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首页 《庄子》英文版林语堂

《庄子》英文版林语堂.pdf

《庄子》英文版林语堂

江北飞鸿 2010-03-25 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《《庄子》英文版林语堂pdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含ChuangTzuThefollowingauthorshavecontributedtothiswork:YutangLin,MartinPalm符等。

ChuangTzuThefollowingauthorshavecontributedtothiswork:YutangLin,MartinPalmer,JamesLegge,BurtonWatson,SamHamill,JPSeaton,ChadHansenChapter:AHappyExcursionInthenorthernoceanthereisafish,calledthekun,IdonotknowhowmanythousandliinsizeThiskunchangesintoabird,calledthepengItsbackisIdonotknowhowmanythousandliinbreadthWhenitismoved,itflies,itswingsobscuringtheskylikecloudsWhenonavoyage,thisbirdpreparestostartfortheSouthernOcean,theCelestialLakeAndintheRecordsofMarvelswereadthatwhenthepengfliessouthwards,thewaterissmittenforaspaceofthreethousandliaround,whilethebirditselfmountsuponagreatwindtoaheightofninetythousandli,foraflightofsixmonths'durationTheremountingaloft,thebirdsawthemovingwhitemistsofspring,thedustclouds,andthelivingthingsblowingtheirbreathsamongthemItwonderedwhethertheblueoftheskywasitsrealcolor,oronlytheresultofdistancewithoutend,andsawthatthethingsonearthappearedthesametoitIfthereisnotsufficientdepth,waterwillnotfloatlargeshipsUpsetacupfulintoaholeintheyard,andamustardseedwillbeyourboatTrytofloatthecup,anditwillbegrounded,duetothedisproportionbetweenwaterandvesselSowithairIfthereisnotsufficientadepth,itcannotsupportlargewingsAndforthisbird,adepthofninetythousandliisnecessarytobearitupThen,glidinguponthewind,withnothingsavetheclearskyabove,andnoobstaclesintheway,itstartsuponitsjourneytothesouthAcicadaandayoungdovelaughed,saying,"Now,whenIflywithallmymight,'tisasmuchasIcandotogetfromtreetotreeAndsometimesIdonotreach,butfalltothegroundmidwayWhatthencanbetheuseofgoingupninetythousandlitostartforthesouth"HewhogoestothecountrysidetakingthreemealswithhimcomesbackwithhisstomachasfullaswhenhestartedButhewhotravelsahundredlimusttakegroundriceenoughforanovernightstayAndhewhotravelsathousandlimustsupplyhimselfwithprovisionsforthreemonthsThosetwolittlecreatures,whatshouldtheyknowSmallknowledgehasnotthecompassofgreatknowledgeanymorethanashortyearhasthelengthofalongyearHowcanwetellthatthisissoThefungusplantofamorningknowsnotthealternationofdayandnightThecicadaknowsnotthealternationofspringandautumnTheirsareshortyearsButinthesouthofChuthereisamingling(tree)whosespringandautumnareeachoffivehundredyears'durationAndinformerdaystherewasalargetreewhichhadaspringandautumneachofeightthousandyearsYet,PengTsuisknownforreachingagreatageandisstill,alas!anobjectofenvytoall!ItwasonthisverysubjectthattheEmperorTangspoketoChi,asfollows:"AtthenorthofChiungta,thereisaDarkSea,theCelestialLakeInitthereisafishseveralthousandliinbreadth,andIknownothowmanyinlengthItiscalledthekunThereisalsoabird,calledthepeng,withabacklikeMountTai,andwingslikecloudsacrosstheskyItsoarsupuponawhirlwindtoaheightofninetythousandli,farabovetheregionoftheclouds,withonlytheclearskyaboveitAndthenitdirectsitsflighttowardstheSouthernOcean"Andalakesparrowlaughed,andsaid:Pray,whatmaythatcreaturebegoingtodoIrisebutafewyardsintheairandsettledownagain,afterflyingaroundamongthereedsThatisasmuchasanyonewouldwanttoflyNow,wherevercanthiscreaturebegoingto"Such,indeed,isthedifferencebetweensmallandgreatTake,forinstance,amanwhocreditablyfillssomesmalloffice,orwhoseinfluencespreadsoveravillage,orwhosecharacterpleasesacertainprinceHisopinionofhimselfwillbemuchthesameasthatlakesparrow'sThephilosopherYungofSungwouldlaughatsuchaoneIfthewholeworldflatteredhim,hewouldnotbeaffectedthereby,norifthewholeworldblamedhimwouldhebedissuadedfromwhathewasdoingForYungcandistinguishbetweenessenceandsuperficialities,andunderstandwhatistruehonorandshameSuchmenarerareintheirgenerationButevenhehasnotestablishedhimselfNowLiehtsecouldrideuponthewindSailinghappilyinthecoolbreeze,hewouldgoonforfifteendaysbeforehisreturnAmongmortalswhoattainhappiness,suchamanisrareYetalthoughLiehtsecoulddispensewithwalking,hewouldstillhavetodependuponsomethingAsforonewhoischariotedupontheeternalfitnessofHeavenandEarth,drivingbeforehimthechangingelementsashisteamtoroamthroughtherealmsoftheInfinite,uponwhat,then,wouldsuchaonehaveneedtodependThusitissaid,"TheperfectmanignoresselfthedivinemanignoresachievementthetrueSageignoresreputation"TheEmperorYaowishedtoabdicateinfavorofHsuYu,saying,"If,whenthesunandmoonareshining,thetorchisstilllighted,woulditbenotdifficultforthelattertoshineIf,whentherainhasfallen,oneshouldstillcontinuetowaterthefields,wouldthisnotbeawasteoflaborNowifyouwouldassumethereinsofgovernment,theempirewouldbewellgoverned,andyetIamfillingthisofficeIamconsciousofmyowndeficiencies,andIbegtoofferyoutheEmpire""YouarerulingtheEmpire,andtheEmpireisalreadywellruled,"repliedHsuYu"WhyshouldItakeyourplaceShouldIdothisforthesakeofanameAnameisbuttheshadowofreality,andshouldItroublemyselfabouttheshadowThetit,buildingitsnestinthemightyforest,occupiesbutasingletwigThebeaverslakesitsthirstfromtheriver,butdrinksenoughonlytofillitsbellyIwouldrathergoback:Ihavenousefortheempire!Ifthecookisunabletopreparethefuneralsacrifices,therepresentativeoftheworshippedspiritandtheofficerofprayermaynotstepoverthewinesandmeatsanddoitforhim"ChienWusaidtoLienShu,"IheardChiehYutalkonhighandfinesubjectsendlesslyIwasgreatlystartledatwhathesaid,forhiswordsseemedinterminableastheMilkyWay,buttheyarequitedetachedfromourcommonhumanexperience""Whatwasit"askedLienShu"Hedeclared,"repliedChienWu,"thatontheMiaokuyimountaintherelivesadivineone,whoseskiniswhitelikeiceorsnow,whosegraceandelegancearelikethoseofavirgin,whoeatsnograin,butlivesonairanddew,andwho,ridingoncloudswithflyingdragonsforhisteam,roamsbeyondthelimit'softhemortalregionsWhenhisspiritgravitates,hecanwardoffcorruptionfromallthings,andbringgoodcropsThatiswhyIcallitnonsense,anddonotbelieveit""Well,"answeredLienShu,"youdon'taskablindman'sopinionofbeautifuldesigns,nordoyouinviteadeafmantoaconcertAndblindnessanddeafnessarenotphysicalonlyThereisblindnessanddeafnessofthemindHiswordsareliketheunspoiledvirginThegoodinfluenceofsuchamanwithsuchacharacterfillsallcreationYetbecauseapaltrygenerationcriesforreform,youwouldhavehimbusyhimselfaboutthedetailsofanempire!"ObjectiveexistencescannotharmInafloodwhichreachedthesky,hewouldnotbedrownedInadrought,thoughmetalsranliquidandmountainswerescorchedup,hewouldnotbehotOutofhisverydustandsiftingsyoumightfashiontwosuchmenasYaoandShunAndyouwouldhavehimoccupyhimselfwithobjectives!"AmanoftheSungStatecarriedsomeceremonialcapstotheYuehtribesforsaleButthemenofYuehusedtocutofftheirhairandpainttheirbodies,sothattheyhadnouseforsuchthingsTheEmperorYaoruledallunderheavenandgovernedtheaffairsoftheentirecountryAfterhepaidavisittothefoursagesoftheMiaokuyiMountain,hefeltonhisreturntohiscapitalatFenyangthattheempireexistedforhimnomoreHueitsesaidtoChuangtse,"ThePrinceofWeigavemeaseedofalargesizedkindofgourdIplantedit,anditboreafruitasbigasafivebushelmeasureNowhadIusedthisforholdingliquids,itwouldhavebeentooheavytoliftandhadIcutitinhalfforladles,theladleswouldhavebeentooflatforsuchpurposeCertainlyitwasahugething,butIhadnouseforitandsobrokeitup""Itwasratheryoudidnotknowhowtouselargethings,"repliedChuangtse"TherewasamanofSungwhohadarecipeforsalveforchappedhands,hisfamilyhavingbeensilkwashersforgenerationsAstrangerwhohadheardofitcameandofferedhimahundredouncesofsilverforthisrecipewhereuponhecalledtogetherhisclansmenandsaid,'WehavenevermademuchmoneybysilkwashingNow,wecanselltherecipeforahundredouncesinasingledayLetthestrangerhaveit'"Thestrangergottherecipe,andwentandhadaninterviewwiththePrinceofWuTheYuehStatewasintrouble,andthePrinceofWusentageneraltofightanavalbattlewithYuehatthebeginningofwinterThelatterwastotallydefeated,andthestrangerwasrewardedwithapieceoftheKing'sterritoryThus,whiletheefficacyofthesalvetocurechappedhandswasinbothcasesthesame,itsapplicationsweredifferentHere,itsecuredatitlethere,thepeopleremainedsilkwashers"Nowastoyourfivebushelgourd,whydidyounotmakeafloatofit,andfloataboutoverriverandlakeAndyoucomplainofitsbeingtooflatforholdingthings!Ifearyourmindisstuffyinside"HueitsesaidtoChuangtse,"Ihavealargetree,calledtheailanthusItstrunkissoirregularandknottythatitcannotbemeasuredoutforplankswhileitsbranchesaresotwistedthattheycannotbecutoutintodiscsorsquaresItstandsbytheroadside,butnocarpenterwilllookatitYourwordsarelikethattreebiganduseless,ofnoconcerntotheworld""Haveyouneverseenawildcat,"rejoinedChuangtse,"crouchingdowninwaitforitspreyRightandleftandhighandlow,itspringsabout,untilitgetscaughtinatrapordiesinasnareOntheotherhand,thereistheyakwithitsgreathugebodyItisbigenoughinallconscience,butitcannotcatchmiceNowifyouhaveabigtreeandareatalosswhattodowithit,whynotplantitintheVillageofNowhere,inthegreatwilds,whereyoumightloiteridlybyitsside,andliedowninblissfulreposebeneathitsshadeThereitwouldbesafefromtheaxandfromallotherinjuryForbeingofnousetoothers,whatcouldworryitsmind"Chapter:OnLevelingAllThingsTsechiofNankuosatleaningonalowtableGazinguptoheaven,hesighedandlookedasthoughhehadlosthismindYenchengTseyu,whowasstandingbyhim,exclaimed,"Whatareyouthinkingaboutthatyourbodyshouldbecomethuslikedeadwood,yourmindlikeburntoutcindersSurelythemannowleaningonthetableisnothewhowasherejustnow""Myfriend,"repliedTsechi,"yourquestionisappositeTodayIhavelostmySelfDoyouunderstandPerhapsyouonlyknowthemusicofman,andnotthatofEarthOrevenifyouhaveheardthemusicofEarth,perhapsyouhavenotheardthemusicofHeaven""Prayexplain,"saidTseyu"Thebreathoftheuniverse,"continuedTsechi,"iscalledwindAttimes,itisinactiveButwhenactive,allcrevicesresoundtoitsblastHaveyouneverlistenedtoitsdeafeningroar"Cavesanddellsofhillandforest,hollowsinhugetreesofmanyaspaningirthsomearelikenostrils,andsomelikemouths,andotherslikeears,beamsockets,goblets,mortars,orlikepoolsandpuddlesAndthewindgoesrushingthroughthem,likeswirlingtorrentsorsingingarrows,bellowing,sousing,trilling,wailing,roaring,purling,whistlinginfrontandechoingbehind,nowsoftwiththecoolblow,nowshrillwiththewhirlwind,untilthetempestispastandsilencereignssupremeHaveyouneverwitnessedhowthetreesandobjectsshakeandquake,andtwistandtwirl""Well,then,"inquiredTseyu,"sincethemusicofEarthconsistsofhollowsandapertures,andthemusicofmanofpipesandflutes,ofwhatconsiststhemusicofHeaven""Theeffectofthewinduponthesevariousapertures,"repliedTsechi,"isnotuniform,butthesoundsareproducedaccordingtotheirindividualcapacitiesWhoisitthatagitatestheirbreasts"GreatwisdomisgenerouspettywisdomiscontentiousGreatspeechisimpassioned,smallspeechcantankerous"Forwhetherthesoulislockedinsleeporwhetherinwakinghoursthebodymoves,wearestrivingandstrugglingwiththeimmediatecircumstancesSomeareeasygoingandleisurely,somearedeepandcunning,andsomearesecretiveNowwearefrightenedoverpettyfears,nowdisheartenedanddismayedoversomegreatterrorNowthemindfliesforthlikeanarrowfromacrossbow,tobethearbiterofrightandwrongNowitstaysbehindasifsworntoanoath,toholdontowhatithassecuredThen,asunderautumnandwinter'sblight,comesgradualdecay,andsubmergedinitsownoccupations,itkeepsonrunningitscourse,nevertoreturnFinally,wornoutandimprisoned,itischokeduplikeanolddrain,andthefailingmindshallnotseelightagain"Joyandanger,sorrowandhappiness,worriesandregrets,indecisionandfears,comeuponusbyturns,witheverchangingmoods,likemusicfromthehollows,orlikemushroomsfromdampDayandnighttheyalternatewithinus,butwecannottellwhencetheyspringAlas!Alas!CouldweforamomentlayourfingerupontheirveryCause"ButfortheseemotionsIshouldnotbeYetbutforme,therewouldbenoonetofeelthemSofarwecangobutwedonotknowbywhoseordertheycomeintoplayItwouldseemtherewasasoulbutthecluetoitsexistenceiswantingThatitfunctionsiscredibleenough,thoughwecannotseeitsformPerhapsithasinnerrealitywithoutoutwardform"Takethehumanbodywithallitshundredbones,nineexternalcavitiesandsixinternalorgans,allcompleteWhichpartofitshouldIlovebestDoyounotcherishallequally,orhaveyouapreferenceDotheseorgansserveasservantsofsomeoneelseSinceservantscannotgovernthemselves,dotheyserveasmasterandservantsbyturnSurelythereissomesoulwhichcontrolsthemall"Butwhetherornotweascertainwhatisthetruenatureofthissoul,itmattersbutlittletothesoulitselfForoncecomingintothismaterialshape,itrunsitscourseuntilitisexhaustedTobeharassedbythewearandtearoflife,andtobedrivenalongwithoutpossibilityofarrestingone'scourseisnotthispitifulindeedTolaborwithoutceasingalllife,andthen,withoutlivingtoenjoythefruit,wornoutwithlabor,todepart,oneknowsnotwhitherisnotthisajustcauseforgrief""MensaythereisnodeathtowhatavailThebodydecomposes,andthemindgoeswithitIsthisnotagreatcauseforsorrowCantheworldbesodullasnottoseethisOrisitIalonewhoamdull,andothersnotso"Nowifwearetobeguidedbyourprejudices,whoshallbewithoutaguideWhatneedtomakecomparisonsofrightandwrongwithothersAndifoneistofollowone'sownjudgmentsaccordingtohisprejudices,eventhefoolshavethem!Buttoformjudgmentsofrightandwrongwithoutfirsthavingamindatallislikesaying,"IleftforYuehtoday,andgotthereyesterday"Or,itislikeassumingsomethingwhichdoesnotexisttoexistThe(illusionsof)assumingsomethingwhichdoesnotexisttoexistcouldnotbefathomedevenbythedivineYuhowmuchlesscouldweForspeechisnotmereblowingofbreathItisintendedtosaysomething,onlywhatitisintendedtosaycannotyetbedeterminedIstherespeechindeed,oristherenotCanwe,orcanwenot,distinguishitfromthechirpingofyoungbirdsHowcanTaobeobscuredsothatthereshouldbeadistinctionoftrueandfalseHowcanspeechbesoobscuredthatthereshouldbeadistinctionofrightandwrongWherecanyougoandfindTaonottoexistWherecanyougoandfindthatwordscannotbeprovedTaoisobscuredbyourinadequateunderstanding,andwordsareobscuredbyfloweryexpressionsHencetheaffirmationsanddenialsoftheConfucianandMotseanschools,eachdenyingwhattheotheraffirmsandaffirmingwhattheotherdeniesEachdenyingwhattheotheraffirmsandaffirmingwhattheotherdeniesbringsusonlyintoconfusionThereisnothingwhichisnotthisthereisnothingwhichisnotthatWhatcannotbeseenbywhat(theotherperson)canbeknownbymyselfHenceIsay,thisemanatesfromthatthatalsoderivesfromthisThisisthetheoryoftheinterdependenceofthisandthat(relativityofstandards)Nevertheless,lifearisesfromdeath,andviceversaPossibilityarisesfromimpossibility,andviceversaAffirmationisbasedupondenial,andviceversaWhichbeingthecase,thetruesagerejectsalldistinctionsandtakeshisrefugeinHeaven(Nature)Foronemaybaseitonthis,yetthisisalsothatandthatisalsothisThisalsohasits'right'and'wrong',andthatalsohasits'right'and'wrong'DoesthenthedistinctionbetweenthisandthatreallyexistornotWhenthis(subjective)andthat(objective)arebothwithouttheircorrelates,thatisthevery'AxisofTao'AndwhenthatAxispassesthroughthecenteratwhichallInfinitiesconverge,affirmationsanddenialsalikeblendintotheinfiniteOneHenceitissaidthatthereisnothinglikeusingtheLightTotakeafingerinillustrationofafingernotbeingafingerisnotsogoodastotakesomethingwhichisnotafingertoillustratethatafingerisnotafingerTotakeahorseinillustrationofahorsenotbeingahorseisnotsogoodastotakesomethingwhichisnotahorsetoillustratethatahorseisnotahorseSowiththeuniversewhichisbutafinger,butahorseThepossibleispossible:theimpossibleisimpossibleTaooperates,andthegivenresultsfollowthingsreceivenamesandaresaidtobewhattheyareWhyaretheysoTheyaresaidtobeso!WhyaretheynotsoTheyaresaidtobenotso!ThingsaresobythemselvesandhavepossibilitiesbythemselvesThereisnothingwhichisnotsoandthereisnothingwhichmaynotbecomesoThereforetake,forinstance,atwigandapillar,ortheuglypersonandthegreatbeauty,andallthestrangeandmonstroustransformationsTheseareallleveledtogetherbyTaoDivisionisthesameascreationcreationisthesameasdestructionThereisnosuchthingascreationordestruction,fortheseconditionsareagainleveledtogetherintoOneOnlythetrulyintelligentunderstandthisprincipleofthelevelingofallthingsintoOneTheydiscardthedistinctionsandtakerefugeinthecommonandordinarythingsThecommonandordinarythingsservecertainfunctionsandthereforeretainthewholenessofnatureFromthiswholeness,onecomprehends,andfromcomprehension,onetotheTaoThereitstopsTostopwithoutknowinghowitstopsthisisTaoButtowearoutone'sintellectinanobstinateadherencetotheindividualityofthings,notrecognizingthefactthatallthingsareOnethatiscalled"ThreeintheMorning"Whatis"ThreeintheMorning"Akeeperof

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