关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 Language+of+Law+School.+Learning+to+Think+Like+a…

Language+of+Law+School.+Learning+to+Think+Like+a+Lawyer.pdf

Language+of+Law+School.+Learning…

天天 2010-03-25 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Language+of+Law+School.+Learning+to+Think+Like+a+Lawyerpdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含TheLanguageofLawSchoolThispageintentionallyleftblankTheLanguageofLawSchool符等。

TheLanguageofLawSchoolThispageintentionallyleftblankTheLanguageofLawSchoolLearningto“ThinkLikeaLawyer”ElizabethMertzOxfordUniversityPress,Inc,publishesworksthatfurtherOxfordUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanPolandPortugalSingaporeSouthKoreaSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamCopyrightbyOxfordUniversityPress,IncPublishedbyOxfordUniversityPress,IncMadisonAvenue,NewYork,NewYorkwwwoupcomOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofOxfordUniversityPressLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMertz,Elizabeth,JDThelanguageoflawschool:learningto“thinklikealawyer”ElizabethMertzpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(pbk)ISBNX(pbk)LawStudyandteachingUnitedStatesLawUnitedStatesMethodologyITitleKFM'dcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperFormydaughters,JennyandBeccaThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceThisisastudywhosegenesisdatesbacktothedayIfirsttookmyseatinaContractsclassroomasafirstyearlawstudent,andthatcametofruitionasIforthefirsttimetaughtContractstofirstyearlawstudentsHavingparticipatedinbothendsoftheprocesshasaddeddepthtomyunderstandingofthelawschoolexperienceAsafirstyearstudent,ItooknotesinmyContractsclassintwocolumnsthefirstkepttrackoftheconceptsmyprofessorwasendeavoringtoimpressonus,andthesecondwasarunninganthropologist’scommentaryonthestudiesthatsomeoneshoulddotoinvestigatethesocialandlinguisticprocessesatworkincontractlawandinlegalreasoninggenerallyThisworkisaninitialefforttoinvestigatethedistinctiveshapeofacoreUSlegalworldview,empiricallygroundedinthestudyofthelanguagethroughwhichlawstudentsaretrainedtothisnewapproachDuringthefirstyearoflawschool,studentsarereputedtoundergoatransformationinthoughtpatternsatransformationoftenreferredtoas“learningtothinklikealawyer”Professorsandstudentsaccomplishthispurportedtransformation,andprofessorsassessit,throughclassroomexchangesandexaminations,throughspokenandwrittenlanguageWhatmessagedoesthelanguageofthelawschoolclassroomconveyWhatdoesitmeanto“think”likealawyerIsthesamemessageconveyedindifferentkindsofschools,andwhenitisimpartedbyprofessorsofcolororbywhitewomenprofessors,andwhenitisreceivedbystudentsofdifferentraces,genders,andbackgroundsThisstudyaddressesthesequestions,usingfinegrainedempiricalresearchineightdifferentlawschoolsThispageintentionallyleftblankInafashionthatoughttopleasefollowersofCarolGilligan,IbegancomposingtheacknowledgmentstothisvolumelongbeforeIstartedthebookitselfThiswasbecauseIhaveatallpointsfeltdeeplyhowmuchtheworkdependsonawebofrelationships,onthecontributionsofsomanypeopletowhomIfeelprofoundlyindebtedBeforeIattempttodojusticetothisrichrelationalcontext,letmethanktwoinstitutions,theAmericanBarFoundationandtheSpencerFoundation,forthegenerousfundingthatmadethisprojectpossibleSomeofthematerialfromChapterisreprintedbypermissionofTheYaleJournalofLawandtheHumanities,Vol,pp–portionsofChapterappearedoriginallyinNaturalHistoriesofDiscourse,editedbyMichaelSilversteinandGregUrban(UniversityofChicagoPress,pp–byTheUniversityofChicagoAllrightsreserved)ChaptercontainsmaterialfromLanguageIdeologies:PracticeandTheory,editedbyBambiSchieffelin,KathrynWoolard,andPaulKroskrity(pp–,usedbypermissionofOxfordUniversityPressbyOxfordUniversityPress),aswellasmaterialthatisrevisedbypermissionfromDemocracyandEthnography:ConstructingIdentitiesinMulticulturalLiberalStates,editedbyCarolJGreenhouse(TheStateUniversityofNewYorkPress,pp–byStateUniversityofNewYorkAllrightsreserved)ThankstotheeditorswhoworkedonthesematerialswithmeaswellastothosewhohelpedwitharticlestowhichIretainedcopyrightandfromwhichIhavedrawninthisvolume,whichappearedintheJournalofLegalEducation():–(withWamuciiNjoguandSusanGooding),andtheJohnMarshallLawReview():–IamalsogratefultothemanycolleaguesanonymousreviewersaswellasmanywhoarenamedbelowwhohavereadandcommentedonpartsoforallofthemanuscriptGregMatoesianandStewartMacaulaygraciouslyprovidedthoroughreviewsofthelinguisticsandAcknowledgmentsxAcknowledgmentscontractlawdiscussionsanyerrorsthatremaindespitetheireffortsareofcoursemysoleresponsibilitySincerethanksalsotomywonderfulOUPeditorsIwishtobeginbyacknowledgingtheteameffortthatgoesintolargescaleresearchprojectsofthiskindIhaveonnumerousoccasionsreflectedwithsomedespairontheinadequacyofanymereacknowledgmenttoexpressmyappreciationtotheextraordinarilydedicatedgroupofresearcherswhoworkedonthisprojectReaderswhoknowthisfieldwillrecognizeamongthenamesonthislistgiftedscholarswhohavegoneontomakeoutstandingcontributionsintheirownrightDespitethesometimesdrearyandploddingcharacterofthework,everyonecarriedthrougheventhetoughermomentswithgraceandenergy,andwithasenseofcamaraderieandfellowshipIthankNancyMatthews,thefirstprojectmanager,forhervision,intellectualprecision,andgoodhumorindirectingthenittygrittydailyworkaswebegantheprocessofgainingaccess,taping,andformulatingcodingcategories,aswellasforherowncontributiontoinclasstapingandcodingofoneoftheclassesSusanGoodinghadthedifficulttaskoftakingoverasprojectmanagerinmidstream,ajobshetackledwithahighdegreeofcommitmentbothtothepeopleinvolvedandtotheprojectherinsightsandconceptualrigoralsogreatlyenrichedtheinterpretationoftheresultsastheyemergedWamuciiNjogu,whodirectedthebulkofthequantitativeanalysis,similarlyinsistedoncarefulandcriticalexaminationofthecodinganddataherflexibilityandintellectualcuriosityinworkingacrossquantitativeandqualitativeaspectsofthestudybroughtauniqueandexcitingdimensiontotheresultsAndaheartfeltthankstotheexceptionallytalentedindividualswhodidtheworkofcoding,insideandoutsideoftheclassrooms:JacquelineBaum,NahumChandler,JaninaFenigsen,LeahFeldman,ChristineGarza,CaroleeLarsen,MindieLazarusBlack,JerryLombardi,KayMohlman,RobertMoore,andShepleyOrrSteveNeufeld,CarlosdelaRosa,andTomMurphyworkedonthequantitativeanalysisThetiringtaskoftranscriptionwasundertakenwithcarebyDianeClay,LeahFeldman,andZellaColemanandhergroupIalsothankthe“subjects”ofthisresearch,theprofessorsandstudentsintheeightclassroomswestudiedInvitingresearcherswithtaperecordersandcodingsheetsintoone’sclassroomtakesguts,andtheprofessorswhodidsodeservecommendationfortheirwillingnesstotakesomerisksinordertohelpadvanceourunderstandingoftheteachingprocessHavingnowtaughtlawschoolclassesmyself,IhaveabetterappreciationofthecourageittooktoallowustoobserveandrecordintheirclassroomsIfeeldeeplygratefultotheAmericanBarFoundation,myhomesincetheprojectbeganandoneofthemajorfundingsourcesforthisresearchTheFoundationhasprovidedauniquelycongenialsettingforthiskindofwork,withoneofthepremiergroupsofsociolegalscholarsinthecountryIhaveenjoyedandlearnedfrommycolleaguesinthatcommunity,andIthankthemforprovidingsuchanencouragingandintellectuallyrichcontextinwhichtodoresearchIamparticularlygratefultothedirectoroftheFoundationduringthetimeofthisproject,BryantGarth,forsubstantialsupportandencouragement,andforthevisionofinterdisciplinarycommunitythathehashelpedtomakerealIowemuchtoallofmycolleagues,pastandpresent,attheABFfortheirincisivecritiquesandtheirhumor,Acknowledgmentsxiandaboveallfortheirexerciseofmaturity,reason,andcareinmanagingtheupsanddownsofinstitutionallifeForcolleagueshipaboveandbeyondthecallofduty,IthankCarolHeimerandBobNelson,eachofwhomindifferentwayshasprovidedhighlyvaluedsupportovermanyyearsnow,aswellasJohnComaroff,ShariDiamond,ChrisTomlins,MaryRose,WilliamFelstiner,SusanShapiro,LauraBethNielsen,KarylKinsey,TraceyMeares,BonnieHonig,AnneliseRiles,SteveDaniels,BetteSikes,andRozCaldwell,fromeachofwhoseexpertiseIhavedrawninspecificwaysAndJoanneMartin,ofcourseanindomitableforceattheheartoftheABFforyearsprovidedherowneagleeyeonournumbersaswellasunflaggingenthusiasmfortheprojectInthefinalstagesofpreparingthemanuscript,IwasveryfortunatetohavetheassistanceofMollyHeilerandStephanieLambertDuringtheconclusionoftheproject,IhadthegoodfortunetobeinvitedtojointhelegendarylawandsocietycommunityattheUniversityofWisconsinLawSchoolinMadison,forgenerationsaleaderamonglawschoolsinitsinsistenceonthestudyandteachingof“lawinaction”Ihavelearnedagreatdealfromtheperspectivesandscholarshipofmynewcolleagues,andfromtheirinsistenceonuncompromisingstandardsforbringingtogetherlegalandsocialscientificworkInparticular,IthankHowieErlangerandStewartMacaulayforsharingtheirinsightsonlawteachingandsociolegalstudiesaswellasfortheirstalwartfriendshipandsupport,JaneLarsonfortheongoingeducationIreceivefromourdiscussions,ArtMcEvoyforhisencouragementandcolleagueship,andagrowinglistofvaluedMadisoncompatriotsforallthatIamlearningfromthemaboutsociolegalinquiryOurdean,KenDavis,andassociatedeansAltaCharoandPeterCarstensenhavebeengenerousintheirpatienceandsupportasI’venegotiatedthecompletionofthisprojectacrossinstitutions(andstates!)Duringseveralyearsoftheproject,IheldinadditiontomyABFappointmentapositionattheNorthwesternUniversitySchoolofLaw,whereIhadalsobeenalawstudentMuchoftheinitialimpetusforthisstudycamefromsomeofmyobservationsasastudentatNorthwesternandfromtheinsightsofmyfellowstudentsthereInparticular,IwanttoremembermyclassmateCathyNovak,whoseexperiencesduringourfirstyearchallengedmetoaskmoreabouttheprocessoflegaleducationMygoodfriendsJoeMarguliesandJonathanTurleylearnedwithandtaughtmeabouttheproblemsandpossibilitiesofthelawschoolenvironment,asdidmanyotherfriends,includingmyArticlesOffice“family”:RickSander,KristaEdwards,SueTuiteKirkpatrick,andMarkChallengerAsmythirdyearresearchsupervisor,DavidVanZandtencouragedmyinitialinterestinthisprojectWhileaprofessoratNorthwestern