarenotactivatedCthatcanbedrivenoutofnormalcellsDwhichnormalcellcan'tturnoffTheword"dormant"inthethirdparagraphmostprobablymeansAdeadBeverpresentCinactiveDpotentialPassageDiscoveriesinscienceandtechnologyarethoughtby"untaughtminds"tocomeinblindingflasherorastheresultofdramaticaccidentsSirAlexanderFlemingdidnot,aslegendwouldhaveit,lookatthemoldonapieceofcheeseandgettheideaforpenicillinthereandthenHeexperimentedwithantibacterialsubstancesfornineyearsbeforehemadehisdiscoveryInventionsandinnovationsalmostalwayscomeoutoflaborioustrialanderrorInnovationislikesoccereventhebestplayersmissthegoalandhavetheirshotsblockedmuchmorefrequentlythantheyscoreTheypointisthattheplayerswhoscoremostaretheoneswhotakethemostshotsatthegoal​​andsoitgoeswithinnovationinanyfieldofactivityTheprimedifferencebetweeninnovatorsandothersisoneofapproachEverybodygetsideas,butinnovatorsworkconsciouslyontheirs,andtheyfollowthemthroughuntiltheyprovepracticableorotherwiseWhatordinarypeopleseeasfancifulabstractions,professionalinnovatorsseeassolidpossibilities"Creativethinkingmaymeansimplytherealizationthatthere'snoparticularvirtueindoingthingsthewaytheyhavealwaysbeendone,"wroteRudolphFlesch,alanguageauthorityThisaccountsforourreactionsoseeminglysimpleinnovationslikeplasticgarbagebagsandsuitcasesonwheelsthatmakelifemoreconvenient:"Howcomenobodythoughtofthatbefore"ThecreativeapproachbeginswiththepropositionthatnothingisasitappearsInnovatorswillnotacceptthatthereisonlyonewaytodoanythingFacedwithgettingfromAtoB,theaveragepersonwillautomaticallysetoutonthebestknownandapparentlysimplestrouteTheinnovatorwillsearchforalternatecourses,whichmayproveeasierinthelongrunandareboundtobemoreinterestingandchallengingeveniftheyleadtodeadendsHighlycreativeindividualsreallydomarchtoadifferentdrummerWhatdoestheauthorprobablymeanby"untaughtmind"inthefirstparagraphAApersonignorantofthehardworkinvolvedinexperimentationBAcitizenofasocietythatrestrictspersonalcreativityCApersonwhohashadnoeducationDAnindividualwhooftencomesupwithnewideasbyaccidentAccordingtotheauthor,whatdistinguishesinnovatorsfromnoninnovatorsAThevarietyofideastheyhaveBTheintelligencetheypossessCThewaytheydealwithproblemsDThewaytheypresenttheirfindingsTheauthorquotesRudolphFleschinParagraphbecauseARudolphFleschisthebestknownexpertinthestudyofhumancreativityBthequotationstrengthenstheassertionthatcreativeindividualslookfornewwaysofdoingthingsCthereaderisfamiliarwithRudolphFlesch'spointofviewDthequotationaddsanewideatotheinformationpreviouslypresentedThephrase"marchtoadifferentdrummer"(thelastlineofthepassage)suggeststhathighlycreativeindividualsareAdiligentinpursuingtheirgoalsBreluctanttofollowcommonwaysofdoingthingsCdevotedtotheprogressofscienceDconcernedabouttheadvanceofsocietyUnitPassageMoneyspentonadvertisingismoneyspentaswellasanyIknowofItservesdirectlytoassistarapiddistributionofgoodsatreasonableprice,therebyestablishingafirmhomemarketandsomakingitpossibletoprovideforexportatcompetitivepricesBydrawingattentiontonewideasithelpsenormouslytoraisestandardsoflivingByhelpingtoincreasedemanditensuresanincreasedneedforlabour,andisthereforeaneffectivewaytofightunemploymentItlowersthecostsofmanyservices:withoutadvertisementsyourdailynewspaperwouldcostfourtimesasmuch,thepriceofyourtelevisionlicencewouldneedtobedoubled,andtravelbybusortubewouldcostpercentmoreAndperhapsmostimportantofall,advertisingprovidesaguaranteeofreasonablevalueintheproductsandservicesyoubuyApartfromthefactthattwentysevenactsofParliamentgovernthetermsofadvertising,noregularadvertiserdarepromoteaproductthatfailstoliveuptothepromiseofhisadvertisementsHemightfoolsomepeopleforalittlewhilethroughmisleadingadvertisingHewillnotdosoforlong,formercifullythepublichasthegoodsensenottobuytheinferiorarticlemorethanonceIfyouseeanarticleconsistentlyadvertised,itisthesurestproofIknowthatthearticledoeswhatisclaimedforit,andthatitrepresentsgoodvalueAdvertisingdoesmoreforthematerialbenefitofthecommunitythananyotherforceIcanthinkofThereisonemorepointIfeelIoughttotouchonRecentlyIheardawellknowntelevisionpersonalitydeclarethathewasagainstadvertisingbecauseitpersuadesratherthaninformsHewasdrawingexcessivelyfinedistinctionsOfcourseadvertisingseekstopersuadeIfitsmessagewereconfinedmerelytoinformationandthatinitselfwouldbedifficultifnotimpossibletoachieve,forevenadetailsuchasthechoiceofthecolourofashirtissubtlypersuasiveadvertisingwouldbesoboringthatnoonewouldpayanyattentionButperhapsthatiswhatthewellknowntelevisionpersonalitywantsBythefirstsentenceofthepassagetheauthormeansthatAheisfairlyfamiliarwiththecostofadvertisingBeverybodyknowswellthatadvertisingismoneyconsumingCadvertisingcostsmoneylikeeverythingelseDitisworthwhiletospendmoneyonadvertisingInthepassage,whichofthefollowingisNOTincludedintheadvantagesofadvertisingASecuringgreaterfameBProvidingmorejobsCEnhancinglivingstandardsDReducingnewspapercostTheauthordeemsthatthewellknownTVpersonalityisAverypreciseinpassinghisjudgementonadvertisingBinterestedinnothingbutthebuyers'attentionCcorrectintellingthedifferencebetweenpersuasionandinformationDobviouslypartialinhisviewsonadvertisingIntheauthor'sopinion,AadvertisingcanseldombringmaterialbenefittomanbyprovidinginformationBadvertisinginformspeopleofnewideasratherthanwinsthemoverCthereisnothingwrongwithadvertisinginpersuadingthebuyerDthebuyerisnotinterestedingettinginformationfromanadvertisementPassageTherearetwobasicwaystoseegrowthoneaproduct,theotherasaprocessPeoplehavegenerallyviewedpersonalgrowthasanexternalresultorproductthatcaneasilybeindentifiedandmeasuredTheworkerwhogetsapromotion,thestudentwhosegradesimprove,theforeignerwholearnsanewlanguagealltheseareexamplesofpe

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/136

考研英语阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利