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首页 BEC剑桥商务英语原版教材(高级).doc

BEC剑桥商务英语原版教材(高级).doc

BEC剑桥商务英语原版教材(高级).doc

上传者: teamaker 2010-03-25 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《BEC剑桥商务英语原版教材(高级)doc》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含UnitManaginginthePresentPresentTensesFocus:timemanagementandcurrentproblem符等。

UnitManaginginthePresentPresentTensesFocus:timemanagementandcurrentproblemsfacingaservicecompanyManagementthemesReadthefollowingtextandthendiscussthequestionsbelowTimemanagementhasbecomeoneofthekeyissuesofthesecondhalfofthetwentiethcenturyManagers,grapplingwithworkpressuresanddeadlines,havecometorecognisethattimeisapreciouscommoditytobe‘saved’,‘gained’,andnot‘wasted’or‘lost’Butiftimeisacommodity,howthencanwebestdescribe,measureandmanageitTodescribeandmanageit,imaginealinethatgoesbacktothebeginningsofcreationandcontinuesintothemistsofthefutureAndonthatlineareanumberofsignificantmarkstheseseparatethepastfromthepresentfromthefutureAndwithineachtimezonepast,presentandfuturewecandifferentiateperiodsoftimefrompointsoftimeForexample,thesgaveusaperiodofrapideconomicgrowthblackMondaywasapointofsuddenfinancialcatastropheHowcanthisbriefanalysishelptheinternationalmanagerFirstly,thereisthelinkbetweenpast,presentandfutureInotherwords,historicalperformanceshouldbeaguidetothefuture,andthepresentoughttorepresentlastyear’sforecastSochangethatwhichnormallydifferentiatesanytwoperiodsonourcontinuumcanbeseenasagradualevolutionratherthanadramaticrevolutionSecondly,theuseofatimeplanningsystem,onwhichkeypointsandperiodsareplotted,enablesmanagerstoorganisetheiractivitiessothatbottleneckscanbeavoidedanddeadlinescanbemetSostress,wherethejobstobedoneexceedtheavailabletime,canbereducedtoanacceptableandproductivelevelDiscussionDoesyourorganisationliveinthepresentDoesitchangewiththetimesDoyouworkinastressfulenvironmentDoyouthinkthattimemanagementcanreducestressListeningYouaregoingtohearanextractfromameetingbetweenAnnaBrianandPete,thethreepartnersofSoftsys,asmallcompanysupplyingbusinesssoftwareThecompanywasestablishedtwoyearsagoandafteraperiodofrapidgrowthistryingtoconsolidateitsmarketpositionAsyoulisten,makenotesofthetasksthatareagreedandnotethepartnerwhoisgoingtodothetask请见附图Listeningtask(A=AnnaP=PeteB=Brian)P:IthinkweallfeelthatthingsaregettingalittleoutofcontrolWe’repushingourselvesalmosttobreakingpointandI’mworriedthatsomething’sgoingtosnapunlesswetakecontrolofthesituationB:ExactlyWehavetostartmanagingthebusinessratherthanlettingitmanageusSowhatcanwedoaboutitA:Well,thefirstthingwecandoistostartplanningImeanuptonowwehavedoneeverythingbyintuition,butI’dliketoknowwhereweplantobefiveyearsfromnowB:That’sgoodalongtermplanOK,Pete,areyoupreparedtostartworkingonitP:IcanmakesomenotesandcirculatethemThenwecandiscussthemA:GoodP:FineA:NowwhataboutrolesImeanIknowthatweeachhavegotourownspecialistfunctionswithintheorganisationandthatwealsofunctionprettywellasateam,butperhapsweneedaleaderP:YoumeanlikeamanagingdirectorB:Yes,butIthoughtourphilosophywastokeepaflatmanagementstructureA:Yes,Iacceptthatwedon’twanttocreateahierarchy,butIstillthinkthatitcanhelpusifwechooseamanagingpartnerwhohasoverallcontrolP:Yes,Ireallydon’tthinkthatwillharmtherelationshipbetweenusandIagreethatitcanhelpustorunthecompanymoreefficientlyB:Well,Iamnottotallyconvinced,butI’mwillingtobepersuadedAsyoutwoarekeenontheidea,whydon’tyouprepareapaperaboutwhatthemanagementstructurewouldbeandthefunctionsofthemanagingpartnerA:Well,I’dliketohaveagoatthatI’llpreparesomenotesandcirculatethemThenwecandiscussthematournextmeetingIfthat’sOKwithyou,BrianP:Yeah,finebymeB:Well,we’vetalkedaboutplanningandmanagingNow,whataboutimprovingtheorganisationIthinkweneedtolookathowwecanorganiseourselvesbetterA:Well,havingamanagingpartnershouldhelpB:Ofcourse,butweneedtolookatourownroles,tooP:ToidentifyareasofresponsibilityB:Yes,firsttheareaswhereeachofushasthemainresponsibilityandthentheareaswhereweareinvolved,butnotprimarilyresponsibleTakepurchasing,forexampleWeneedtobuyingoodseverythingfrommachinesdowntoplugsWebuyinmachineswhenacustomerhasplacedanorderandthenwecheckcashflowandconsulttheothersButwebuythesmalleritemswithoutanyconsultationA:Oh,comeon,wealwaysdiscussmajorpurchasesandtheminoronesaremadewhenweneedtoWecan’tconsultwitheachotherforeverybitofcablewebuyB:Iknowwecan’tButthat’sexactlywhyweneedonepersonwithresponsibilityforauthorisingpurchasesThenwecanconsistentlycheckwherewecangetthebestvalueformoneybyputtingonepersoninchargeAndthatpersoncanreconcilethepurchasesmadeagainsttheinvoicesthatcomeinIt’ssimplyamatterofstreamliningthesystemwhichmustbeineveryone’sinterestA:So,whatdoyousuggestB:Well,IthinkweshouldeachmakealistofthemajorfunctionswithintheorganisationWe’vetalkedaboutpurchasingThenthere’ssalesandaftersalesserviceP:andfinanceB:Yes,andinstallationWell,I’dliketoseeonepersonwithprimaryresponsibilityforeacharea,justaswesaidforpurchasingAndtheothersmayhavesecondaryresponsibilityforthatareaSo,IproposethatIdrawupalistoftheprimaryareasoractivitiesthatweneedtocarryout,andthenatthenextmeetingwedecidewhowillhavetheprimaryresponsibilityforeachI’msureit’llstreamlineourbusinessA:So,wheredoesthatleaveusP:WithsomehomeworktodoandsomekeyissuestodiscussatournextmeetingBytheway,whenarewemeetingA:Well,let’ssaythat本课主题阅读下面这篇由一位商业医生撰写的文章并就列出的问题进行讨论成功的起因精神分析家们通过深入病人的过去通常是病人的童年时代来给他们治病试图以此帮助他们了解现在的感觉和行为公司顾问们试图通过了解他们客户