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首页 Dr. Johnson (1905).pdf

Dr. Johnson (1905).pdf

Dr. Johnson (1905).pdf

上传者: 许liqing 2010-03-25 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Dr. Johnson (1905)pdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含BELi:SMINIATURESERIESOFGREAT^VRITERSIbDRJOHNSONMiniatureSeriesofGreatWrite符等。

BELi:SMINIATURESERIESOFGREAT^VRITERSIbDRJOHNSONMiniatureSeriesofGreatWritersEditedbyGCWilliamson,LittDPottSvOfIllustrated^tohehadinclothorlifiipleatherCOLERIDGEByRichardGarnett,CB,LLDSHAKESPEAREByAlfredEwenCHAUCERByRevWTuckwell,MADEQUINCEYByHenrySSaltDICKENSByWTeigxmouthShoreJOHNSONByJohnDennisBROWNINGBySirFTMarzials,CBInPreparationMILTONByGCWilliamson,LittDSCOTTByJHWLaing,MDGOLDSMITHByErnestLangBuckland,MALAMBByWalterJerroldMACAULAYByRichardGarnett,CB,LLDDEFOEByAWherryTHEANCIENTCLASSICSXENOPHONByECMarchant,MAHORACEByRevWTuckwellLONDON:GEORGEBELLSONSHanfstdenglphoto'^^DRJOHNSONFromthepaintingbyReynoldsNationalGalleryBell'sMiniatureSeriesofGreatWritersDRJOHNSONBYJOHNDENNISv^LONDONGEORGEBELLSONS•,•'•,I'•CHISWICKI'RESS:CHARLESWHITTINGHAMANDCOTOOKSCOURT,CHANCERVLANE,LONDONCONTENTSPAGETheLifeofJohnsonHisWorks"TheLivesOFTHEPoets"BibliographicalNoteLISTOFILLUSTRATIONSTOFACEPAGESamuelJohnsonFromthepaintingbyReynoldsFrontispieceTheHouseinwhichJohnsonwasBornLichfieldloTheGrammarSchoolLichfieldJohnson'sHouseJohnson'sCourt,FleetStreetJamesBoswellFromasketchbyGeorgeLangtonSamuelJohnsonFromapaintingatonetimeinthepossessionofArchdeaconCambridgeFacsimileofPartoftheOriginalDraftof"Irene"SFacsimileofPartofaLettertoWarrenHastings,SAMUELJOHNSONHISLIFEASanauthor,SamuelJohnson,whileliving,rankedwiththemostillustriouswritersofhiscentury,andalthoughhisworkshavelostmuchoftheirreputation,heisbetterknowntousthanhewastohiscontemporariesEveryloverofliteratureisfamiliarwiththe"GreatChamofLiterature,"andwiththefamousCluboverwhichheruledasdictatorThewayinwhichthisimmortalityissecuredformsaparadoxinliteraryhistoryManyanotablemanhasbeenburiedasecondtimebyhisbiographer,butJohnsonmaybesaidtoowetoBoswellanotherandamplerlifeHowwellheunderstoodtheartofthebiographerisseenfromhisreplytoHannahMore,whobeggedhimtoshowsometendernesstothefoiblesoftheirfriend:"Iwillnot,"hesaid,"cutoffhisclaws,normakeatigeracat,topleaseanybody"Thankstohiswonderfulskill,thereisnomanofletters,ofhisownorofanycentury,withwhomwecanliveonsuchfriendlytermsnoristhereone,unlessitbeSirWalterScott,whosecompanionshipismoredelightfulMoreover,thebulkoftheworkaddstoitsattractiveroJOHNSONnesswecannothavetoomuchofJohnson,anditmaybehopedthatthisbriefsketchwillsendthereader,withakeenerzest,tothefeastofwisdomandofwit,flavouredoccasionallybytheexquisitefollyofthewriter,storedupinBoswell'spagesItisnottrue,asMacaulayasserted,thatBoswellwasamanofthemeanestandfeeblestintellectNosuchintellectcouldhaveproducedaconsummateworkofart,whichtheEssayistacknowledgedtheLifetobeBoswellknewfromtheoutsetwhathedesignedtodo,anddidittotheadmirationoftheworldButthebook,strangetosay,couldnothavebeenwrittenbyamanofhighcharacter,orevenbyamanpossessingtheselfrespectwhichiscommoninSociety"Bozzy,"ashewasfamiliarlycalled,neverobjectedtomakingafoolofhimselfHewasconstantlysayingordoingfoolishthings,andhadnosenseofshameinpublishinghisfollyNorebuffdauntedhimforlong,andprobablyitwasduetohisirrepressiblegoodhumourthataplacewasfoundforthisstrangeguestinintellectualsocietySomequalitytheremusthavebeenbetterthanthatofthemereheroworshipperthatmadehimnotonlytolerablebutevendeartoJohnsonandwearereapingtherewardofthattoleranceSamuelJohnson,whowasborninLichfieldonthethSeptember,,maybesaidtohavebeencradledinalibraryHisfather,MichaelJohnson,ahighlyrespectedbookseller,andmagistrate,"propagatedlearningallovertheW^l>*^THEHOUSEINWHICHJOHNSONWASBORN,MARKETPLACE,LICHFIELDFromadrawingbyClarksonStanfield,RAHISLIFEIIdiocese"Hereadmuch,andknewmuchaboutbooks,butdidnotunderstandtheartofsellingthem,forwhenhediedallthemoneyhecouldleavehissonwasapittanceoftwentypoundsUnfortunatelyhelefthimalsoanunhealthy,thoughpowerful,body,anda"vilemelancholy"thathauntedhimthroughlifeTheinfantwasafflictedwithscrofula,andattheageoftwoyearswastakenuptoLondontobetouchedbyQueenAnneAtschool,afterthefashionofthetime,JohnsonhadLatinwhippedintohim,buthescarcelyneededsuchastimulus,forthefacultyofacquisitionwasearlydeveloped,andhisfatherregardedhimasaprodigyLeavingschoolatsixteen,twoyearswerespent,butnotidly,athomeforhesaidinlaterdays,thatheknewalmostasmuchateighteenashedidatfiftythreeInhebeganresidenceatPembrokeCollege,whereheastonishedhistutorbyquotingMacrobiusAsaChristmasexercisehetranslatedPope's"Messiah"intoLatinverse,anddiditsowellastomakehisnameknownintheUniversityPopealsoissaidtohavepraisedithighlyThereheremainedthreeyears,andtherehehadhisfirstexperienceofthemiseryenduredbyaproudman,aspoorashewasproudHisabilitywasacknowledgedandinanyrevoltagainstestablishedauthority,thefutureToryandorthodoxchurchmanwastheleaderofthemutiny"Iwasmiserablypoor,"hesaidafterwards,"andthoughttofightmywaybymyliteratureJOHNSONandmywit"Buthispovertywasan"unconquerablebar"Theoutwardandvisiblesignsofitcuthimtothequickandwhenawellmeaningfriendplacedanewpairofshoesathisdoor,heflungthemoutofthewindowItwasinthistimeofdistressthathereadLaw's"SeriousCall,"andfounditsargumentsunanswerable"This,"hesays,"wasthefirstoccasionofmythinkinginearnestofreligion,afterIbecamecapableofrationalinquiry"Drivenbysheerwant,Johnsonlefthiscollegein,withoutadegreeandPembroke,whichdidnothing,andperhapscoulddonothing,forherfamoussoninlife,hashonouredherselfbyplacinghiseffigyoverhergatesAlongandwearyservitudehadnowtobeendured,andtherecordofJohnson'slifeuptohisfiftythirdyearisoneofceaselessstrugglebornewithoutcomplaintTogainalivelihoodheacceptedthepostofusherinaschoolatMarketBosworth,butescapedinafewmonthsasfromaprisonhouseThencehewenttoBirmingham,livingforawhileunderthehospitableroofofanoldschoolfellow,andearningafewpoundsfromthebooksellersInthisindigentcondition,andwiththeboldnessthatoftenaccompaniesanemptypurse,JohnsonfellinlovewithMrsPorter,awidow,oldenoughtobehismother^"Itwasaloveaffaironbothsides,"^WiththewifeJohnsongainedalsoastepdaughter,towhom,accordingtosomereports,hehad,likeHarryEsmond,madelovebeforewinningthemotherIfsohewashardlykindtohisancientflamebyhintinginlateraHISLIFEhesaidandwhenseventeenyearsafterwardshis"Tetty"died,thelossalmostbrokehisheartTheladyhadalittlemoney,whichwasexpendedinfittingupanacademyforyounggentlementheventureprovedafailure,fortheschoolhadnevermorethanthreepupilsOneofthethreewasDavidGarrick,andwhentheschoolwasgivenup,masterandpupilwenttoLondontoseektheirfortunes"Thatwastheday,"heoncesaidinaprettylargecompany,"whenIcametoLondonwithtwopencehalfpennyinmypocket"Garrickoverhearinghim,exclaimed,"Eh,whatdoyousay,withtwopencehalfpennyinyourpocket""Why,yes,whenIcametoLondonwithtwopencehalfpennyinitiypocket,andthou,Davy,withthreehalfpenceinthinef^ItmaybeaddedthatJohnsonhadalsoinhispocketapartlywrittentragedywhichGarrickafterwardsbroughtuponthestageOfthoseearlydayslittleisknownbeyondwhatescapedfromJohnsoninlaterlifeOnoneoccasion,recallingwhathehadsuffered,thestrongmanburstintotearsNogalleyslavecouldhavebeenboundtotheoarmorecloselythanhewastothebooksellers,hischiefemployerbeingEdwardCave,theproprietorof"TheGentleman'sMagazine"Sometimeshewasonthevergeofstarvationoneofhislettersissignedwiththedismalwordinpraisus^andwearetoldhow,whentoopoortopayforalodging,hespentthenightwalkingwithhisimpecuniousfriendSavageyearsthather"resplendentexcellences"were**alittlediscolouredbyhoaryvirginity"JOHNSONroundStJames'sSquare,andthattheykeptthemselveswarmbytheirpatriotismWhenhehadaHttlemoneyinhispursehe"dinedforeightpence,withverygoodcompany,atthePineAppleinNewStreet,neartheStrand"Nodoubtheunderstoodbuttoowelltheexpedientsrecommendedbyanacquaintance,"Threepencelaidoutatacoffeehousewouldenablehimtopasssomehoursadayingoodcompany,dinnermightbehadforsixpence,breadandmilkbreakfastforapenny,andsupperwassuperfluousOncleanshirtdayyoumightgoabroadandpayvisits"Sixpences,Johnsononcesaid,werescarcewithhiminthosedays,and,unlikemostofhisGrubStreetassociates,hehadawifetosupportHiswantofpencemustbeborneinmindifwewouldformajustideaofhischaracterAmanwhoforthirtyyearsormorewasliabletobelockedupinsponginghouses,andwhointheinterestsofliteraturehadbeenforcedtousehisfistdowenotallknowthatheknockeddownhisbookseller,Osborne,withafoliowasnotlikelytoescapefromtheconflictwithoutscarsandhisroughnessandoccasionalwantofconsiderationfortheminorcourtesiesoflifemaybetracedtothiscauseAttheageoftwentynineJohnsonescapedfromtheherdofliteraryhacksbythepublicationof"London"(),animitationoftheThirdSatireofJuvenal,whichbroughthimfameandthecontemptiblesumoftenguineasAtthatperiodthepublicationofthedebatesinParliamentwasnotpermitted,butJohnson,whoHISLIFEhadnowbecomearegularcontributortothe"Gentleman'sMagazine,"publishedfromnotes(i)underthetitleofthe"SenateofLilliput,"areportofthespeeches,whichwasprobablyhalftruth,halffiction"Itookcare,"hesaid,"thattheWhigdogsshouldnothavethebestofit"Whenatadinner,aspeechofPitt'swaspraisedassuperiortoanythinginDemosthenes,Johnsonobserved,"IwrotethatspeechinagarretinExeterStreet"Onfindingthatthesedebatesweretreatedasgenuine,hebroughtthemtoanend,sayingthathewouldnotbeaccessorytothepropagationoffalsehoodIntheseyearsofpatientpovertyJohnsonwasslowlybuildinguphisreputationInappearedhislifeofRichardSavage,"anEarl'sson,ashoemaker'sapprentice,whohadseenlifeinallitsforms,whohadfeastedamongblueribbandsinStJames'sSquare,andhadlainwithfiftypounds'weightofironsonhislegsinthecondemnedwardofNewgate"'LordMacaulayaddswithtruththatthislittlebiographyisamasterpiece,andthatnofinerspecimenexistedinanylanguagelivingordeadThreeyearslaterheundertooktoproduceacolossalworkforthebooksellers,fortheveryinadequatecompensationoffithiswastheEnglishDictionary,withwhichhisnameispopularlyassociatedInthislabourhewasforcedduringthegreaterpartofsevenoreightyearsto^MacaulayiJOHNSONemployseveralassistantsTheplanoftheworkwasaddressedtoLordChesterfield,SecretaryofState,ofwhomtherewillbemoretosaylateronIn"TheVanityofHumanWishes"wonanappreciationforthepoetwhichhasnotwhollydiedoutinrecentdaysInthesameyear,Garrick,whosegoodnaturegotthebetterofhisjudgement,produced"Irene"atDruryLaneThetragedy,althoughafailure,ranforninenights,andputmoneyintheauthor'spurseItmaybecommendedtoanyreaderwhowishestoinflictapenanceonhimselfforfeastingtoofreelyintheworldoflettersOnbeingaskedhowhefeltontheillsuccessofthislongcherishedwork,heanswered,"LiketheMonument!"Andnow,stirredup,doubtless,bythesuccessofearlieraswellascontemporaryperiodicals,Johnsonstarted"TheRambler,"singlehanded(March),andcarrieditonfortwoyearsThecostwastwopence,anditappearedeveryTuesdayandSaturdayTheexquisitehumourofAddison,thelivelinessandpathosofSteele,weredeniedtoJohnsonasanEssayist,andthesalewasverysmallThe"Rambler"demandedpatientreaders,andthese,whenpublishedinbookform,itafterwardssecuredTheagehadavastregardformoralityinprintsandtheEssaysbroughtthewriterfame,butitcameatatimewhenthatwhichwouldhavegivenitschiefzesttopraisehadbeentakenfromhimThreedaysafterthepublicationofthelast"Rambler"MrsJohnsondied"ThemanwhohaspassedthroughsuchatrialknowswellthatwhatevermaybeinHISLIFEstoreforhiminthedarkfutureitcanhavenoheavierblowinreserve"'JohnsonwastoowisetobeidleunderthepressureofthisgreatsorrowInhereceivedthedegreeofMAfromtheUniversityofOxford,andinthesameyeartheDictionaryappearedSevenyearshadgonebysincetheplanwassenttotheEarlofChesterfield,whoseemsnotonlytohaveneglectedJohnsonbuttohaverepulsedhimfromhisdoorWhen,however,theworkapproachedcompletion,twopaperswereprintedin"TheWorld,"aratherbrilliantperiodicalofthetime,praisingJohnsonandtreatinghimasadictatorofthelanguageTheywerewrittenbyChesterfield,who"fellascribbling,"toquoteJohnson'sphrase,inthehopethatthemagnumopuswouldbededicatedtohimTheadvancewasrejectedwiththecontemptthatitdeservedNeverdidthefamousEarlappearmoredespicable,orthepoormanoflettersmoredignified,thaninthisfamousletterTotheRightHonourableTheEarlofChesterfieldFebruary,MyLord,Ihavebeenlatelyinformedbytheproprietorof"TheWorld,"thattwopapers,inwhichmy"Dictionary"isrecommendedtothepublic,werewrittenbyyourLordshipTobesodistinguishedisanhonourwhich,beingsoverylittleaccustomedtofavoursfromthegreat,Iknownotwellhowtoreceive,orinwhattermstoacknowledge^LeslieStephenBiJOHNSONWhen,uponsomeslightencouragement,IfirstvisitedyourLordship,Iwasoverpowered,liketherestofmankind,bytheenchantmentofyouraddress,andcouldnotforbeartowishthatImightboastmyselfZ^vaitiqueurduvaitiquenrdelaterre,thatImightobtainthatregardforwhichIsawtheworldcontendingbutIfoundmyattendancesolittleencouraged,thatneitherpridenormodestywouldsuffermetocontinueitWhenIhadonceaddressedyourLordshipinpublicIhadexhaustedalltheartofpleasingwhicharetiredanduncourtlyscholarcanpossessIhaddoneallthatIcouldandnomaniswellpleasedtohavehisallneglected,beiteversolittleSevenyears,myLord,havenowpastsinceIwaitedinyouroutwardrooms,andwasrepulsedfromyourdoorduringwhichtimeIhavebeenpushingonmyworkthroughdifficulties,ofwhichitisuselesstocomplain,andhavebroughtit,atlast,tothevergeofpublication