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_Vault Career Guide to International Development.pdf

_Vault Career Guide to Internat…

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673次下载 0人收藏 暂无简介 简介 2010-03-27 举报

简介:'Vault Career Guide to International Development

Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryThemedia’swatchingVault!Here’sasamplingofourcoverage.“Forthosehopingtoclimbtheladderofsuccess,[Vault’s]insightsarepriceless.”–Moneymagazine“ThebestplaceontheWebtoprepareforajobsearch.”–Fortune“[Vaultguides]makeforexcellentstartingpointsforjobhuntersandshouldbepurchasedbyacademiclibrariesfortheircareersections[and]universitycareercenters.”–LibraryJournal“Thegranddaddyofworkersites.”–U.S.News&WorldReport“Akillerapp.”–TheNewYorkTimesOneofForbes’33“FavoriteSites.”–Forbes“Togettheunvarnishedscoop,checkoutVault.”–SmartMoneyMagazine“Vaulthasawealthofinformationaboutmajoremployersandjobsearchingstrategiesaswellascommentsfromworkersabouttheirexperiencesatspecificcompanies.”–TheWashingtonPost“Akeyreferenceforthosewhowanttoknowwhatittakestogethiredbyalawfirmandwhattoexpectoncetheygetthere.”–NewYorkLawJournal“Vault[provides]theskinnyonworkingconditionsatallkindsofcompaniesfromcurrentandformeremployees.”–USATodayCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryVAULTCAREERGUIDETOINTERNATIONALDEVELOPMENTCHRISTOPHERMILLERANDTHESTAFFOFVAULTCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryCopyright2009byVault.com,Inc.Allrightsreserved.Allinformationinthisbookissubjecttochangewithoutnotice.Vaultmakesnoclaimsastotheaccuracyandreliabilityoftheinformationcontainedwithinanddisclaimsallwarranties.Nopartofthisbookmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,foranypurpose,withouttheexpresswrittenpermissionofVault.com,Inc.Vault,theVaultlogo,and“TheMostTrustedNameinCareerInformationTM”aretrademarksofVault.com,Inc.Forinformationaboutpermissiontoreproduceselectionsfromthisbook,contactVault.com,Inc.,75VarickStreet,8thFloor,NewYork,NY10013,(212)366-4212.LibraryofCongressCIPDataisavailable.ISBN13:978-1-58131-621-6ISBN10:1-58131-621-6PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryAcknowledgmentsVault’sacknowledgments:WeareextremelygratefultoVault’sentirestaffforalltheirhelpintheeditorial,productionandmarketingprocesses.Vaultalsowouldliketoacknowledgethesupportofourinvestors,clients,employees,familyandfriends.Thankyou!vCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryINTRODUCTION1KeyTerminology.................................................2THESCOOP3Chapter1:IntroducingtheIndustry5BackgroundandHistory...........................................5PracticeAreas..................................................7SizeoftheIndustry.............................................10OrganizationandEvolution........................................12IndustryTrendsandWhatTheyMeantoaJobHunter.....................15Chapter2:HowItWorks17FundingOrganizations...........................................18ImplementingAgencies..........................................21Projects......................................................22Chapter3:TypesofImplementingAgencies25NongovernmentalOrganizations(NGOs)...............................27IntergovernmentalOrganizations(alsoknownasmultilateralorganizations)......29OtherKindsofImplementingAgencies...............................32Chapter4:IsItforYou?35ChallengesandRewards..........................................35ThingstoThinkAbout...........................................36ImportantAptitudes.............................................39HowtoFindOut...............................................41GETTINGHIRED43Chapter5:EducationandExperience45Education....................................................45Experience...................................................49TableofContentsviiCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryChapter6:TypesofEmploymentandJobSearchStrategies53TypesofEmployment............................................53PreparingfortheSearch..........................................54IdentifyingOrganizationsThatMatchYourInterests......................55GettingtoKnowYourShortlist......................................