的历史和跟踪记录来找出失败的根源或成功的起因从某些方面讲公司顾问们的工作有时很简单他们可以察看资产负债表和损益表来分析该公司的资产管理盈利状况和费用控制情况他们可以跟踪公司的历史从开始盈利的头一件产品到现在的生产和服务规模他们可以研究公司的组织结构市场营销和人事制度甚至工厂和办公室的布局等等然而要正确指出一个公司失败而另一个公司的原因常常并非易事公司向外界寻求建议是因为从内部找不到答案公司期冀咨询人员能运用其丰富的经验或许就是他她以前所诊断过的类似病例来为公司找出症结所在开出使公司复苏的良方进而为公司推荐一种新的自下而上方式以保证他们未来的健康发展和繁荣讨论问题你们的公司是现代企业吗它随着时代变化而变化吗你的工作环境压力大吗你认为很好地管理时间能减轻这种压力吗生词与短语grapplewith与搏斗尽力解决egSomeonetriedtopoachourmarketmanagershegrappledwithhermoraldilemma有人企图挖走我们的市场主管面对这种道德难题她进行了激烈的思想斗争differentiate加以区分blackMonday黑色星期一指年月国际股票市场崩溃的日子catastrophe大灾难大祸egThefinancialcatastropheinitiatedbythecollapseofthestackmarkethitthecountryadeadlyblow由股市崩溃引发的金融灾难使这个国家遭受了致命的打击continuum连续时间dramatic戏剧性的exceed超过egSupplyexceedsdemand供过于求听力练习生词与短语intuition直觉circulate传阅philosophy哲学见解观点信条hierarchy等级制度统治集团领导层hierarchicalconvince使确信说服convincesbofsthpurchase购置plug插头cashflow现金流量收入现款额authorize批准准许授权reconcile调解使一致reconciliationinvoice发票streamline使合理化使效率更高你将听到安娜布赖恩和皮特之间一次会议的摘要他们是Softsys公司的三个合伙人该公司是一家提供商业应用软件的小公司两年前成立经过一度快速增长后打算巩固其市场位置注解及样例outofcontrol失去控制egMeasuresmustbetakentohavetheoverheatedeconomycooleddownOtherwise,itwouldbeoutofcontrol如果再不采取果断措施给过热的经济降温经济局面会失控tosnap断裂垮掉egThetwigssnappedunderthesnow雪把树枝压断了OurmanagerworkstoohardI’mafraidshewillsnapsuddenly我们经理工作太认真我真担心哪天她的身体会垮掉intuition直觉egMyintuitiontoldmetokeepthiscompanyasoursupplier直觉告诉我应当仍然以该公司为供货商I’vegotanintuitionthatsomethinghasgonewrong凭直觉我感到出了问题tocirculate传阅egThereportwillbecirculatedtoallmembers该报告将在全体成员中传阅tohaveagoat跃跃欲试egThesalesmanagerrecentlyinpoweritchedtohaveagoattheEastAsianmarket新上任的销售经理跃跃欲试要进军东亚市场toconvince说服egIttookmeafewweekstoconvincemybossoftheimportanceoftraining我花了几个星期才说服老板培训的重要性AtlastIfeltconvincedthatIwasagainonthewrongtrack我最后确信自己考虑问题的思路又错了topersuade说服是指劝诱induce他人相信或去做某事eghepersuadedmetobuythathugeinchTVset他劝我买了那台寸的大电视大致说来persuade与人的意志will或感情feeling相关convince是与人的理智reason或理解力understanding相关toauthorise授权egShehasbeenauthorizedtosignthecontract她被授权签订合同toreconcile使相吻合核对调和egHefailedtoreconcilestatementwiththefact他难以作出符合事实的陈述toreconcileacheckbookwithabankstatement按银行结帐单核对支票薄Ican’treconcilethetwoextremeviews我无法调和这两种极端的观点tostreamline精简使更有效率egTheleadershiphadstreamlinedtheplantorganizationAsaresult,theoutputdoubledandtheoverheadsfelldrasticallyaswell由于领导精简了工厂机构不仅产量翻了一番而且大大缩减了企业经营费用toinvoice给开发票egThesellermayinvoicethegoodsat$perton卖方可以每吨美元开具该货的发票Invoiceusaftertheshipment请在装船后给我公司开具发票名词发票egEnclosedisourinvoiceintriplicateforArtNo随函附上号货物的发票一式三份ineverybody’sinterest符合大家的利益finebyme我觉得没问题egIsthenewlyboughtcreamOKwithyou新买的雪花膏用着行吗Yes,finebyme我觉得还不错mailshot邮寄广告听力译文P我想我们都感到有些控制不了局面了我们都在尽力快要坚持不住了我担心如果我们控制不住局面是会出事的B说的对我们应当开始控制工作而不是让工作控制我们我们该怎么做呢A嗯首先我们可以开始制定计划我是指到目前为止我们一直凭直觉做事但我想知道我们今后年的发展目标B很好一个长期计划皮特你准备做这件事吗P我可以准备一份草稿咱们传阅一下然后再讨论A