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Richard_Dawkins_-_The_Oxford_Book_of_Modern_Science_Writing.pdf

Richard_Dawkins_-_The_Oxford_Bo…

上传者: mayaoguangtc 2010-03-25 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Richard_Dawkins_-_The_Oxford_Book_of_Modern_Science_Writingpdf》,可适用于考试题库领域,主题内容包含TheOxfordBookofMODERNSCIENCEWRITINGThispageintentionallyleftblankTheOxford符等。

TheOxfordBookofMODERNSCIENCEWRITINGThispageintentionallyleftblankTheOxfordBookofMODERNSCIENCEWRITINGRICHARDDAWKINSGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordoxdpOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanPolandPortugalSingaporeSouthKoreaSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYorkIntroduction,selectionandcommentaryRichardDawkinsThemoralrightsoftheauthorhavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethesameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDataavailableTypesetbySPIPublisherServices,Pondicherry,IndiaPrintedinGreatBritainonacidfreepaperbyClaysLtd,StIvesplcISBN––––ForCharlesSimonyi,wholovesscience,loveslanguage,andunderstandshowtoputthemtogetherThispageintentionallyleftblankCONTENTSxiFeaturedWritersandExtractsxviiIntroductionPARTIWhatScientistsStudyJamesJeansfromTHEMYSTERIOUSUNIVERSEMartinReesfromJUSTSIXNUMBERSPeterAtkinsfromCREATIONREVISITEDHelenaCroninfromTHEANTANDTHEPEACOCKRAFisherfromTHEGENETICALTHEORYOFNATURALSELECTIONTheodosiusDobzhanskyfromMANKINDEVOLVINGGCWilliamsfromADAPTATIONANDNATURALSELECTIONFrancisCrickfromLIFEITSELFMattRidleyfromGENOMESydneyBrenner‘THEORETICALBIOLOGYINTHETHIRDMILLENNIUM’SteveJonesfromTHELANGUAGEOFTHEGENESJBSHaldanefrom‘ONBEINGTHERIGHTSIZE’MarkRidleyfromTHEEXPLANATIONOFORGANICDIVERSITYJohnMaynardSmith‘THEIMPORTANCEOFTHENERVOUSSYSTEMINTHEEVOLUTIONOFANIMALFLIGHT’FredHoylefromMANINTHEUNIVERSED’ArcyThompsonfromONGROWTHANDFORMGGSimpsonfromTHEMEANINGOFEVOLUTIONRichardForteyfromTRILOBITE!ColinBlakemorefromTHEMINDMACHINERichardGregoryfromMIRRORSINMINDNicholasHumphrey‘ONESELF:AMEDITATIONONTHEUNITYOFCONSCIOUSNESS’StevenPinkerfromTHELANGUAGEINSTINCTandHOWTHEMINDWORKSviiiCONTENTSJaredDiamondfromTHERISEANDFALLOFTHETHIRDCHIMPANZEEDavidLackfromTHELIFEOFTHEROBINNikoTinbergenfromCURIOUSNATURALISTSRobertTriversfromSOCIALEVOLUTIONAlisterHardyfromTHEOPENSEARachelCarsonfromTHESEAAROUNDUSLorenEiseleyfrom‘HOWFLOWERSCHANGEDTHEWORLD’EdwardOWilsonfromTHEDIVERSITYOFLIFEPARTIIWhoScientistsAreArthurEddingtonfromTHEEXPANDINGUNIVERSECPSnowfromtheForewordtoGHHardy’sAMATHEMATICIAN’SAPOLOGYFreemanDysonfromDISTURBINGTHEUNIVERSEJRobertOppenheimerfrom‘WARANDTHENATIONS’MaxFPerutz‘APASSIONFORCRYSTALS’BarbaraandGeorgeGamow‘SAIDRYLETOHOYLE’JBSHaldane‘CANCER’SAFUNNYTHING’JacobBronowskifromTHEIDENTITYOFMANPeterMedawarfrom‘SCIENCEANDLITERATURE,‘DARWIN’SILLNESS’,‘THEPHENOMENONOFMAN’,thepostscriptto‘LUCKYJIM’,and‘D’ARCYTHOMPSONANDGROWTHANDFORM’JonathanKingdonfromSELFMADEMANRichardLeakeyandRogerLewinfromORIGINSRECONSIDEREDDonaldCJohansonandMaitlandAEdeyfromLUCYStephenJayGould‘WORMFORACENTURY,ANDALLSEASONS’JohnTylerBonnerfromLIFECYCLESOliverSacksfromUNCLETUNGSTENLewisThomas‘SEVENWONDERS’JamesWatsonfromAVOIDBORINGPEOPLEFrancisCrickfromWHATMADPURSUITLewisWolpertfromTHEUNNATURALNATUREOFSCIENCEJulianHuxleyfromESSAYSOFABIOLOGISTAlbertEinstein‘RELIGIONANDSCIENCE’CarlSaganfromTHEDEMONHAUNTEDWORLDPARTIIIWhatScientistsThinkRichardFeynmanfromTHECHARACTEROFPHYSICALLAWErwinSchrödingerfromWHATISLIFEDanielDennettfromDARWIN’SDANGEROUSIDEAandCONSCIOUSNESSEXPLAINEDErnstMayrfromTHEGROWTHOFBIOLOGICALTHOUGHTGarrettHardinfrom‘THETRAGEDYOFTHECOMMONS’WDHamiltonfromGEOMETRYFORTHESELFISHHERDandNARROWROADSOFGENELANDPerBakfromHOWNATUREWORKSMartinGardnerTHEFANTASTICCOMBINATIONSOFJOHNCONWAY’SNEWSOLITAIREGAME‘LIFE’LancelotHogbenfromMATHEMATICSFORTHEMILLIONIanStewartfromTHEMIRACULOUSJARClaudeEShannonandWarrenWeaverfromTHEMATHEMATICALTHEORYOFCOMMUNICATIONAlanTuringfromCOMPUTINGMACHINERYANDINTELLIGENCEAlbertEinsteinfrom‘WHATISTHETHEORYOFRELATIVITY’GeorgeGamowfromMRTOMPKINSPaulDaviesfromTHEGOLDILOCKSENIGMARussellStannardfromTHETIMEANDSPACEOFUNCLEALBERTBrianGreenefromTHEELEGANTUNIVERSEStephenHawkingfromABRIEFHISTORYOFTIMEPARTIVWhatScientistsDelightInSChandrasekharfromTRUTHANDBEAUTYGHHardyfromAMATHEMATICIAN’SAPOLOGYStevenWeinbergfromDREAMSOFAFINALTHEORYCONTENTSixxCONTENTSLeeSmolinfromTHELIFEOFTHECOSMOSRogerPenrosefromTHEEMPEROR’SNEWMINDDouglasHofstadterfromGÖDEL,ESCHER,BACH:THEETERNALGOLDENBRAIDJohnArchibaldWheelerwithKennethFordfromGEONS,BLACKHOLES,ANDQUANTUMFOAMDavidDeutschfromTHEFABRICOFREALITYPrimoLevifromTHEPERIODICTABLERichardForteyfromLIFE:ANUNAUTHORIZEDBIOGRAPHYGeorgeGaylordSimpsonfromTHEMEANINGOFEVOLUTIONLorenEiseleyfromLITTLEMENANDFLYINGSAUCERSCarlSaganfromPALEBLUEDOTAcknowledgementsIndexFEATUREDWRITERSANDEXTRACTSAtkins,Peter(–)ChemistandwriterExtractfromCreationRevisited,Penguin,Bak,Per(–)TheoreticalphysicistHowNatureWorks,OUP,Blakemore,Colin(–)NeurobiologistSightUnseen,BBCbooks,Bonner,JohnTyler(–)BiologistLifeCycles:ReflectionsofanEvolutionaryBiologist,PrincetonUniversityPress,Brenner,Sydney(–)BiologistandNobellaureate‘TheoreticalBiologyintheThirdMillennium’,PhilTransRSocLondB,,–,Bronowski,Jacob(–)MathematicianandbroadcasterTheIdentityofMan,Prometheus,FirstpublishedCarson,Rachel(–)MarinebiologistandnaturalhistorywriterTheSeaAroundUs,OUP,FirstpublishedChandrasekhar,S(–)AstrophysicistandNobellaureateTruthandBeauty,UniversityofChicagoPress,Crick,Francis(–)MolecularbiologistandNobellaureateWhatMadPursuit,BasicBooksInc,,andLifeItself,MacdonaldandCo,Cronin,Helena(–)PhilosopherofbiologyTheAntandthePeacock,CambridgeUniversityPress,Davies,Paul(–)CosmologistandsciencewriterTheGoldilocksEnigma,AllenLane,Dennett,DanielC(–)PhilosopherConsciousnessExplained,Penguin,andDarwin’sDangerousIdea,Penguin,Deutsch,David(–)PhysicistFabricofReality,Penguin,Diamond,Jared(–)Evolutionarybiologist,biogeographerandwriterTheRiseandFalloftheThirdChimpanzee,Vintage,Dobzhansky,Theodosius(–)GeneticistandevolutionarybiologistMankindEvolving,YaleUniversityPress,Dyson,Freeman(–)PhysicistandmathematicianDisturbingtheUniverse,PanBooks,Eddington,SirArthur(–)AstrophysicistTheExpandingUniverse,CambridgePenguin,Edey,MaitlandA(–)SciencewriterandconservationistDonaldCJohansonandMaitlandAEdey,Lucy:TheBeginningsofHumankind,Penguin,FirstpublishedEinstein,Albert(–)TheoreticalphysicistandNobellaureateReprintedinIdeasandOpinions,WingsBooks,‘Whatisthetheoryofrelativity’publishedinTheLondonTimes,‘ReligionandScience’publishedintheNewYorkTimesMagazine,Eiseley,Loren(–)Anthropologist,ecologistandwriter‘HowFlowersChangedtheWorld’and‘LittleMenandFlyingSaucers’,inTheImmenseJourney,Vintage,Feynman,RichardP(–)TheoreticalphysicistandNobellaureateTheCharacterofPhysicalLaw,Penguin,Fisher,SirRonald(–)Statistician,evolutionarybiologistandgeneticistTheGeneticalTheoryofNaturalSelection,OUP,Ford,Kenneth(–)PhysicistJohnArchibaldWheelerandKennethFord,Geons,BlackHolesandQuantumFoam:alifeinphysics,WWNorton,Fortey,Richard(–)PalaeontologistTrilobite!,Flamingo,OriginallypublishedLife:anUnauthorisedBiography,Flamingo,Gamow,George(–)TheoreticalphysicistandcosmologistMrTompkinsinPaperback,CambridgeUniversityPress,MrTomkinsinWonderlandfirstpublishedGardner,Martin(–)MathematicsandScienceWriter‘MathematicalGames’column,ScientificAmerican,OctoberGould,StephenJay(–)Palaeontologist,evolutionarybiologistandwriter‘WormforaCenturyandAllSeasons’,inHen’sTeethandHorse’sToes,WWNortonCo,Greene,Brian(–)TheoreticalPhysicistTheElegantUniverse,Vintage,Gregory,Richard(–)NeuropsychologistMirrorsinMind,WHFreemanCoLtd,Haldane,JBS(–)GeneticistandevolutionarybiologistOnBeingtheRightSizeandOtherEssays,OxfordUniversityPress,,formerlypublishedinPossibleWorldsandOtherEssays,ChattoWindus,‘Cancer’saFunnyThing’,NewStatesman,Hamilton,WD(–)Evolutionarybiologist‘GeometryfortheSelfishHerd’,JournalofTheoreticalBiology,,–,reprintedinNarrowRoadsofGeneLand,VolWHFreeman,xiiFEATUREDWRITERSANDEXTRACTSHardin,Garrett(–)Ecologist‘TheTragedyoftheCommons’,Science,,No,–,Hardy,Alister(–)MarinebiologistTheOpenSea:ItsNaturalHistory,Part:TheWorldofPlanktonCollins,FirstpublishedHardy,GH(–)MathematicianAMathematician’sApology,CambridgeUniversityPress,FirstpublishedHawking,Stephen(–)TheoreticalphysicistABriefHistoryofTime,BantamBooks,Hofstadter,DouglasR(–)Cognitivescientist,philosopher,polymath,PulitzerPrizewinningauthorGodel,Escher,Bach,BasicBooks,Hogben,Lancelot(–)ZoologistandstatisticianMathematicsfortheMillion,Norton,OriginallypublishedHoyle,Fred(–)AstronomerandwriterManintheUniverse,ColumbiaUniversityPress,Humphrey,Nicholas(–)Psychologist‘OneSelf’,inTheMindMadeFlesh,OxfordUniversityPress,FirstpublishedinSocialResearch,,–,Huxley,Julian(–)EvolutionarybiologistEssaysofaBiologist,ChattoWindus,FirstpublishedJeans,James(–)Physicist,astronomerandmathematicianTheMysteriousUniverse,CambridgeUniversityPress,Johanson,DonaldC(–)PalaeoanthropologistDonaldCJohansonandMaitlandAEdey,Lucy:TheBeginningsofHumankind,Penguin,Jones,Steve(–)GeneticistandwriterTheLanguageofGenes,Flamingo,Kingdon,Jonathan(–)Biologist,artist,andwriterBeforetheWiseMen,SimonandSchuster,Lack,David(–)OrnithologistTheLifeoftheRobin,Collins,Leakey,Richard(–)PalaeoanthropologistandconservationistRichardLeakeyandRogerLewin,OriginsReconsidered,Little,Brown,Levi,Primo(–)ChemistandwriterThePeriodicTable,PenguinClassics,Thistranslation,byRaymondRosenthal,firstpublishedbyShockenBooks,Lewin,RogerAnthropologistandsciencewriterRichardLeakeyandRogerLewin,OriginsReconsidered,Little,Brown,MaynardSmith,John(–)EvolutionarybiologistandgeneticistOnEvolution,EdinburghUniversityPress,Mayr,Ernst(–)EvolutionarybiologistTheGrowthofBiologicalThought,HarvardUniversityPress,Medawar,PeterB(–)Medicalscientistandwriter,Nobellaureate‘ScienceandLiterature’fromTheHopeofProgress,WildwoodHouse,FEATUREDWRITERSANDEXTRACTSxiii‘Darwin’sIllness’,‘ThePhenomenonofMan’,andthepostscriptto‘LuckyJim’fromTheStrangeCaseoftheSpottedMice,OxfordUniversityPress,‘D’ArcyThompsonandGrowthandForm’fromTheArtoftheSoluble,Penguin,Oppenheimer,JRobert(–)TheoreticalphysicistTheFlyingTrapeze:threecrisisforphysicists,OxfordUniversityPress,Penrose,Roger(–)MathematicalPhysicistTheEmperor’sNewMind,OxfordUniversityPress,Perutz,Max(–)Molecularbiologist‘APassionforCrystals’,inIWishI’dMadeYouAngryEarlier,OxfordUniversityPress,FirstpublishedasanobituaryinTheIndependent,Pinker,Steven(–)Psychologist,cognitivescientistandwriterHowTheMindWorks,AllenLane,andTheLanguageInstinct,AllenLane,Rees,Martin(–)CosmologistandwriterJustSixNumbers,Phoenix,Ridley,Mark(–)ZoologistandsciencewriterTheExplanationofOrganicDiversity,ClarendonPress,Ridley,Matt(–)ZoologistandsciencewriterGenome,FourthEstate,Sacks,Oliver(–)NeurologistandwriterUncleTungsten,Picador,Sagan,Carl(–)AstronomerandwriterPaleBlueDot,Ballantine,Schrodinger,Erwin(–)PhysicistandNobellaureateWhatisLife,CambridgeUniversityPress,FirstpublishedShannon,Claude(–)ElectricalengineerandmathematicianClaudeShannonandWarrenWeaver,TheMathematicalTheoryofCommunication,UniversityofIllinoisPress,OriginallypublishedSimpson,GeorgeGaylord(–)PalaeontologistMeaningofEvolution,YaleUniversityPress,FirstpublishedSmolin,Lee(–)TheoreticalphysicistTheLifeoftheCosmos,Phoenix,Snow,CP(–)PhysicistandnovelistGHHardy’sAMathematician’sApology(Foreword),CambridgeUniversityPress,Stannard,Russell(–)PhysicistandwriterTheTimeandSpaceofUncleAlbert,FaberandFaber,Stewart,Ian(–)MathematicianandwriterFromHeretoInfinity,OxfordUniversityPress,FirstpublishedasTheProblemsofMathematics,Thomas,Lewis(–)PhysicianandessayistLateNightThoughts,OxfordUniversityPress,FirstpublishedThompson,D’ArcyWentworth(–)BiologistandclassicistOnGrowthandForm,CambridgeUniversityPress,OriginalcompleteworkpublishedTinbergen,Niko(–)Ethologist,ornithologistandNobellaureateCuriousNaturalists,CountryLife,xivFEATUREDWRITERSANDEXTRACTSTrivers,Robert(–)EvolutionarybiologistSocialEvolution,BenjaminCummingsPublishingCo,Turing,Alan(–)MathematicianComputingMachineryandIntelligence,Mind,,Watson,James(–)MolecularbiologistandNobellaureateAvoidBoringPeople,OxfordUniversityPress,Weaver,Warren(–)MathematicianandscientistClaudeShannonandWarrenWeaver,TheMathematicalTheoryofCommunication,UniversityofIllinoisPress,OriginallypublishedWeinberg,Steven(–)TheoreticalphysicistandNobellaureateDreamsofaFinalTheory,Vintage,Wheeler,JohnArchibald(–)TheoreticalphysicistJohnArchibaldWheelerandKennethFord,Geons,BlackHolesandQuantumFoam,WWNorton,Williams,GeorgeC(–)EvolutionarybiologistAdaptationandNaturalSelection,PrincetonUniversityPress,Wilson,EdwardO(–)BiologistTheDiversityofLife,Penguin,Wolpert,Lewis(–)DevelopmentalbiologistandwriterTheUnnaturalNatureofScience,FaberandFaber,FEATUREDWRITERSANDEXTRACTSxvThispageintentionallyleftblankINTRODUCTIONMyintroductoryremarksaredistributedthroughthebookitself,soIshallherelimitmyselfmostlytoacknowledgementsTheideaforananthologyofmodernsciencewritingwasputtomebyLathaMenonofOxfordUniversityPress,anditwasapleasuretoworkwithheronitSheandIhadpreviouslycollaboratedonacollectionofmyownoccasionalwritings,andweslippedeffortlesslybackintothesamesynopticveinasbeforeWedisagreedonlyoverwhetherornottoincludeanythingfrommyownbooksIwon,andwedidn’tThisisacollectionofgoodwritingbyprofessionalscientists,notexcursionsintosciencebyprofessionalwritersAnotherdifferencefromJohnCarey’sadmirableFaberBookofScienceisthatwegobackonlyonecenturyWithinthatcentury,noattemptwasmadetoarrangethepieceschronologicallyInstead,theselectionsfallroughlyintofourthemes,althoughsomeoftheentriescouldhavefittedintomorethanoneofthesedivisionsMybiggestregretconcernsthenumberofexcellentscientiststhatIhavehadtoleaveout,forreasonsofspaceIwouldapologizetothem,didInotsuspectthatmyownpainattheiromissionisgreaterthantheirsThecollectionislimitedtotheEnglishlanguageand,withveryfewexceptions,IhaveomittedtranslationsfrombooksoriginallycomposedinotherlanguagesMywife,LallaWard,hasagainlentherfinelytunedearfortheEnglishlanguage,togetherwithherunfailingencouragementIremaindeeplygratefultoherIhavelongwantedtodedicateabooktoCharlesSimonyi,butIwasanxioustobeclearthatitwasadedicationtohimasanindividualandfriend,ratherthanasthemunificentbenefactoroftheOxfordprofessorshipinPublicUnderstandingofSciencethatIholdNow,intheyearofmyretirement,itfinallyseemsappropriatetoofferthisvolumetohimasapersonalfriend,whileatthesametimeconveyingOxford’sgratitudetoamajorbenefactorthroughabookpublishedbytheUniversityPressCharlesSimonyiisasortofcombinationofInternationalRenaissanceMan,PlayboyoftheScientificWorld,TestPilotoftheIntellect,andSpaceageOrbiteroftheMindaswellasofthePlanetAlthoughmostofthewordsinananthologybelongtoothers,Ihopethatmyloveofscienceandofwriting,whichCharlessharesandwhichhegenerouslychoseto

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