,withoutoneactofassistance,onewordofencouragement,oronesmileoffavourSuchtreatmentIdidnotexpect,forIneverhadaPatronbeforeTheshepherdinVirgilgrewatlastacquaintedwithLove,andfoundhimanativeoftherocksIsnotaPatron,myLord,onewholookswithunconcernonamanstrugglingforlifeinthewater,and,whenhehasreachedground,encumbershimwithhelp''Thenoticewhichyouhavebeenpleasedtotakeofmylabours,haditbeenearly,hadbeenkindbutithasbeendelayedtillIamindifferent,andcannotenjoyittillIamsolitary,andcannotimpartittillIamknown,anddonotwantitIhopeitisnoverycynicalasperitynottoconfessobligationswherenobenefithasbeenreceived,ortobeunwillingthatthepublicshouldconsidermeasowingthattoaPatronwhichProvidencehasenabledmetodoformyselfHISLIFEHavingcarriedonmyworkthusfarwithsoHttleobligationtoanyfavoureroflearning,IshallnotbedisappointedthoughIshouldconcludeit,iflessbepossible,withlessforIhavebeenlongawakenedfromthatdreamofhope,inwhichIonceboastedmyselfwithsomuchexultation,myLord,YourLordship'smosthumble,mostobedientservant,SamJohnsonAfterthelastsheetoftheDictionaryhadbeencarriedtothepublisherJohnsonaskedthemessenger,"Whatdidhesay""Sir,hesaid,'ThankGodIhavedonewithhim!"'"Iamglad,"wastherejoinder,"thathethanksGodforanything"Havingcompletedthe"Dictionary"JohnsonseemstohaverestedawhileonhisoarsFewmeneverenjoyedidlenessmorethoroughly,andhewouldhavelaughedatSirWalterScott'swisemaxim,"Nevertobedoingnothing"Noauthor,Johnsondeclared,willeverwriteexceptformoney,andprobablyhislethargicnaturewouldnothavebeensufficientlystirredupwithoutsuchanincentiveHecouldnotaffordtobeidlelongafterthepublicationofthe"Dictionary"hehadbeentwicearrestedfordebt,andforfreedom,aswellasdailybread,hewasdependentonhispenInhestarted"TheIdler,"aworthysuccessorto"TheRambler,"lessweightyindeed,butmorelivelyForthisseriesofessays,whichappearedin"TheUniversalChronicle,orWeeklyGazette,"JohnsonhadsomeassistancefromThomasWarton,SirJoshuaReynolds,andBennetLangton,ayoungmanofwealthandJOHNSONlearning,whocametoLondonchieflyforthesakeofJohnson'ssocietyInthefollowingyearhismother,"thebestmotherandthebestwomanintheworld,"diedattheageofninetyandtopaythefuneralexpenses,andsomelittledebts,Johnsonwrote"Rasselas"HetoldSirJoshuaReynoldsthathecomposedit"intheeveningsofoneweek,sentittothepressinportionsasitwaswritten,andhadneversincereaditover"OnehundredandtwentyfivepoundswasallJohnsonreceivedforaworkthatbecamesufficientlypopulartobetranslatedintotheprincipallanguagesofEuropeItisremarkablethatVoltaire's"Candide,"atalewrittenonsimilarlines,butwithadifferentmoral,appearedaboutthesametime,yetitwascertainthatneitherauthorcouldhaveborrowedfromtheotherHitherto,notwithstandinghisreputation,hehadneverbeenfreefromtheresangustadomi,butsoonaftertheaccessionofGeorgeIIIhewasofferedandacceptedapensionofthreehundredpoundsThathisdefinitionofapensionas"paygiventoastatehirelingfortreasontohiscountry"shouldbethrowninhisteeth,wasinevitablebuthelaughedtheimputationtoscorn,andwishedthenoisetwiceasloudandthepensiontwiceasgreat"Ithink,"hesaid,"thatthepleasureofcursingtheHouseofHanoveranddrinkingKingJames'shealthareamplyoverbalancedbythreehundredpoundsayear"JohnsonhadlongceasedtobeaJacobite,andwhen,in,GeorgeIIIhonouredhimwith,i^VJOHNSONSHOUSEVt'JOHNSONSCOURT,F

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