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Unit 1.ppt

Unit 1.ppt

上传者: robin 2010-03-25 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Unit 1ppt》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含EnglishLexicologyforclass,EnglishLexicologyforclass,byJinXudongUnitIIntrod符等。

EnglishLexicologyforclass,EnglishLexicologyforclass,byJinXudongUnitIIntroductionAgeneralsurveyofthecourseWhatisLexicologyItspositionasabranchofLinguisticsSubbranchesofLexicologyTheaimandpurposeofthecourseCharacteristicsofEnglishvocabularyTherangeoffieldforthiscourseTherangeoffieldforthiscourseTherearethreeessentialpartsoflinguistics(studyoflanguage)aPhonetics,(Soundsystem)bGrammar,(theruleofusingthelanguage)cVocabulary,(symbolsofreferent)LexicologyisthestudyofvocabularyTherefore,EnglishLexicologyisthestudyofEnglishvocabularyWhatisLexicologyWhatisLexicologyLexicologyisabranchoflinguisticsdealingwiththevocabularyofalanguageandthepropertiesofwordsasthemainunitsoflanguageTheterm"vocabulary“meansthewholesystemofthewordsandphrasesthatthelanguagepossessesPhrasesorwordequivalentmeansidiomsandwordgroupasasemanticunitForinstance"recently"isaword,“oflate"isaphraseorwordequivalentmeaning"recently“Thusthesentence"Howhaveyoubeenoflate“equalsto"Howhaveyoubeenrecently"oflate=recentlyTheaboveexampleshowsvocabularycontainsallthewordsandwordequivalentsTheword"lexicology"iscomposedoftwopartswhicharederivedfromGreekThefirstpart"Lexi"meaning"wordorphrase"hencehavingtodowithwordsandthesecondpart"logos"inGreekdenotes"adepartmentofknowledge,abranchoflearning"thustheliteralmeaningoflexicologyisthescienceorknowledgeofwordsItconcernswiththestudyofwordsinthebroadsense:iethemeaningandmakingofwords,theirwaysandmanners,theupsanddownsintheirindividualfortunesandwhysandhowsoftheirappearancesanddisappearancesConsequently,EnglishLexicologydealwiththelinguisticstudyoftheEnglishlanguageinthisfieldItspositionasabranchofLinguisticsItspositionasabranchofLinguisticsLinguisticsasadisciplineinthestudyoflanguagecanbedividedintomanysubdisciplinesorsubbranchesAnylivinglanguageisasoundsystem,sotherearephoneticsandphonologySincelanguageisalsoasystemofsymbols(bothsoundandwrittenwordsaresymbols)thereareLexicologyandsemanticstobeconsideredTherulesandregulationssummedupbygrammariansarecalledgrammarwhichincludesmorphologyandsyntaxAfterWorldWarIImoreandmorelinguisticscholarslaystressontheuseoflanguageforcommunicationthusPragmaticsandCrossculturecommunicationpushestheirwayintothefieldoflanguagestudyWhenitisassociatedwiththeuser,particularlythoseofwriters,stylesorstylisticvariantshavetobetakenintoconsiderationAnotherimportantfieldoflinguisticsisthestudyoflanguageteaching(appliedLinguistics)whichinvolveseveryoneofyouasafutureteacherWeshouldgetatleastsomeknowledgeofitinfutureSyllabusdesign,erroranalysisandtestingalsobecomeapartoflanguagestudyNowadaysthestudyoflanguageevenbecomesanimportantpartofthestudyintophilosophywhichconcernsthewayofthinkingbyhumanbeingsWhenitisassociatedwiththeuser,particularlythoseofwriters,stylesorstylisticvariantshavetobetakenintoconsiderationAnotherimportantfieldoflinguisticsisthestudyoflanguageteaching(appliedLinguistics)whichinvolveseveryoneofyouasafutureteacherWeshouldgetatleastsomeknowledgeofitinfutureSyllabusdesign,erroranalysisandtestingalsobecomeapartoflanguagestudyNowadaysthestudyoflanguageevenbecomesanimportantpartofthestudyintophilosophywhichconcernsthewayofthinkingbyhumanbeingsTherearemanynewlydevelopedscienceswhichoverlapthelanguagestudywithanothersocialornaturalsciencesuchassociallinguistics,psycholinguisticsandneurolinguisticswhichstudiesthefunctionofhumanbeings'sbraininformingwordsandsentencesHerewejusttomentionafewofthemNeverthelessasthreebasiccomponentsofalanguagearephonetics,grammarandvocabulary,LexicologyisoneofthemajorbranchesofthisfieldThescopeofLinguisticsThescopeofLinguisticsFurtherBranchingFurtherBranchingFurtherBranchingFurtherBranchingSubbranchesofLexicologySubbranchesofLexicologyIIISubbranchesofLexicologyAsabranchoflinguistics,LexicologyhasfivesubbranchesTheyarecloselyrelatedtoeachotherinthattheyallaimatthestudyofthevocabularyandthebasicwordstockofalanguagebuttheydifferfromeachotherinthateachapproachesindifferentrespectFollowingarethesubbranchesofLexicology:SemanticsEtymologyHistoricalLexicologyPhraseologyLexicographySemanticsSemanticsMostimportantBranchofLexicologyMainlydealswiththemeaningofwordsieInvestigatingthenature,structure,developmentandchangeofwordmeaningandsenserelationsofwordsandwordequivalentsSomelinguistsholdsthatsemanticsevencontainslexicologyielexicologyisonlyabranchofsemanticsOthersholdthetraditionalviewthatitisasubbranchofLexicologyStillothersthinkbothareindependentbranchesofLinguisticsAnyhow,theyarecloselyrelatedwitheachotherSyntacticalsemanticsstudiesthewordmeaninginthesentences,Selectionalrestrictions:HappyNewYear,MerryChristmasscoreachievements,makeasuccess(butnotmakeachievements,scoreasuccess)NorthernChinese()ShanghaiDialect(points)Cantonese(touchthewrongline)ModernlinguistictheoryadvocatesthesignificanceofwordarrangementindeterminationoftherealwordmeaningAndmanyexamplesprovesthetruthoftherealmeaningineachparticularsituationModernlinguistictheoryadvocatesthesignificanceofwordarrangementindeterminationoftherealwordmeaningAndmanyexamplesprovesthetruthoftherealmeaningineachparticularsituationLongtimenosee(Concise)Longtimenosea(situational)(seaside)(seafood)(notfresh)ThescopeandrageofWordmeaningandcollocationandlanguagemeaningasawholebecomesevermoreimportantinmodernLanguagestudiesBecausesymbol,soundandmeaningarethreeessentialthingsforalllanguageswithoutanexceptionMoreandmoremodernlinguiststurntheirinteresttosemantics(meaningofalanguage)ratherthan(lexicology)themeaningofseparatewordsandphrasesofalanguageTherefore,therearedifferentviewsinclassifyingtherelationbetweensemanticsandLexicologyEtymologyStudythemeaningofwordsfromhistoricalpointofview,thehistoryofindividualwords,theiroriginalformsandmeaning,dealingwiththemeaningofthewordsinthehistoricalpointofview(asindividual)HistoricalLexicologyStudythedevelopmentofthevocabularyasawholeonthebasisofetymology,thehistoryoftheEnglishlanguageandsocietytreatingthehistoricaldevelopmentofvocabularyPhraseologystudyformationandusageofwordequivalentssuchassetexpressions,stockphrasesandcastironidioms,theirclassificationandcharacteristicsofuse=usefulforgood=permanentlyallbut=almostthinkof=considerLexicographystudythelevel,frequency,degreeofusefulnessofwordsinspeakingandwritingforcompilingadictionaryItmustbemadeclearthatdifferentschoolsofLinguistshavedifferentwaystomakeclassifications:ForinstanceSemanticsandothersubbranchescanalsobeconsideredasindependentdisciplinesentirelyseparatedfromLexicologyandmanyevenholdsLexicologyisonlypartofSemanticsBothareofvalidityasseenthesamethingfromdifferentanglesIVTheaimandpurposeofthecourseIVTheaimandpurposeofthecourseAsanimportantbranchofLinguistics,LexicologyprovidestheEnglishmajorabasicknowledgeinthisfieldincludingwordmeaning,wordstructure,andwordformation,theEnglishvocabularyasawhole,andtendencyofitsdevelopmentIhopethiscoursewillbemorepracticalthantheoreticalsoastosuittheneedsofthestudentsintheiractualuseofthelanguageforcommunication,whetherinspokenorwrittenformToacquiresomefundamentalsofLexicologywouldhelpthestudentsnotonlytohavebetterunderstandingofEnglishwords,phrasesandidiomsbutalsoenablethemtouseproperlyintheirlanguagepracticeThatis:thecourseprovidesasystematicdescriptionoftheEnglishvocabularywhichisoneofthethreemainaspectsoflanguageievocabulary,grammarandsoundsystemAnditwillalsosupplystudentswithalotofinformationconcerningcorrectuseandgoodunderstandingofwords,phrasesandidiomstohelpthemlearnthelanguagebetterTwoapproachestothestudyofAlanguage(includinglexicology)TwoapproachestothestudyofAlanguage(includinglexicology)Synchronic:studyalanguageasitexistsatafixedpointoftimediachronic:studyalanguagefromtheviewpointofhistoricaldevelopmentTheDevelopmentofEnglishandItsVocabularyTheDevelopmentofEnglishandItsVocabulary,OldEnglish(OE)AngloSaxonPeriodMiddleEnglish(ME)AperiodofFrenchinfluenceafterNormanConquestModernEnglish(onward)(includingContemporaryEnglish)()ContemporaryEnglish(thcentury~uptonow)IICharacteristicsofEnglishVocabularyIICharacteristicsofEnglishVocabularyOpentypePeopletoBritishIslesindifferentHistoricalperiodCeltAngloSaxonDaneNormanFrenchCelt<>OldEnglish<>Scandinavianinfluence<>FrenchinfluencePoliticalCulturalinfluence:GreekLatinContactalmostallthelanguagesintheworldFirstfromLatinmany(over)throughFrenchConsiderablenumberofwordsfromGreekSubstantialcontributionfromScandinavianlanguagesAsmallpercentagefromItalian,SpanishandDutchScatteredwordsfromlanguagesallovertheworldAComparisonofVocabularyComponentAComparisonofVocabularyComponentNote:ChineseDialectsincoastareassuchasCantoneseandShanghaiesehavemoreborrowedwordsthanNorthernstandardChineseduetoearlycontactinbusinessandtradeRapidincreaseHalfamillionentriesinOxfordDictionaryActuallythewholevocabularyexceedingmillionandisstillincreasingByborrowingnewwordsfromalmostallthelivinglanguagesandbycreatingnewwordsinvariouswaysEnglishhasnowpossessedabiggeststockofvocabularyintheworldMultipleandeasywaysofformingnewwordsNonrefundableunintelligibilityforgetmenotVIPDINKMotelAnumberofabbreviationsBBCGRECPUNOWTESLTESOLTOEFLRichinidiomstakeinTurnupPutonEnglishcreatesnewwordsbothbyborrowingfromothersandbyaddinganewmeaningtotheoldwordswhileChineseisjusttothecontrary,verycapableofformingnewwordsfromreconstructthereadywordsCompare:ContainerMemoryrobotscannerLasermoonscapelunarmoduleAstronautshuttleVocabularyofanylanguageisasystemIt’snousetolearntheseparatewordsofawholedictionarybyheartifyoudon’tknowhowtousethemidiomaticallyVocabularyofanylanguageisasystemIt’snousetolearntheseparatewordsofawholedictionarybyheartifyoudon’tknowhowtousethemidiomaticallyUsteeldistortingmirror槽钢哈哈镜Hsteelnightcart工字钢粪车DogearGreenhorn书折角新手YintersectionDearJohn’sLetter三叉路口(女方)绝交信BestsellerOnthehouse畅销书吃公款WordsshouldbelearntonsentencelevelWordsshouldbelearntonsentencelevelYoudon’tsayso真的吗Isee我明白了Isay喂!Howareyoudoing你好吗Lookout!小心!Hi这里有人吗(Hi!你好!)Dearme!哎呀!Lookhere!喂,听着!WestudyEnglishvocabularyfromitspastandpresent,itsdevelopmentduetothechangefrominsideandoutsideItschangeinvolvessocial,cultural,economicandtechnologicalfactorsAcomparativestudyofEnglishandotherlanguageswillalsohelpusknowbetteraboutlexicologicalfeaturesoftheEnglishlanguageSeeyounexttime!Seeyounexttime!

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