57Networking...................................................58Applying.....................................................61SampleCoverLetters............................................63SampleResumeandCV..........................................67Interviewing...................................................69Chapter7:TheHiringProcess73WhoGetsHired?...............................................73TheProcess...................................................74Negotiating...................................................75Organization-SpecificInformation...................................77ONTHEJOB83Chapter8:CareerPaths85CareerRolesinDevelopment.......................................85AdministrativeRoles.............................................86TechnicalRoles................................................88SupportPositions...............................................90TechniquesforCareerAdvancement.................................92CareerTransitions...............................................92DaysintheLife................................................95Chapter9:Culture,CompensationandBenefits99Intergovernmental(IGOs)andGovernmentOrganizations(Donors)...........102ImplementingAgencies.........................................107viii2009Vault.com,Inc.VaultCareerGuidetoInternationalDevelopmentTableofContentsCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryAPPENDIX113ResourcesforJobSeekers115JobLists....................................................115ProfessionalOrganizationsandIndustryInformation.....................117EmployerProfiles119IntergovernmentalOrganizations...................................119VolunteerOrganizations.........................................122OtherOrganizations............................................125ABOUTTHEAUTHOR127ixVisitVaultatwww.vault.comforinsidercompanyprofiles,expertadvice,careermessageboards,expertresumereviews,theVaultJobBoardandmore.VaultCareerGuidetoInternationalDevelopmentTableofContentsCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibrary•Employeesurveysfor7,000+topemployers,withinsiderinfoon•Companyculture•Salariesandcompensation•Hiringprocessandinterviews•Businessoutlook•Accessto1,000+extendedinsideremployersnapshots•StudentandalumnisurveysforhundredsoftopMBAprograms,lawschoolsandgraduateschoolprograms,aswellas1,000sofundergraduateprograms•AccesstoVault’sSalaryCentral,withsalaryinformationforlaw,financeandconsultingfirms•AccesstocompleteVaultmessageboardarchivesFormoreinformationgotowww.vault.comGetVaultGoldMembershipforaccesstoallofVault’saward-winningcareerinformation.15%OFFallVaultpurchases,includingVaultGuides,EmployerProfilesandVaultCareerServices(namedTheWallStreetJournals“TopChoice”forresumemakeovers)Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryIntroductionInternationaldevelopmentisaprofessionunlikeanyother.Althoughmoderninternationaldevelopmenthasmorethanhalfacenturyofhistory,thepracticeofdevelopmentisconstantlyevolvingandtheindustryiscurrentlyinthemidstofmajorchangesthathavethepotentialtoimprovethelivesofbillionsofpeople.Developmentprofessionalsareworkingineverycountryintheworldtoaddressissuesincludinghumanrights,health,economicgrowth,environmentconservationandmanyothers.Asaprofession,fewcareerchoicescanmatchinternationaldevelopmentforthesheerrangeoftheindustry,challengeoftheworkorrelevancytotheworld’spopulation.Inrecentyearstheneedforcoordinatedandcomprehensivesustainabledevelopmenthasbeencenter-stageinworldpoliticsduetoincreasingawarenessofboththeissuesandtheconsequences.DevelopmentchampionsincludingacademicssuchasJeffreySachs,businesspeoplelikeBillGates,politiciansandcelebritieshavehelpedbringinternationaldevelopmenttotheforefrontofpolicyandeconomicdiscussion.Atthesametime,theworldhasbecomemoreglobalized,withconstantremindersthattheproblemsofthedevelopingworldcananddoaffecttheentireworld.Yetdespitetherapidgrowthoffundingforinternationaldevelopmentandtheincreasingunderstandingoftheneedforsustainabledevelopment,theindustryandeventheterm“internationaldevelopment”remainpoorlyunderstood.Thereisnouniversallyagreed-upondefinitionofinternationaldevelopment.Thetermhasevolvedovertimeandthereisnosingleindustrygroupthatholdsresponsibilityfordeterminingwhatisandwhatisn’tdevelopment.Likewise,therearenocertificationoraccreditationbodiesthatdelegateorganizationsaspractitionersofdevelopment.Althoughthereisnotauniversaldefinition,thereareanumberofcharacteristicsthatarewidelyacceptedtodescribeinternationaldevelopment.Ingeneral,internationaldevelopment:•WorksindevelopingcountriesInternationaldevelopmentgenerallyutilizesresourcesfromdevelopedcountriestofundprojectsindevelopingcountries.Thisideaisbeingchallenged,however,bytheincreasingamountofmoneyfordevelopmentbeingprovidedbydevelopingcountries.