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Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y The media’s watching Vault! Here’s a sampling of our coverage. “For those hoping to climb the ladder of success, [Vault’s] insights are priceless.” – Money magazine “The best place on the Web to prepare for a job search.” – Fortune “[Vault guides] make for excellent starting points for job hunters and should be purchased by academic libraries for their career sections [and] university career centers.” – Library Journal “The granddaddy of worker sites.” – U.S. News & World Report “A killer app.” – The New York Times One of Forbes’ 33 “Favorite Sites.” – Forbes “To get the unvarnished scoop, check out Vault.” – SmartMoney Magazine “Vault has a wealth of information about major employers and job searching strategies as well as comments from workers about their experiences at specific companies.” – The Washington Post “A key reference for those who want to know what it takes to get hired by a law firm and what to expect once they get there.” – New York Law Journal “Vault [provides] the skinny on working conditions at all kinds of companies from current and former employees.” – USA Today Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y VAULT CAREER GUIDE TO INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CHRISTOPHER MILLER AND THE STAFF OF VAULT Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y Copyright 2009 by Vault.com, Inc. All rights reserved. All information in this book is subject to change without notice. Vault makes no claims as to the accuracy and reliability of the information contained within and disclaims all warranties. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Vault.com, Inc. Vault, the Vault logo, and “The Most Trusted Name in Career InformationTM” are trademarks of Vault.com, Inc. For information about permission to reproduce selections from this book, contact Vault.com, Inc., 75 Varick Street, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10013, (212) 366-4212. Library of Congress CIP Data is available. ISBN 13 : 978-1-58131-621-6 ISBN 10 : 1-58131-621-6 Printed in the United States of America Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y Acknowledgments Vault’s acknowledgments: We are extremely grateful to Vault’s entire staff for all their help in the editorial, production and marketing processes. Vault also would like to acknowledge the support of our investors, clients, employees, family and friends. Thank you! v Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y INTRODUCTION 1 Key Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 THE SCOOP 3 Chapter 1: Introducing the Industry 5 Background and History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Practice Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Size of the Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Organization and Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Industry Trends and What They Mean to a Job Hunter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Chapter 2: How It Works 17 Funding Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Implementing Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Chapter 3: Types of Implementing Agencies 25 Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Intergovernmental Organizations (also known as multilateral organizations) . . . . . .29 Other Kinds of Implementing Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Chapter 4: Is It for You? 35 Challenges and Rewards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Things to Think About . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Important Aptitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 How to Find Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 GETTING HIRED 43 Chapter 5: Education and Experience 45 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Table of Contents vii Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y Chapter 6: Types of Employment and Job Search Strategies 53 Types of Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Preparing for the Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Identifying Organizations That Match Your Interests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Getting to Know Your Shortlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Applying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Sample Cover Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Sample Resume and CV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Interviewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Chapter 7: The Hiring Process 73 Who Gets Hired? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 The Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Negotiating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Organization-Specific Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 ON THE JOB 83 Chapter 8: Career Paths 85 Career Roles in Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Administrative Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Technical Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Support Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Techniques for Career Advancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Career Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Days in the Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Chapter 9: Culture, Compensation and Benefits 99 Intergovernmental (IGOs) and Government Organizations (Donors) . . . . . . . . . . .102 Implementing Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 viii 2009 Vault.com, Inc. Vault Career Guide to International Development Table of Contents Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y APPENDIX 113 Resources for Job Seekers 115 Job Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 Professional Organizations and Industry Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Employer Profiles 119 Intergovernmental Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 Volunteer Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 Other Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 ABOUT THE AUTHOR 127 ix Visit Vault at www.vault.com for insider company profiles, expert advice, career message boards, expert resume reviews, the Vault Job Board and more. Vault Career Guide to International Development Table of Contents Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y • Employee surveys for 7,000+ top employers, with insider info on • Company culture • Salaries and compensation • Hiring process and interviews • Business outlook • Access to 1,000+ extended insider employer snapshots • Student and alumni surveys for hundreds of top MBA programs, law schools and graduate school programs, as well as 1,000s of undergraduate programs • Access to Vault’s Salary Central, with salary information for law, finance and consulting firms • Access to complete Vault message board archives For more information go to www.vault.com Get Vault Gold Membership for access to all of Vault’s award-winning career information. 