,Ialsobenefitedfromtheintellectualinsightsandsupportoftheshortlivedbutproductive“FridayFaculty”group,includingmyfriendandcoauthorCynthiaBowman,JaneLarson,BobBurns,ClintFrancis,StephenGardbaum,RaySolomon,andLenRubinowitz(knowntogenerationsofNorthwesternlawstudentsandjuniorfaculty,includingme,asanexceptionallysupportivecolleagueandfriend)IwarmlythankMichaelPerryandKathyAbrams,fellowNUdepartees,forsharingtheirperspectivesindiscussionspertinenttothiswork,andanumberofothercolleaguesonwhomIleanedforinsightsandadvice,includingVicRosenblum,MarshallShapo,TheresaCropper,LauraLin,CharlotteCrane,HeleneShapo,DickSpeidel,JudyRosenbaum,andRonAllenxiiAcknowledgmentsTotheinspiringgroupsofstudentsinmyLawandLanguage,LawandAnthropology,LegalProcess,andLegalProfessionclassesatWisconsinandNorthwestern,mygratitudefortheirinvigoratingdiscussionsandresearchontopicspertinenttothisstudyIhavealsogainedfreshperspectivesfromthegraduatestudentswithwhomI’veworked,withparticularthankstoJonathanYovel,JasonFreitag,SusanGooding,MarkGoodale,ElizabethHoffman,MaudSchaafsma,andScottParrottOutsideofmyhomeinstitutions,IhavedrawnonawealthofknowledgeandsupportfromanetworkofcolleaguesfromwhomIhavebeensofortunatetolearn:MarthaFineman,scholarandmentorextraordinaire,towhomIoweaspecialdebtofgratitudeDavidWilkinsandJoyceSterling,my“legalprofession”buddiesMarthaMinow,whoprovidedinvaluablepracticalaidandencouragementattheoutsetoftheprojectandthegiftedgroupoflegalanthropologists,lawandsocietyscholars,andanthropologicallinguistsfromwhomIcontinuetolearn:CarolGreenhouse,GregMatoesian,SallyMerry,SusanHirsch,CharlesBriggs,MarianneConstable,SusanPhilips,DonBrenneis,BambiSchieffelin,JohnConley,MindieLazarusBlack,RossCheit,LisaFrohmann,andmanyothersIoweagreatdealofmytrajectoryasananthropologistoflanguagetomyearlyteachersatBrynMawrandDukeJudithShapiro,NancyDorian,JaneGoodale,FredericadeLaguna,VirginiaDomínguez,WilliamO’Barr,JimBoon,andLarryRosenaswellastothewonderfulgroupofscholarswhowerepartoftheCenterforPsychosocialStudiesnetworkduringthetimeIwasthereAndIwishtoacknowledgeaspecialdebttoMichaelSilverstein,onwhosepathbreakingworkinlinguisticanthropologyIhavedrawnheavilyIpausetoexpressparticularappreciationfortheexamplesetbymycolleagueJaneLarson,whosedignityandwhoseinsistenceonvaluesthatIrespect,particularlyregardinglawandlegaleducation,havepushedmeandotherstostandupforwhatwebelieve,atwhatevercostIalsoamgratefultoIanMacneilandMarshallShapo,conscientiousandsturdyvoicesindefenseofacademicfreedomatatimewhenmanyofusthoughtthatthisfreedomwasverymuchimperiledAtkeyturningpointstowardlawinmycareer,IwasfortunatetohavetheencouragementandsupportoftwogenerousseniormentorsIthankJudgeRichardCudahy,whohasstoodstronglyforavisionofjusticeinlawwhilealsoinsistingonmeticulousandrigorouslegalthought,foraclerkshipexperiencethatwasthehighestformoflegaleducationIalsothankBarneyWeissbourd,withwhomIcoauthoredtwoofmyearliestarticlesonlanguageandlawifitweren’tforourfriendlybutspiritedbattlesovertheproperinterpretationofHLAHart’swork,ImightneverhavedecidedtogotolawschoolFinally,IwanttoexpressmythankstootherfriendsandtofamilywhohavehelpedtomakethisworkpossibleTomymother,BarbaraMertz,aheartfeltthankyouforallyourhelpandsupportovertheyears,andforflyingintosleeponourcouchduringmylawschoolexamssothatIcouldstudyinpeaceknowingthatJennyhadtopofthelineattentionIamdeeplygratefulaswellfortherichnetworkoffriendswhosemanykindnesseshavegreatlyenrichedmylifeandthatofmyfamily,oftenprovidingthemissingpiecesweneededtokeepschedulesandlivesrunningsmoothly:Eva,Karen,Joe,Jim,Kathy,Carol,Jeanne,Dave,Laurie,AcknowledgmentsxiiiDean,Connie,Terry,MaryJo,andtherestoftheSkokieextendedfamilywhohavebeenpartofthe“village”thathashelpedtoraisemychildrenIwillalsoalwaysrememberwithappreciationandgreataffectiontheinvaluablesupportIreceivedfromKatherineShea,includinghertirelessrenditionsofIrishlullabiesformycolickynewbornBeccaasIstruggledinthattimetobalanceworkandfamilyAndtomychildren,JennyandBecca,Iowethedebtofallworkingmothersthattheyhavesharedmewithmywork,andthatmyconnectionwiththemcontinuallybringsrenewalandjoytomylifeBecca,bornafterIreceivedmyJD,knowsthelawschoolasoneoftheplaceswhereIwork,andsheisaveteranofmanyofficevisits,whichshehasweatheredwithcharacteristicgoodhumorandartisticcontributionsIhavelearnedfromheraboutresilienceandresourcefulnessinthefaceofchangeJennywastwoyearsoldwhenIbeganlawschool,andsheexperiencedmuchofitwithme,fromEstatesandTrustsclasstotheLawReviewofficeFromherearlywillingnesstolastthroughtheoccasionalLegalWritingclasstohercurrentvibrantconcernaboutpoliticsandinjustice,IhavelearnedalongsideandfromheraboutlawandsocietyIdedicatethisworktomydaughtersThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsNotesonTranscriptionxviiIINTRODUCTIONEnteringtheWorldofUSLawLaw,Language,andtheLawSchoolClassroomStudyDesign,Methodology,andProfileIISIMILARITY:LEGALEPISTEMOLOGYLearningtoReadLikeaLawyer:Text,Context,andLinguisticIdeologyEpistemologyandTeachingStyles:DifferentForms,SameMessageOnBecomingaLegalPerson:IdentityandtheSocialContextofLegalEpistemologyIIIDIFFERENCE:SOCIALSTRUCTUREINLEGALPEDAGOGYProfessorialStyleinContextStudentParticipationandSocialDifference:Race,Gender,Status,andContextinLawSchoolClassesIVCONCLUSION:READING,TALKING,ANDTHINKINGLIKEALAWYERLegalLanguageandAmericanLaw:Authority,Morality,andLinguisticIdeologyNotesBibliographyIndexThispageintentionallyleftblank()Numbersinparenthesesindicatelengthofturn(here,oneminuteandtwoandahalfseconds)Turnsaremeasuredto,orhalfofasecond()EncloseddotindicatesaveryshortuntimedpauseParallellinesindicateoverlappingspeechlaughterDoublebracketsindicatebackchannelsounds,laughter,etc(Occasionallybackchannelcommentsareindicatedthiswayforeaseofreadingmoreusuallytheyareindicatedusingparallellinestomarkoverlappingbackchannels)emphasisUnderliningindicatesemphaticstress()SingleparenthesesindicateinaudibleorbarelyaudiblespeechsaysnameItalicizedmaterialinitalicizedbracketsisdescriptivecommentary,summariesofomittedportions,andmetacommentaryfromEMregardingtranscript,aswellasparaphrasesandsubstituteswherenecessarytoprotectconfidentialityEllipsesinitalicizedbracketsindicateomittedmaterial*oh*((*sarcastically*))Italicizedmaterialindoubleparenthesesdescribesaspectsofspeechdelivery(intonation,etc)asterisksmarktherelevanttranscriptpassageYouHyphenindicatesacutoff,usuallyonethatisturninternalIyouParalleldashesrefertocoordinatedspeech,whereonespeakerstopsbeforefinishinganutterance,andanotherspeakerbeginsspeakingsmoothlyimmediatelythereafter(ie,

用户评论(0)

0/200

精彩专题

上传我的资料

每篇奖励 +1积分

资料评分:

/49
仅支持在线阅读

意见
反馈

立即扫码关注

爱问共享资料微信公众号

返回
顶部

举报
资料