•ContributestothepublicgoodInternationaldevelopmenthasanunderlyinggoalofimprovinglivingstandardsindevelopingcountries.Developmentprojectsmayworkwiththepublic,civilandprivatesectors,buttheendgoalistofosterdevelopment,nottomakemoney.•BuildssustainabilityInternationaldevelopmentisnotaboutgivingmoney,supplies,andequipment,itisaboutbuildingthecapacityforpeopletoprovidethesethingsfortheirowncommunities.1Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibrary•UtilizesprofessionalmethodsofprojectimplementationandevaluationAsinternationaldevelopmentbecomesabiggerandmoreprofessionalindustry,thereisagreaterexpectationthatdevelopmentagenciesadoptmodernmethodsofmanagementandevaluation.Mostprofessionaldevelopmentpractitionersnowhavefulltimestafffocusedexclusivelyontheseissues.•DependsonspecializedorganizationsthatfocusoninternationaldevelopmentDonorsrarelyhavethecapacitytoactuallyimplementandmanagedevelopmentprojects,sotheydependuponprofessionalorganizationsthatspecializeindevelopment.Theseorganizationsincludenon-governmentalorganizations,civilsocietyorganizations,privatevoluntaryorganizationsandsomeprivatecompanies.KeyTerminologyTogetyoustarted,belowaresomekeytermsininternationaldevelopment.Additionaltermsarehighlightedthroughoutthebook.•Developedcountriesaretheworld’swealthiernations.Therearemanyformaldefinitionsusedtodeterminewhichnationsaredeveloped,includingmeasurementsbasedoneconomicandsocialindicators.TheWorldBankusestheterm“highincomeeconomy”todescribecountrieswithagrossnationalincomepercapitaof$11,456ormore.TheUnitedNationsusestheHumanDevelopmentIndex,whichestimateshowincomeisturnedintoeducationandhealthopportunities.Regardlessofthedefinition,developedcountriesarethemainfundersofinternationaldevelopment.•Developingcountriesare,conversely,thosenationsthatdon’tmeettherequirementsofadevelopedcountryaccordingtothesevariousscales.Developingcountriesmayalsobeknownaslow-incomecountriesoremergingeconomiesaccordingtoeconomicindicators.TheUnitedNationsusestheterm“leastdevelopedcountries”fornationswiththelowestscoresontheHumanDevelopmentIndex.Developingcountriesaretherecipientsofdevelopmentassistance,althoughsomedevelopingcountriesgivedevelopmentassistanceinadditiontoreceivingit.•Officialdevelopmentassistance(ODA)isthemoneythatgovernmentsspendoninternationaldevelopment.ThereisaveryspecificdefinitionofODAandstrictrulesaboutwhatspendingcanbecountedasODA.MoreinformationonthisisprovidedinChapter2.•Donorcommunityisageneraltermtodescribetheorganizationsthatfundinternationaldevelopment.TheseincludegovernmentdevelopmentagenciessuchasUSAIDandDFID,foundations,intergovernmentalorganizationsandotherfundersofdevelopmentwork.DonorsarecoveredinmoredetailinChapter3.VaultCareerGuidetoInternationalDevelopmentIntroduction22009Vault.com,Inc.Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryIntroducingtheIndustryHowitWorksTypesofImplementingAgenciesIsItforYou?VaultGuidetoInternationalDevelopmentTHESCOOPCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibrary42009Vault.com,Inc.Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryBACKGROUNDANDHISTORYThemoderninstitutionsthatcomprisethedevelopmentindustrymostlycameintoexistenceinthemid-20thcentury,largelyinresponsetomajorgeo-politicalevents,includingWorldWarIIandtheColdWar.Inparticular,theMarshallPlantorebuildWesternEuropeafterthephysical,socialandeconomicdevastationofWorldWarIIiswidelyconsideredthecatalystfororganizedinternationaldevelopmentledbywealthydonorcountries.Similarly,theColdWarservedtoraisethevisibilityofdevelopingcountriesandcontributedtoideaofglobalstabilitythroughdevelopment.ThefearthatdevelopingcountriesinAsiaandtheAmericaswerebeinginfluencedpoliticallybyfinancialandpolicysupportfromtheUSSRdirectlycontributedtoincreasedspendingondevelopmentassistancefromtheUnitedStates.Clearlymuchofthismoneywasnotsupportinginternationaldevelopmentasweunderstandittoday,butitdidhavetheeffectofshowingthelinksbetweenthewelfareofdevelopinganddevelopedcountries.Globalizationhasbeenanothersignificantforceininternationaldevelopment.Greaterinterconnectivityamongworldpopulationsandeconomieshasstrengthenedrelationshipsamongcountriesandraisedawarenessofdevelopmentissues.Ithasalsocontributedgreatlytoeconomicdevelopmentthroughforeigndirectinvestmentandremittances.Manyadditionaltrendshavealsohelpedpromotetheidealsofinternationaldevelopment.Theadventofmassmediaandtheincredibleimprovementsinglobaltravel,inparticular,havemadeitpossibleforcitizensofdevelopedcountriestosee,firsthandorthroughtheirTVsandnewspapers,theconditionsthatpeopleinpoorercountriesliveineveryday.Thisnotonlyraisesmoneyfordevelopment,butalsogalvanizespublicsupportforgovernmentspendingoninternationaldevelopmentassistance.Forexample,intheweekfollowingtheDecember26,2004AsianTsunami,theUnitedNationsreceivedanunprecedented$1.5billioninreliefdonations.Themassivecoverageoftheevent,includingeverythingfromtraditionalmediatoblogsandcamera-phonevideos,helpedspreadawarenessofthedisasterandmakeiteasyforpeople,organizations,andgovernmentstodonatetothereliefefforts.Keydatesintherecenthistoryofinternationaldevelopment1944TheBrettonWoodsAgreementissigned,settingthefoundationforaninternationalfinancialsystem.TheagreementestablishestheInternationalMonetaryFund(IMF)andtheInternationalBankforReconstructionandDevelopment(IBRD),nowpartoftheWorldBankGroup.1945TheCharteroftheUnitedNationsisdraftedandratifiedby51originalmemberstates.1950TheroleofinternationalnongovernmentalorganizationsindevelopmentisenshrinedbytheEconomicandSocialCounciloftheUnitedNations.5IntroducingtheIndustryChapter1Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibrary1959TheInter-AmericanDe

_Vault Career Guide to International Development.pdf

_Vault Career Guide to Internat…

上传者: frederic
673次下载 0人收藏 暂无简介 简介 2010-03-27 举报

简介:'Vault Career Guide to International Development

Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryThemedia’swatchingVault!Here’sasamplingofourcoverage.“Forthosehopingtoclimbtheladderofsuccess,[Vault’s]insightsarepriceless.”–Moneymagazine“ThebestplaceontheWebtoprepareforajobsearch.”–Fortune“[Vaultguides]makeforexcellentstartingpointsforjobhuntersandshouldbepurchasedbyacademiclibrariesfortheircareersections[and]universitycareercenters.”–LibraryJournal“Thegranddaddyofworkersites.”–U.S.News&WorldReport“Akillerapp.”–TheNewYorkTimesOneofForbes’33“FavoriteSites.”–Forbes“Togettheunvarnishedscoop,checkoutVault.”–SmartMoneyMagazine“Vaulthasawealthofinformationaboutmajoremployersandjobsearchingstrategiesaswellascommentsfromworkersabouttheirexperiencesatspecificcompanies.”–TheWashingtonPost“Akeyreferenceforthosewhowanttoknowwhatittakestogethiredbyalawfirmandwhattoexpectoncetheygetthere.”–NewYorkLawJournal“Vault[provides]theskinnyonworkingconditionsatallkindsofcompaniesfromcurrentandformeremployees.”–USATodayCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryVAULTCAREERGUIDETOINTERNATIONALDEVELOPMENTCHRISTOPHERMILLERANDTHESTAFFOFVAULTCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryCopyright2009byVault.com,Inc.Allrightsreserved.Allinformationinthisbookissubjecttochangewithoutnotice.Vaultmakesnoclaimsastotheaccuracyandreliabilityoftheinformationcontainedwithinanddisclaimsallwarranties.Nopartofthisbookmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,foranypurpose,withouttheexpresswrittenpermissionofVault.com,Inc.Vault,theVaultlogo,and“TheMostTrustedNameinCareerInformationTM”aretrademarksofVault.com,Inc.Forinformationaboutpermissiontoreproduceselectionsfromthisbook,contactVault.com,Inc.,75VarickStreet,8thFloor,NewYork,NY10013,(212)366-4212.LibraryofCongressCIPDataisavailable.ISBN13:978-1-58131-621-6ISBN10:1-58131-621-6PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryAcknowledgmentsVault’sacknowledgments:WeareextremelygratefultoVault’sentirestaffforalltheirhelpintheeditorial,productionandmarketingprocesses.Vaultalsowouldliketoacknowledgethesupportofourinvestors,clients,employees,familyandfriends.Thankyou!vCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryINTRODUCTION1KeyTerminology.................................................2THESCOOP3Chapter1:IntroducingtheIndustry5BackgroundandHistory...........................................5PracticeAreas..................................................7SizeoftheIndustry.............................................10OrganizationandEvolution........................................12IndustryTrendsandWhatTheyMeantoaJobHunter.....................15Chapter2:HowItWorks17FundingOrganizations...........................................18ImplementingAgencies..........................................21Projects......................................................22Chapter3:TypesofImplementingAgencies25NongovernmentalOrganizations(NGOs)...............................27IntergovernmentalOrganizations(alsoknownasmultilateralorganizations)......29OtherKindsofImplementingAgencies...............................32Chapter4:IsItforYou?35ChallengesandRewards..........................................35ThingstoThinkAbout...........................................36ImportantAptitudes.............................................39HowtoFindOut...............................................41GETTINGHIRED43Chapter5:EducationandExperience45Education....................................................45Experience...................................................49TableofContentsviiCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryChapter6:TypesofEmploymentandJobSearchStrategies53TypesofEmployment............................................53PreparingfortheSearch..........................................54IdentifyingOrganizationsThatMatchYourInterests......................55GettingtoKnowYourShortlist......................................57Networking...................................................58Applying.....................................................61SampleCoverLetters............................................63SampleResumeandCV..........................................67Interviewing...................................................69Chapter7:TheHiringProcess73WhoGetsHired?...............................................73TheProcess...................................................74Negotiating...................................................75Organization-SpecificInformation...................................77ONTHEJOB83Chapter8:CareerPaths85CareerRolesinDevelopment.......................................85AdministrativeRoles.............................................86TechnicalRoles................................................88SupportPositions...............................................90TechniquesforCareerAdvancement.................................92CareerTransitions...............................................92DaysintheLife................................................95Chapter9:Culture,CompensationandBenefits99Intergovernmental(IGOs)andGovernmentOrganizations(Donors)...........102ImplementingAgencies.........................................107viii2009Vault.com,Inc.VaultCareerGuidetoInternationalDevelopmentTableofContentsCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryAPPENDIX113ResourcesforJobSeekers115JobLists....................................................115ProfessionalOrganizationsandIndustryInformation.....................117EmployerProfiles119IntergovernmentalOrganizations...................................119VolunteerOrganizations.........................................122OtherOrganizations............................................125ABOUTTHEAUTHOR127ixVisitVaultatwww.vault.comforinsidercompanyprofiles,expertadvice,careermessageboards,expertresumereviews,theVaultJobBoardandmore.VaultCareerGuidetoInternationalDevelopmentTableofContentsCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibrary•Employeesurveysfor7,000+topemployers,withinsiderinfoon•Companyculture•Salariesandcompensation•Hiringprocessandinterviews•Businessoutlook•Accessto1,000+extendedinsideremployersnapshots•StudentandalumnisurveysforhundredsoftopMBAprograms,lawschoolsandgraduateschoolprograms,aswellas1,000sofundergraduateprograms•AccesstoVault’sSalaryCentral,withsalaryinformationforlaw,financeandconsultingfirms•AccesstocompleteVaultmessageboardarchivesFormoreinformationgotowww.vault.comGetVaultGoldMembershipforaccesstoallofVault’saward-winningcareerinformation.15%OFFallVaultpurchases,includingVaultGuides,EmployerProfilesandVaultCareerServices(namedTheWallStreetJournals“TopChoice”forresumemakeovers)Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryIntroductionInternationaldevelopmentisaprofessionunlikeanyother.Althoughmoderninternationaldevelopmenthasmorethanhalfacenturyofhistory,thepracticeofdevelopmentisconstantlyevolvingandtheindustryiscurrentlyinthemidstofmajorchangesthathavethepotentialtoimprovethelivesofbillionsofpeople.Developmentprofessionalsareworkingineverycountryintheworldtoaddressissuesincludinghumanrights,health,economicgrowth,environmentconservationandmanyothers.Asaprofession,fewcareerchoicescanmatchinternationaldevelopmentforthesheerrangeoftheindustry,challengeoftheworkorrelevancytotheworld’spopulation.Inrecentyearstheneedforcoordinatedandcomprehensivesustainabledevelopmenthasbeencenter-stageinworldpoliticsduetoincreasingawarenessofboththeissuesandtheconsequences.DevelopmentchampionsincludingacademicssuchasJeffreySachs,businesspeoplelikeBillGates,politiciansandcelebritieshavehelpedbringinternationaldevelopmenttotheforefrontofpolicyandeconomicdiscussion.Atthesametime,theworldhasbecomemoreglobalized,withconstantremindersthattheproblemsofthedevelopingworldcananddoaffecttheentireworld.Yetdespitetherapidgrowthoffundingforinternationaldevelopmentandtheincreasingunderstandingoftheneedforsustainabledevelopment,theindustryandeventheterm“internationaldevelopment”remainpoorlyunderstood.Thereisnouniversallyagreed-upondefinitionofinternationaldevelopment.Thetermhasevolvedovertimeandthereisnosingleindustrygroupthatholdsresponsibilityfordeterminingwhatisandwhatisn’tdevelopment.Likewise,therearenocertificationoraccreditationbodiesthatdelegateorganizationsaspractitionersofdevelopment.Althoughthereisnotauniversaldefinition,thereareanumberofcharacteristicsthatarewidelyacceptedtodescribeinternationaldevelopment.Ingeneral,internationaldevelopment:•WorksindevelopingcountriesInternationaldevelopmentgenerallyutilizesresourcesfromdevelopedcountriestofundprojectsindevelopingcountries.Thisideaisbeingchallenged,however,bytheincreasingamountofmoneyfordevelopmentbeingprovidedbydevelopingcountries.•ContributestothepublicgoodInternationaldevelopmenthasanunderlyinggoalofimprovinglivingstandardsindevelopingcountries.Developmentprojectsmayworkwiththepublic,civilandprivatesectors,buttheendgoalistofosterdevelopment,nottomakemoney.•BuildssustainabilityInternationaldevelopmentisnotaboutgivingmoney,supplies,andequipment,itisaboutbuildingthecapacityforpeopletoprovidethesethingsfortheirowncommunities.1Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibrary•UtilizesprofessionalmethodsofprojectimplementationandevaluationAsinternationaldevelopmentbecomesabiggerandmoreprofessionalindustry,thereisagreaterexpectationthatdevelopmentagenciesadoptmodernmethodsofmanagementandevaluation.Mostprofessionaldevelopmentpractitionersnowhavefulltimestafffocusedexclusivelyontheseissues.•DependsonspecializedorganizationsthatfocusoninternationaldevelopmentDonorsrarelyhavethecapacitytoactuallyimplementandmanagedevelopmentprojects,sotheydependuponprofessionalorganizationsthatspecializeindevelopment.Theseorganizationsincludenon-governmentalorganizations,civilsocietyorganizations,privatevoluntaryorganizationsandsomeprivatecompanies.KeyTerminologyTogetyoustarted,belowaresomekeytermsininternationaldevelopment.Additionaltermsarehighlightedthroughoutthebook.•Developedcountriesaretheworld’swealthiernations.Therearemanyformaldefinitionsusedtodeterminewhichnationsaredeveloped,includingmeasurementsbasedoneconomicandsocialindicators.TheWorldBankusestheterm“highincomeeconomy”todescribecountrieswithagrossnationalincomepercapitaof$11,456ormore.TheUnitedNationsusestheHumanDevelopmentIndex,whichestimateshowincomeisturnedintoeducationandhealthopportunities.Regardlessofthedefinition,developedcountriesarethemainfundersofinternationaldevelopment.