15% OFF all Vault purchases, including Vault Guides, Employer Profiles and Vault Career Services (named The Wall Street Journals “Top Choice” for resume makeovers) Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y Introduction International development is a profession unlike any other. Although modern international development has more than half a century of history, the practice of development is constantly evolving and the industry is currently in the midst of major changes that have the potential to improve the lives of billions of people. Development professionals are working in every country in the world to address issues including human rights, health, economic growth, environment conservation and many others. As a profession, few career choices can match international development for the sheer range of the industry, challenge of the work or relevancy to the world’s population. In recent years the need for coordinated and comprehensive sustainable development has been center-stage in world politics due to increasing awareness of both the issues and the consequences. Development champions including academics such as Jeffrey Sachs, businesspeople like Bill Gates, politicians and celebrities have helped bring international development to the forefront of policy and economic discussion. At the same time, the world has become more globalized, with constant reminders that the problems of the developing world can and do affect the entire world. Yet despite the rapid growth of funding for international development and the increasing understanding of the need for sustainable development, the industry and even the term “international development” remain poorly understood. There is no universally agreed-upon definition of international development. The term has evolved over time and there is no single industry group that holds responsibility for determining what is and what isn’t development. Likewise, there are no certification or accreditation bodies that delegate organizations as practitioners of development. Although there is not a universal definition, there are a number of characteristics that are widely accepted to describe international development. In general, international development: • Works in developing countries International development generally utilizes resources from developed countries to fund projects in developing countries. This idea is being challenged, however, by the increasing amount of money for development being provided by developing countries. • Contributes to the public good International development has an underlying goal of improving living standards in developing countries. Development projects may work with the public, civil and private sectors, but the end goal is to foster development, not to make money. • Builds sustainability International development is not about giving money, supplies, and equipment, it is about building the capacity for people to provide these things for their own communities. 1 Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y • Utilizes professional methods of project implementation and evaluation As international development becomes a bigger and more professional industry, there is a greater expectation that development agencies adopt modern methods of management and evaluation. Most professional development practitioners now have full time staff focused exclusively on these issues. • Depends on specialized organizations that focus on international development Donors rarely have the capacity to actually implement and manage development projects, so they depend upon professional organizations that specialize in development. These organizations include non-governmental organizations, civil society organizations, private voluntary organizations and some private companies. Key Terminology To get you started, below are some key terms in international development. Additional terms are highlighted throughout the book. • Developed countries are the world’s wealthier nations. There are many formal definitions used to determine which nations are developed, including measurements based on economic and social indicators. The World Bank uses the term “high income economy” to describe countries with a gross national income per capita of $11,456 or more. The United Nations uses the Human Development Index, which estimates how income is turned into education andhealth opportunities. Regardless of the definition, developed countries are the main funders of international development. • Developing countries are, conversely, those nations that don’t meet the requirements of a developed country according to these various scales. Developing countries may also be known as low-income countries or emerging economies according to economic indicators. The United Nations uses the term “least developed countries” for nations with the lowest scores on the Human Development Index. Developing countries are the recipients of development assistance, although some developing countries give development assistance in addition to receiving it. • Official development assistance (ODA) is the money that governments spend on international development. There is a very specific definition of ODA and strict rules about what spending can be counted as ODA. More information on this is provided in Chapter 2. • Donor community is a general term to describe the organizations that fund international development. These include government development agencies such as USAID and DFID, foundations, intergovernmental organizations and other funders of development work. Donors are covered in more detail in Chapter 3. Vault Career Guide to International Development Introduction 2 2009 Vault.com, Inc. Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y Introducing the Industry How it Works Types of Implementing Agencies Is It for You? Vault Guide to International Development THE SCOOP Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y 4 2009 Vault.com, Inc. Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y BACKGROUND AND HISTORY The modern institutions that comprise the development industry mostly came into existence in the mid- 20th century, largely in response to major geo-political events, including World War II and the Cold War. In particular, the Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe after the physical, social and economic devastation of World War II is widely considered the catalyst for organized international development led by wealthy donor countries. Similarly, the Cold War served to raise the visibility of developing countries and contributed to idea of global stability through development. The fear that developing countries in Asia and the Americas were being influenced politically by financial and policy support from the USSR directly contributed to increased spending on development assistance from the United States. Clearly much of this money was not supporting international development as we understand it today, but it did have the effect of showing the links between the welfare of developing and developed countries. Globalization has been another significant force in international development. Greater interconnectivity among world populations and economies has strengthened relationships among countries and raised awareness of development issues. It has also contributed greatly to economic development through foreign direct investment and remittances. Many additional trends have also helped promote the ideals of international development. The advent of mass media and the incredible improvements in global travel, in particular, have made it possible for citizens of developed countries to see, firsthand or through their TVs and newspapers, the conditions that people in poorer countries live in every day. This not only raises money for development, but also galvanizes public support for government spending on international development assistance. For example, in the week following the December 26, 2004 Asian Tsunami, the United Nations received an unprecedented $1.5 billion in relief donations. The massive coverage of the event, including everything from traditional media to blogs and camera-phone videos, helped spread awareness of the disaster and make it easy for people, organizations, and governments to donate to the relief efforts. Key dates in the recent history of international development 1944 The Bretton Woods Agreement is signed, setting the foundation for an international financial system. The agreement establishes the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), now part of the World Bank Group. 1945 The Charter of the United Nations is drafted and ratified by 51 original member states. 1950 The role of international nongovernmental organizations in development is enshrined by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. 5 Introducing the Industry Chapter 1 Cu st om ize d fo r: Ta o W an g (w t06 @ ma ils .ts ing hu a.e du .cn ) T sin gh ua S EM O nli ne C are er Lib rar y 1959 The Inter-American De

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