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首页 新东方背诵文本.doc

新东方背诵文本.doc

新东方背诵文本.doc

上传者: yuxp1979 2010-03-25 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《新东方背诵文本doc》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含背诵篇章TheLanguageofMusicApainterhangshisorherfinishedpicturesonawall,andever符等。

背诵篇章TheLanguageofMusicApainterhangshisorherfinishedpicturesonawall,andeveryonecanseeitAcomposerwritesawork,butnoonecanhearituntilitisperformedProfessionalsingersandplayershavegreatresponsibilities,forthecomposerisutterlydependentonthemAstudentofmusicneedsaslongandasarduousatrainingtobecomeaperformerasamedicalstudentneedstobecomeadoctorMosttrainingisconcernedwithtechnique,formusicianshavetohavethemuscularproficiencyofanathleteoraballetdancerSingerspracticebreathingeveryday,astheirvocalchordswouldbeinadequatewithoutcontrolledmuscularsupportStringplayerspracticemovingthefingersofthelefthandupanddown,whiledrawingthebowtoandfrowiththerightarmtwoentirelydifferentmovementsSingersandinstrumentshavetobeabletogeteverynoteperfectlyintunePianistsaresparedthisparticularanxiety,forthenotesarealreadythere,waitingforthem,anditisthepianotuner’sresponsibilitytotunetheinstrumentforthemButtheyhavetheirowndifficultiesthehammersthathitthestringhavetobecoaxednottosoundlikepercussion,andeachoverlappingtonehastosoundclearThisproblemofgettingcleartextureisonethatconfrontsstudentconductors:theyhavetolearntoknoweverynoteofthemusicandhowitshouldsound,andtheyhavetoaimatcontrollingthesesoundwithfanaticalbutselflessauthorityTechniqueisofnouseunlessitiscombinedwithmusicalknowledgeandunderstandingGreatartistsarethosewhoaresothoroughlyathomeinthelanguageofmusicthattheycanenjoyperformingworkswritteninanycenturySchoolingandEducationItiscommonlybelievedinUnitedStatesthatschooliswherepeoplegotogetaneducationNevertheless,ithasbeensaidthattodaychildreninterrupttheireducationtogotoschoolThedistinctionbetweenschoolingandeducationimpliedbythisremarkisimportantEducationismuchmoreopenendedandallinclusivethanschoolingEducationknowsnoboundsItcantakeplaceanywhere,whetherintheshowerorinthejob,whetherinakitchenoronatractorItincludesboththeformallearningthattakesplaceinschoolsandthewholeuniverseofinformallearningTheagentsofeducationcanrangefromareveredgrandparenttothepeopledebatingpoliticsontheradio,fromachildtoadistinguishedscientistWhereasschoolinghasacertainpredictability,educationquiteoftenproducessurprisesAchanceconversationwithastrangermayleadapersontodiscoverhowlittleisknownofotherreligionsPeopleareengagedineducationfrominfancyonEducation,then,isaverybroad,inclusivetermItisalifelongprocess,aprocessthatstartslongbeforethestartofschool,andonethatshouldbeanintegralpartofone’sentirelifeSchooling,ontheotherhand,isaspecific,formalizedprocess,whosegeneralpatternvarieslittlefromonesettingtothenextThroughoutacountry,childrenarriveatschoolatapproximatelythesametime,takeassignedseats,aretaughtbyanadult,usesimilartextbooks,dohomework,takeexams,andsoonTheslicesofrealitythataretobelearned,whethertheyarethealphabetoranunderstandingoftheworkingofgovernment,haveusuallybeenlimitedbytheboundariesofthesubjectbeingtaughtForexample,highschoolstudentsknowthattherenotlikelytofindoutintheirclassesthetruthaboutpoliticalproblemsintheircommunitiesorwhatthenewestfilmmakersareexperimentingwithTherearedefiniteconditionssurroundingtheformalizedprocessofschoolingTheDefinitionof“