•Developingcountriesare,conversely,thosenationsthatdon’tmeettherequirementsofadevelopedcountryaccordingtothesevariousscales.Developingcountriesmayalsobeknownaslow-incomecountriesoremergingeconomiesaccordingtoeconomicindicators.TheUnitedNationsusestheterm“leastdevelopedcountries”fornationswiththelowestscoresontheHumanDevelopmentIndex.Developingcountriesaretherecipientsofdevelopmentassistance,althoughsomedevelopingcountriesgivedevelopmentassistanceinadditiontoreceivingit.•Officialdevelopmentassistance(ODA)isthemoneythatgovernmentsspendoninternationaldevelopment.ThereisaveryspecificdefinitionofODAandstrictrulesaboutwhatspendingcanbecountedasODA.MoreinformationonthisisprovidedinChapter2.•Donorcommunityisageneraltermtodescribetheorganizationsthatfundinternationaldevelopment.TheseincludegovernmentdevelopmentagenciessuchasUSAIDandDFID,foundations,intergovernmentalorganizationsandotherfundersofdevelopmentwork.DonorsarecoveredinmoredetailinChapter3.VaultCareerGuidetoInternationalDevelopmentIntroduction22009Vault.com,Inc.Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryIntroducingtheIndustryHowitWorksTypesofImplementingAgenciesIsItforYou?VaultGuidetoInternationalDevelopmentTHESCOOPCustomizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibrary42009Vault.com,Inc.Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibraryBACKGROUNDANDHISTORYThemoderninstitutionsthatcomprisethedevelopmentindustrymostlycameintoexistenceinthemid-20thcentury,largelyinresponsetomajorgeo-politicalevents,includingWorldWarIIandtheColdWar.Inparticular,theMarshallPlantorebuildWesternEuropeafterthephysical,socialandeconomicdevastationofWorldWarIIiswidelyconsideredthecatalystfororganizedinternationaldevelopmentledbywealthydonorcountries.Similarly,theColdWarservedtoraisethevisibilityofdevelopingcountriesandcontributedtoideaofglobalstabilitythroughdevelopment.ThefearthatdevelopingcountriesinAsiaandtheAmericaswerebeinginfluencedpoliticallybyfinancialandpolicysupportfromtheUSSRdirectlycontributedtoincreasedspendingondevelopmentassistancefromtheUnitedStates.Clearlymuchofthismoneywasnotsupportinginternationaldevelopmentasweunderstandittoday,butitdidhavetheeffectofshowingthelinksbetweenthewelfareofdevelopinganddevelopedcountries.Globalizationhasbeenanothersignificantforceininternationaldevelopment.Greaterinterconnectivityamongworldpopulationsandeconomieshasstrengthenedrelationshipsamongcountriesandraisedawarenessofdevelopmentissues.Ithasalsocontributedgreatlytoeconomicdevelopmentthroughforeigndirectinvestmentandremittances.Manyadditionaltrendshavealsohelpedpromotetheidealsofinternationaldevelopment.Theadventofmassmediaandtheincredibleimprovementsinglobaltravel,inparticular,havemadeitpossibleforcitizensofdevelopedcountriestosee,firsthandorthroughtheirTVsandnewspapers,theconditionsthatpeopleinpoorercountriesliveineveryday.Thisnotonlyraisesmoneyfordevelopment,butalsogalvanizespublicsupportforgovernmentspendingoninternationaldevelopmentassistance.Forexample,intheweekfollowingtheDecember26,2004AsianTsunami,theUnitedNationsreceivedanunprecedented$1.5billioninreliefdonations.Themassivecoverageoftheevent,includingeverythingfromtraditionalmediatoblogsandcamera-phonevideos,helpedspreadawarenessofthedisasterandmakeiteasyforpeople,organizations,andgovernmentstodonatetothereliefefforts.Keydatesintherecenthistoryofinternationaldevelopment1944TheBrettonWoodsAgreementissigned,settingthefoundationforaninternationalfinancialsystem.TheagreementestablishestheInternationalMonetaryFund(IMF)andtheInternationalBankforReconstructionandDevelopment(IBRD),nowpartoftheWorldBankGroup.1945TheCharteroftheUnitedNationsisdraftedandratifiedby51originalmemberstates.1950TheroleofinternationalnongovernmentalorganizationsindevelopmentisenshrinedbytheEconomicandSocialCounciloftheUnitedNations.5IntroducingtheIndustryChapter1Customizedfor:TaoWang(wt06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)TsinghuaSEMOnlineCareerLibrary1959TheInter-AmericanDe
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