好P行A怎么角色我指的是虽然在公司里我们每个人各尽所能配合也很好但我们需要一个领导者P你指执行董事B对不过我原以为我们的原则是保持一种平等管理结构A我也认为我们不应制造等级但我仍认为如果我们选出一个合伙人由他控制全局会对工作有好处P对我想这不会影响我们之间的关系反而能使我们更有效地开展业务B嗯你们还没说服我但我愿意再听听你们的意见既然你们俩对此很热心何不准备一份文件来讲一下今后的管理结构和主管的任务A嗯我试一下我会准备一份草稿传阅一下然后在下次会上讨论布赖恩你觉得怎么样P我没意见B好我们已谈了计划和管理问题现在讨论一下如何改进机构吧我想我们应该考虑一下如何更好地组织A嗯先出招待董事肯定会有帮助B当然但我们应该也想一下自己的位置P划分责任B对行划出我们每个人员的主要职责再划出相关的次要责任范围拿进货作例子我们需要其他负责人商量但买进小东西时就不必磋商A好啦凡大件物品的进货我们总是讨论有必要时小物品的进货也讲座但我们总不能买每一寸电缆都先进行讨论吧B我知道这不可能正因为这样我们才需要一个人总体负责购货通过安排这样一个负责人我们就可不断研究如何把钱用在刀刃上由这个人来进行核查以确保货与发票相吻合简化体制对每个人都有好处A你有何建议B我建议每个人都列出公司的主要任务我们已谈了购货再谈一下销售和售后服务P还有财务B对还有安装我想看到在每个领域有一个负主要职责就像我们刚才所说的采购那样其他人可以对那一领域负次要职责我提议由我来起草一份主要领域或我们需开展的工作的清单然后在下次会议上决定在每一领域由谁负主要职责我相信这肯定会使咱们做起生意来简化一些A那还剩下什么要我们来做P得做些准备工作还要列出我们下次会议上要讨论的问题顺便说一下咱们下次什么时候开会A嗯就定在PresentationInthediscussion,thepartnersusedthefollowingpresenttenseforms:#ThePresentContinuous(amisareverbsteming)#ThePresentSimple(verbstem(s))#ThePresentPerfect(hashavepastparticiple)Lookindetailathowthesetensesareused:bThePresentContinuousbThistenseisusedtoindicate:(a)anactivityatoraroundthemomentofspeakingForexample:WhatareyoudoingI’mphoningasupplierWearepushingourselvesalmosttobreakingpoint(b)thetemporarynatureofanactivityForexample:I’mworkinginBirminghamatthemoment(butnormallyIworkinLondon)(c)afixedarrangementinthefutureForexample:WearehavingthemeetinginJim’soffice(d)acharacteristichabitthatannoysthespeakerForexample:Wearealwaysdiscussingthis,butweneverreachadecisionTheverbisoftenusedwithatimemarkersuchasalways,constantlyorallthetimetoemphasisethespeaker’sannoyanceordisapprovalNotesonthepresentcontinuous:Typicaltimemarkerstoindicatethepresentnatureofanactivityare:atthemomentatpresentcurrentlynowWiththefutureuseofthePresentContinuous,itisimportanttospecifythefuturetimewithatimeexpression,forexample,nextweek,intwoyear’stimeotherwisethetimemaybeambiguousbetweenpresentandfuture:Whatareyoudoing(present)Whatareyoudoingnextweekend(future)ThePresentSimpleThistenseifsusedtoindicate:(a)ageneralorpermanentactivityForexample:Thecompanysuppliesbusinesssoftware(b)atruthorcurrentbeliefForexample:Managersplan,organise,leadandcontrol(c)thefrequencyofanactivityForexample:Wealwaysdiscussmajorpurchases(d)afixedscheduleinthefutureForexample:ThetradingyearstartsonstJanuary(e)apresentactivitywithnoncontinuousverbsForexample:Iacceptthatwedon’twanttocreateahierarchyNotesonthePresentSimple:Typicaltimemarkerstoindicatethefrequencyofanactivityinclude:ExpressionsofdefinitefrequencyoncetwicethreetimesadayweekyeardailyweeklymonthlyannuallyyearlyEverydayweekmonthyearExpressionsofindefinitefrequency请见附图ThePresentPerfectThistenseisusedtoindicate:(a)anactivityatsomenonspecifictimeinthepastwithanimpactorresultinthepresentorfutureForexample