Price”PricesdeterminehowresourcesaretobeusedTheyarealsothemeansbywhichproductsandservicesthatareinlimitedsupplyarerationedamongbuyersThepricesystemoftheUnitedStatesisacomplexnetworkcomposedofthepricesofalltheproductsboughtandsoldintheeconomyaswellasthoseofamyriadofservices,includinglabor,professional,transportation,andpublicutilityservicesTheinterrelationshipsofallthesepricesmakeupthe“system”ofpricesThepriceofanyparticularproductorserviceislinkedtoabroad,complicatedsystemofpricesinwhicheverythingseemstodependmoreorlessuponeverythingelseIfoneweretoaskagroupofrandomlyselectedindividualstodefine“price”,manywouldreplythatpriceisanamountofmoneypaidbythebuyertothesellerofaproductorserviceor,inotherwordsthatpriceisthemoneyvaluesofaproductorserviceasagreeduponinamarkettransactionThisdefinitionis,ofcourse,validasfarasitgoesForacompleteunderstandingofapriceinanyparticulartransaction,muchmorethantheamountofmoneyinvolvedmustbeknownBoththebuyerandthesellershouldbefamiliarwithnotonlythemoneyamount,butwiththeamountandqualityoftheproductorservicetobeexchanged,thetimeandplaceatwhichtheexchangewilltakeplaceandpaymentwillbemade,theformofmoneytobeused,thecredittermsanddiscountsthatapplytothetransaction,guaranteesontheproductorservice,deliveryterms,returnprivileges,andotherfactorsInotherwords,bothbuyerandsellershouldbefullyawareofallthefactorsthatcomprisethetotal“package”beingexchangedfortheaskedforamountofmoneyinorderthattheymayevaluateagivenpriceElectricityThemodernageisanageofelectricityPeoplearesousedtoelectriclights,radio,televisions,andtelephonesthatitishardtoimaginewhatlifewouldbelikewithoutthemWhenthereisapowerfailure,peoplegropeaboutinflickeringcandlelight,carshesitateinthestreetsbecausetherearenotrafficlightstoguidethem,andfoodspoilsinsilentrefrigeratorsYet,peoplebegantounderstandhowelectricityworksonlyalittlemorethantwocenturiesagoNaturehasapparentlybeenexperimentinginthisfieldformillionofyearsScientistsarediscoveringmoreandmorethatthelivingworldmayholdmanyinterestingsecretsofelectricitythatcouldbenefithumanityAlllivingcellsendouttinypulsesofelectricityAstheheartbeats,itsendsoutpulsesofrecordtheyformanelectrocardiogram,whichadoctorcanstudytodeterminehowwelltheheartisworkingThebrain,too,sendsoutbrainwavesofelectricity,whichcanberecordedinanelectroencephalogramTheelectriccurrentsgeneratedbymostlivingcellsareextremelysmall–oftensosmallthatsensitiveinstrumentsareneededtorecordthemButinsomeanimals,certainmusclecellshavebecomesospecializedaselectricalgeneratorsthattheydonotworkasmusclecellsatallWhenlargenumbersofthesecellarelinkedtogether,theeffectscanbeastonishingTheelectriceelisanamazingstoragebatteryItcanseedajoltofasmuchaseighthundredvoltsofelectricitythroughthewaterinwhichitlive(Anelectrichousecurrentisonlyonehundredtwentyvolts)Asmanyasfourfifthsofallthecellsintheelectriceel’sbodyarespecializedforgeneratingelectricity,andthestrengthoftheshockitcandelivercorrespondsroughlytolengthofitsbodyTheBeginningofDramaTherearemanytheoriesaboutthebeginningofdramainancientGreeceTheonmostwidelyacceptedtodayisbasedontheassumptionthatdramaevolvedfromritualTheargumentforthisviewgoesasfollowsInthebeginning,humanbeingsviewedthenaturalforcesoftheworldeventheseasonalchangesasunpredictable,andtheysoughtthroughvariousmeanstocontroltheseunknownandfearedpowersThosemeasureswhichappearedtobringthedesiredresultswerethenretainedandrepeateduntiltheyhardenedintofixedritualsEventuallystoriesarosewhichexplainedorveiledthemysteriesoftheritesAstimepassedsomeritualswereabandoned,butthestories,latercalledmyths,persistedandprovidedmaterialforartanddramaThosewhobelievethatdramaevolvedoutofritualalsoarguethatthoseritescontainedtheseedoftheaterbecausemusic,dance,masks,andcostumeswerealmostalwaysused,Furthermore,asuitablesitehadtobeprovidedforperformancesandwhentheentirecommunitydidnotparticipate,acleardivisionwasusuallymadebetweenthe"actingarea"andthe"auditorium"Inaddition,therewereperformers,and,sinceconsiderableimportancewasattachedtoavoidingmistakesintheenactmentofrites,religiousleadersusuallyassumedthattaskWearingmasksandcostumes,theyoftenimpersonatedotherpeople,animals,orsupernaturalbeings,andmimedthedesiredeffectsuccessinhuntorbattle,thecomingrain,therevivaloftheSunasanactormightEventuallysuchdramaticrepresentationswereseparatedfromreligiousactivitiesAnothertheorytracesthetheater'soriginfromthehumaninterestinstorytellingAccordingtothisviestales(aboutthehunt,war,orotherfeats)aregraduallyelaborated,atfirstthroughtheuseofimpersonation,action,anddialoguebyanarratorandthenthroughtheassumptionofeachoftherolesbyadifferentpersonAcloselyrelatedtheorytracestheatertothosedancesthatareprimarilyrhythmicalandgymnasticorthatareimitationsofanimalmovementsandsoundsTelevisionTelevisionthemostpervasiveandpersuasiveofmoderntechnologies,markedbyrapidchangeandgrowthismovingintoanewera,aneraofextraordinarysophisticationandversatility,whichpromisestoreshapeourlivesandourworldItisanelectronicrevolutionofsorts,madepossiblebythemarriageoftelevisionandcomputertechnologiesTheword"television",derivedfromitsGreek(tele:distant)andLatin(visio:sight)roots,canliterallybeinterpretedassightfromadistanceVerysimplyput,itworksinthisway:throughasophisticatedsystemofelectronics,televisionprovidesthecapabilityofconvertinganimage(focusedonaspecialphotoconductiveplatewithinacamera)intoelectronicimpulses,whichcanbesentthroughawireorcableTheseimpulses,whenfedintoareceiver(televisionset),canthenbeelectronicallyreconstitutedintothatsameimageTelevisionismorethanjustanelectronicsystem,howeverItisameansofexpression,aswellasavehicleforcommunication,andassuchbecomesapowerfultoolforreachingotherhumanbeingsThefieldoftelevisioncanbedividedintotwocategoriesdeterminedbyitsmeansoftransmissionFirst,thereisbroadcasttelevision,whichreachesthemassesthroughbroadbasedairwavetransmissionoftelevisionsignalsSecond,thereisnonbroadcasttelevision,whichprovidesfortheneedsofindividualsorspecificinterestgroupsthroughcontrolledtransmissiontechniquesTraditionally,televisionhasbeenamediumofthemassesWearemostfamiliarwithbroadcasttelevisionbecauseithasbeenwithusforaboutthirtysevenyearsinaformsimilartowhatexiststodayDuringthoseyears,ithasbeencontrolled,forthemostpart,bythebroadcastnetworks,ABC,NBC,andCBS,whohavebeenthemajorpurveyorsofnews,information,andentertainmentThesegiantsofbroadcastinghaveactuallyshapednotonlytelevisionbutourperceptionofitaswellWehavecometolookuponthepicturetubeasasourceofentertainment,placingourroleinthisdynamicmediumasthepassiveviewerAndrewCarnegieAndrewCarnegie,knownastheKingofSteel,builtthesteelindustryintheUnitedStates,and,intheprocess,becameoneofthewealthiestmeninAmericaHissuccessresultedinpartfromhisabilitytoselltheproductandinpartfromhispolicyofexpandingduringperiodsofeconomicdecline,whenmostofhiscompetitorswerereducingtheirinvestmentsCarnegiebelievedthatindividualsshouldprogressthroughhardwork,buthealsofeltstronglythatthewealthyshouldusetheirfortunesforthebenefitofsocietyHeopposedcharity,preferringinsteadtoprovideeducationalopportunitiesthatwouldallowotherstohelpthemselves"Hewhodiesrich,diesdisgraced,"heoftensaidAmonghismorenoteworthycontributionstosocietyarethosethatbearhisname,includingtheCarnegieInstituteofPittsburgh,whichhasalibrary,amuseumoffinearts,andamuseumofnationalhistoryHealsofoundedaschooloftechnologythatisnowpartofCarnegieMellonUniversityOtherphilanthrophicgiftsaretheCarnegieEndowmentforInternationalPeacetopromoteunderstandingbetweennations,theCarnegieInstituteofWashingtontofundscientificresearch,andCarnegieHalltoprovideacenterfortheartsFewAmericanshavebeenleftuntouchedbyAndrewCarnegie'sgenerosityHiscontributionsofmorethanfivemilliondollarsestablished,librariesinsmallcommunitiesthroughoutthecountryandformedthenucleusofthepubliclibrarysystemthatweallenjoytodayAmericanRevolutionTheAmericanRevolutionwasnotasuddenandviolentoverturningofthepoliticalandsocialframework,suchaslateroccurredinFranceandRussia,whenbothwerealreadyindependentnationsSignificantchangeswereusheredin,buttheywerenotbreathtakingWhathappenedwasacceleratedevolutionratherthanoutrightrevolutionDuringtheconflictitselfpeoplewentonworkingandpraying,marryingandplayingMostofthemwerenotseriouslydisturbedbytheactualfighting,andmanyofthemoreisolatedcommunitiesscarcelyknewthatawarwasonAmerica'sWarofIndependenceheraldedthebirthofthreemodernnationsOnewasCanada,whichreceiveditsfirstlargeinfluxofEnglishspeakingpopulationfromthethousandsofloyalistswhofledtherefromtheUnitedStatesAnotherwasAustralia,whichbecameapenalcolonynowthatAmericawasnolongeravailableforprisonersanddebtorsThethirdnewcomertheUnitedStatesbaseditselfsquarelyonrepublicanprinciplesYeteventhepoliticaloverturnwasnotsorevolutionaryasonemightsupposeInsomestates,notablyConnecticutandRhodeIsland,thewarlargelyratifiedacolonialselfrulealreadyexistingBritishofficials,everywhereousted,werereplacedbyahomegrowngoverningclass,whichpromptlysoughtalocalsubstituteforkingandParliamentSuburbanizationIfby"suburb"ismeantanurbanmarginthatgrowsmorerapidlythanitsalreadydevelopedinterior,theprocessofsuburbanizationbeganduringtheemergenceoftheindustrialcityinthesecondquarterofthenineteenthcenturyBeforethatperiodthecitywasasmallhighlycompactclusterinwhichpeoplemovedaboutonfootandgoodswereconveyedbyhorseandcartButtheearlyfactoriesbuiltinthe'swerelocatedalongwaterwaysandnearrailheadsattheedgesofcities,andhousingwasneededforthethousandsofpeopledrawnbytheprospectofemploymentIntime,thefactoriesweresurroundedbyproliferatingmilltownsofapartmentsandrowhousesthatabuttedtheolder,maincitiesAsadefenseagainstthisencroachmentandtoenlargetheirtaxbases,thecitiesappropriatedtheirindustrialneighborsIn,forexample,thecityofPhiladelphiaannexedmostofPhiladelphiaCountySimilarmunicipalmaneuverstookplaceinChicagoandinNewYorkIndeed,mostgreatcitiesoftheUnitedStatesachievedsuchstatusonlybyincorporatingthecommunitiesalongtheirbordersWiththeaccelerationofindustrialgrowthcameacuteurbancrowdingandaccompanyingsocialstressconditionsthatbegantoapproachdisastrousproportionswhen,in,thefirstcommerciallysuccessfulelectrictractionlinewasdevelopedWithinafewyearsthehorsedrawntrolleyswereretiredandelectricstreetcarnetworkscrisscrossedandconnectedeverymajorurbanarea,fosteringawaveofsuburbanizationthattransformedthecompactindustrialcityintoadispersedmetropolisThisfirstphaseofmassscalesuburbanizationwasreinforcedbythesimultaneousemergenceoftheurbanMiddleClass,whosedesiresforhomeownershipinneighborhoodsfarfromtheaginginnercityweresatisfiedbythedevelopersofsinglefamilyhousingtractsTypesofSpeechStandardusageincludesthosewordsandexpressionsunderstood,used,andacceptedbyamajorityofthespeakersofalanguageinanysituationregardlessofthelevelofformalityAssuch,thesewordsandexpressionsarewelldefinedandlistedinstandarddictionariesColloquialisms,ontheotherhand,arefamiliarwordsandidiomsthatareunderstoodbyalmostallspeakersofalanguageandusedininformalspeechorwriting,butnotconsideredappropriateformoreformalsituationsAlmostallidiomaticexpressionsarecolloquiallanguageSlang,however,referstowordsandexpressionsunderstoodbyalargenumberofspeakersbutnotacceptedasgood,formalusagebythemajorityColloquialexpressionsandevenslangmaybefoundinstandarddictionariesbutwillbesoidentifiedBothcolloquialusageandslangaremorecommoninspeechthaninwritingColloquialspeechoftenpassesintostandardspeechSomeslangalsopassesintostandardspeech,butotherslangexpressionsenjoymomentarypopularityfollowedbyobscurityInsomecases,themajorityneveracceptscertainslangphrasesbutneverthelessretainsthemintheircollectivememoriesEverygenerationseemstorequireitsownsetofwordstodescribefamiliarobjectsandeventsIthasbeenpointedoutbyanumberoflinguiststhatthreeculturalconditionsarenecessaryforthecreationofalargebodyofslangexpressionsFirst,theintroductionandacceptanceofnewobjectsandsituationsinthesocietysecond,adiversepopulationwithalargenumberofsubgroupsthird,associationamongthesubgroupsandthemajoritypopulationFinally,itisworthnotingthattheterms"standard""colloquial"and"slang"existonlyasabstractlabelsforscholarswhostudylanguageOnlyatinynumberofthespeakersofanylanguagewillbeawarethattheyareusingcolloquialorslangexpressionsMostspeakersofEnglishwill,duringappropriatesituations,selectanduseallthreetypesofexpressionsArchaeologyArchaeologyisasourceofhistory,notjustabumbleauxiliarydisciplineArchaeologicaldataarehistoricaldocumentsintheirownright,notmereillustrationstowrittentexts,Justasmuchasanyotherhistorian,anarchaeologiststudiesandtriestoreconstitutetheprocessthathascreatedthehumanworldinwhichweliveandusourselvesinsofarasweareeachcreaturesofourageandsocialenvironmentArchaeologicaldataareallchangesinthematerialworldresultingfromhumanactionor,moresuccinctly,thefossilizedresultsofhumanbehaviorThesumtotaloftheseconstituteswhatmaybecalledthearchaeologicalrecordThisrecordexhibitscertainpeculiaritiesanddeficienciestheconsequencesofwhichproducearathersuperficialcontrastbetweenarchaeologicalhistoryandthemorefamiliarkindbaseduponwrittenrecordsNotallhumanbehaviorfossilizesThewordsIutterandyouhearasvibrationsintheairarecertainlyhumanchangesinthematerialworldandmaybeofgreathistoricalsignificanceYettheyleavenosortoftraceinthearchaeologicalrecordsunlesstheyarecapturedbyadictaphoneorwrittendownbyaclerkThemovementoftroopsonthebattlefieldmay"changethecourseofhistory,"butthisisequallyephemeralfromthearchaeologist'sstandpointWhatisperhapsworse,mostorganicmaterialsareperishableEverythingmadeofwood,hide,wool,linen,grass,hair,andsimilarmaterialswilldecayandvanishindustinafewyearsorcenturies,saveunderveryexceptionalconditionsInarelati

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