:Well,we’vetalkedaboutplanningandmanagingNowwhataboutimprovingtheorganisationHere,theverbphraseisinthesimpleformbecausethespeakerwantstofocusonanactionwhichendedatapointoftimeCfWe’vebeentalkingaboutplanningandmanagingandwe’vehadaninterestingdiscussionHere,theverbphraseisinthecontinuousformbecausethespeakerwantstofocusontheprocesswhichhappenedoveraperiodoftime(b)anactivitywithinaperiodoftimewhichisnotyetfinishedForexample:SaleshaveincreasedthisyearCfWe’vebeendevelopinganumberofnewproductsthisyearInbothcasestheyearisnotyetfinishedInthefirstsentence,theverbisinthesimpleformbecausethefocusisontheendresult,anincreaseinsalesinthesecond,theverbisinthecontinuousformbecausethefocusisontheprocessthroughtime,thedevelopmentofthenewproducts(c)anactivitywhichstartedinthepastandcontinuestothepresentForexample:SincethebeginningoftheyearwehavetestedthreenewapplicationsCfWehavebeentestingthreenewapplicationssincethebeginningoftheyearInthefirstsentencetheverbisinthesimpleformtofocusonthetestsarenowfinishedinthesecondsentencetheverbisinthecontinuousformtofocusontheprocessitselfanditsdurationNotesonthePresentPerfect:Typicaltimemarkerstoindicateanunfinishedperiodoftimeinclude:todaythisweekmonthyearoverthelastdaysweeksmonthsyearsrecentlynowTypicaltimemarkerstoindicateanactivitywhichstartedinthepastandcontinuestothepresentinclude:bfor(periodoftime),egforyearsSince(pointoftime),egsincebControlledpracticeAttheirnextmeeting,thethreepartnersofSoftsysdrewupaplanforthefutureorgaisationofthecompanyThentheydraftedamailshottoexistingsuppliersandcustomerstoexplainthechangesPuttheverbsinbracketsintothecorrectpresenttenseformSOFTSYSMicklegateYorkUKDearWe(write)totellyouaboutthereorganisationatSoftsysAsyou(know),we(trade)fortwoyearsnowand(establish)areputationasareliablelocalsupplierofbusinesssoftwareOntheonehand,therapidgrowthinourbusinessduringthisperiod(give)usverygoodresultsontheother,thisincreasedbusiness(nowplace)alotofpressureonourorganisationSo,we(currentlychange)thestructureofSoftsyssothatwecancontinuetoprovidethelevelofserviceandsupportthatyou,asavaluedcustomer,(expect)We(notplan)anymajorchangesthecompany(continue)tobeownedandrunbythethreepartnersHowever,wereview)ourrolesandthefollowingchanges(takeeffect)fromSeptemberOnthatdateAnnaMatthews(takeon)theroleofmanagingpartnerBrianGrave(takeover)allresponsibilityforclientaccountsPeterHutchinson(takecareof)purchasingYvonneMatthews(continue)asofficeassistantOfcourse,themostimportantaspectofourbusiness(be)clientcontactandwe(notchange)thewaywe(operate)onadaytodaybasisWe(lookforward)tocontinuingtomeetyourneedsOnbehalfofthepartnersAnnaMatthewsBrianGraverPeterHutchinsonAnnaMatthewsBrianGraverPeterHutchinsonWordstudyALookagainatthetextinManagementThemesWhichwordsorphrasesinthetexthavethefollowingmeaningstimewhentheworldwasmadearealatesttimebywhichanactivitymustbecompletedstepbysteparticlewhichcanbeboughtandsoldmakeadivisionbetweentwothingsworkveryhardtosalveaproblemunclearperiodoftimetimeorplacewhenjobscannotbecarriedout,usuallybecauseofotherpressuresterribleeventBNowcompletethefollowingtextbyputtingthewordinbracketsintothecorrectformVarioussystems(create)tohelpexecutivesmanagetheirtimebetterInfact,somewouldclaimthattheseproductshave(gradual)changedthewaysthatmanagersviewtimeHowever,atapracticallevelthesesystemsfacilitatethe(separate)ofessentialtasksfromnonessentialonesAlthoughtimemanagementcanbeausefulaid,ifcannotstop(catastrophe)events,suchasblackMondayKeytoControlledpracticearewritingknowhavebeentradinghaveestablishedhasgivenhasnowplacedisnowplacingarecurrentlychangingexpectdonotplanarenotplanningcontinueshavereviewedtakeeffecttakesonistakingontakesoveristakingovertakescareofistakingcareofcontinuesiscontinuingisarenotchangingoperatelookforwardarelookingforwardKeytoWordstudyAcreationtimewhentheworldwasmadezoneareadeadlinelatesttimebywhichanactivitymustbecompletedgradualstepbystepcommodityarticlewhichcanbeboughtandsoldseparatemakeadivisionbetweentwothingsgrapplewithworkveryhardtosalveaproblemmistunclearperiodoftimebottlenecktimeorplacewhenjobscannotbecarriedout,usuallybecauseofotherpressurescatastropheterribleeventcolorBhavebeencreatedgraduallyseparationcatastrophiccolorExercises翻译练习中译英()我担心这样下去我们都快垮了是我们掌握主动还是被生意牵着鼻子走迄今为止我们都凭直觉办事真想知道年后咱们所处的位置咱们领导小组不是平起平坐不搞等级观念吗不过还得推举一个来负责全局我看我们得试一下得分工不然早晚得累垮了()不要什么事都找我小事没必要商量我们工作压力已经很大不然迟早会累垮的我需要时间来研究怎样把钱用在刀刃上公司会计员需把购置的东西与发票对账手续需要简化我来起草一份公司主要职责表在办事处里传阅我们一定要分清各人的主要职责心脏次要的职责范围我们暂定下周二讨论回译练习注意使用现在时售货和售后服务P还有财务B对还有安装我希望每一个领域都有专人负责正像我们刚谈过的进货那样其余的人对那个领域负将要责任因此我建议由我列出主要领域或者说该做的主要工作下次会上我们再决定由谁主要负责我敢肯定这会大大简化我们的工作A那么我们讲座到哪儿了P一些工作回去做一些问题下次会上讲座另外什么时候开下次会A让我想想可不可以A我也认为我们不应制造等级但我仍认为如果我们选出一个合伙人由他控制全局对工作会有好处P对我想这不会影响我们之间的关系反而能使我们更有效地开展业务B嗯你们还没说服我但我愿意再听听你们的意见既然你们俩对此很热心何不准备一份文件来讲一下今后的管理结构和主管的任务A嗯我试一下准备一份草稿传阅一下然后在下次会上讨论B我们已谈了计划和管理问题现在讨论一下如何改进机构吧我认为我们应该考虑一下如何更好地完善组织机构A嗯选出董事肯定会有帮助B当然但我们应该也想一下各人自己的岗位P划分责任B对先划出我们每个人员的主要职责再划出相关的次要责任范围拿进货作例子我们需要购进大至机器小到插头的商品客户下订单后我们买进机器然后检查流动资金情况并和其他负责人商量A我们总不能买每一寸电缆都先进行讨论吧B正因为这样我们才需要一个人总体负责购货由这个人来进行核查以确保货物与发票相吻合简化体制对每个人都有好处补充阅读MidLevelRevolutionRecently,MrWangQifan,aprofessorofManagementatFudanUniversity,Shanghai,designedasetofnewtheoreticalmodelsforBaoshanIronandSteelCorporation,knownas“midlevelrevolution”ProfessorWangholdsthattheorganizationalstructurewithinamodernizedandnewenterpriseisnolongerthetraditional“armyhierarchy”stressingautho

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