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首页 雅思写作 外教总结 IELTS Writing

雅思写作 外教总结 IELTS Writing.pdf

雅思写作 外教总结 IELTS Writing

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2010-03-25 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《雅思写作 外教总结 IELTS Writingpdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

INTERMEDIATE–ADVANCEDtexttexttexttextwritecomwritecomwritecomwritecomHowtowriteIELTSEssaysbyROBERTLEWISMALINGUISTICShowtousethisbookforselfstudyForselfstudy,youshouldworkthroughthebook,frompageonetotheend,checkingyouranswersasyoucompleteeachoftheexercisesBeginbyreadingtheIntroductionandlearnabouttheessayform,thekeystagesandthelanguagefeaturesoftheessaythatareimportantforthisformofpersuasivecommunicationWhatisthebestwaytostudyFirst,findaquietandcomfortableplacewhereyoucanworkYoushouldfeelgoodworkingthereDoaminimumofminuteseachdayTrytomakearegulartimeforstudy,sothatitbecomesroutinethesametimeandplaceeverydayYouwillneedadictionarytocheckthemeaningofnewvocabularyAtthislevel(advanced)youshoulduseanAdvancedLearnersdictionaryofEnglishratherthanabilingualdictionaryWheneveryoufindcommonorfamiliarexpressionsthatyoudon’tknow,learnthesewordsfirstTheyarethe“buildingblocks”forthemoredifficultvocabularyyouwilllearnlaterDevelopyourvocabulary,stepbystepThebestwaytolearnnewwordsistoguesstheirmeaningfromthecontext,checkthemeaninginadictionary,andpracticeusingtheminyourwritingThetopicsinthisbookaregeneraltopicsselectedtohelpdevelopyouracademicvocabularyYoushouldalsoreadwidelyandbecomefamiliarwithothertopicsandissuesItisagoodideatoreadabouttopicsthatarelessfamiliartoyou,butstillrelevantforageneralEnglishtest,liketheIELTSWhatelsecanIdoBycompletingalltheexercisesinthisbook,youaretakingpositivestepstowardsachievingyourgoalsRemembereverypagecompletedisagiantsteptowardachievingsuccessinessaywritingFindafriendwhowillpracticespeakingEnglishwithyouanddiscusstogetherthetopicsandissuesthatyoureadaboutinthisbookOfcourse,anEnglishteacherwillbehelpfulwhenyouneedtohaveyouressayscorrectedandgetadviceaboutanyerrorsyoumightbemakinginyourwritingAttheendofeachchapterthereisachecklistofthingstolookforinyourwritingCheckthatyouhavedoneallthesethings,and,ifyouneedto,makechangesandcorrectionsFinally,itisadvisabletoattemptthesampleessayquestionsprovidedattheendofeachchapterBycompletingalltheexercisesinthisbook,youaretakingpositivestepstowardsachievingyourgoalsRemembereverypagecompletedisagiantsteptowardachievingsuccessinessaywritingwwwtextwritecom©copyrightRobertLewistermsabbreviationsalternativeegxy=(x)OR(y)claimtosaywithoutproofevidencesomethingistruecontextsituationandcircumstancesdiffdifferentdiscuss()talkabout,()considertwoormoresideseg–exampleessaytypeofpersuasivewrittentextetc–etcetera:andsoonexpositionfactualwritingegexplanation,argument,etcexamexaminationformallanguage–impersonallanguageusedinformalsituationsgaps–spaceswherewordsaremissinggenretypeoftextegrecount,narrative,expositionie–thatisIELTSInternationalEnglishLanguageTestingSystemintrointroductionLleftmatchputtogether,linknonumberpracticepurposefulactivitypropositionastatementorclaimthatmaybetruepwperweekQquestionoressayquestionRrightrerefreferencetoconcerningaboutrecommendationfinalsuggestion,advicerecountretellingofpastevents,storyaboutpeoplestructureform,organizationintostagesorstepsstrategy–awayofdoingst,amethodortechniquesosomeonestsomethingtextawrittenpassage,sometimestranscribedspokenviathroughvizsuchaswwwtextwritecom©copyrightRobertLewiscontentsINTRODUCTIONTheEssayTOPIC:LANGUAGELEARNINGReadingVocabularyGrammar:BeLogicalWritingpracticeReview,checklist,samplequestionsTOPIC:WORKANDLEISUREReadingVocabularyGrammar:BeAuthoritativeWritingpracticeReview,checklist,samplequestionsTOPIC:THEENVIRONMENTReadingVocabularyGrammar:ReasonWritingpracticeReview,checklist,samplequestionsTOPIC:TVCOMPUTERGAMESReadingVocabularyGrammar:BeCohesiveWritingpracticeReview,checklist,samplequestionsTOPIC:SCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYReadingVocabularyGrammar:SoundReasonableWritingpracticeReview,checklist,samplequestionsANSWERSwwwtextwritecom©copyrightRobertLewisintroductionWhatisanessayTheessayisaformofacademicwritingwidelyusedinsecondaryandhighereducationThegeneralpurposeoftheessayistodemonstratetheimportanceofagivensubjectorissue,andpersuadeaneducatedreadertoconsiderthewriter’spointofviewontheissueWhatisanexamessayWhatdotheyexamineExamessays,liketheIELTSTask,testastudent’sabilitytothinkanalytically,presentpersuasiveargumentsandthuscommunicateeffectivelyinanacademiccontextInotherwords,thewritershouldshowthattheycan:answerthequestion,whichrequiresthecarefulanalysisofthequestion,presentanddeveloplogicalandreasonablearguments,andcommunicateclearly,usingappropriatelanguage(vocabularyandgrammar)WhatarethekeystagesofanessayItisimportanttorememberthattheexamessayisaresponsetoagivenquestion,soitshouldanswerthequestionclearlyanddecisivelyTothisend,thewritermakestheirpositionclearfromthestart,andthenpresentsasequenceofargumentsinsupportoftheirposition,beforefinallyrestatingtheirpositionThesearethethreekeystagesofanyessayKEYSTAGESINTRODUCTIONPositionThewriterstatestheirpositionoropinion,inresponsetothequestionsBODYSequenceofArgumentsAsequenceofargumentsisgiventosupportthewriter’spositionEachargumentisaclaimsupportedwithreasons,factsandexamplesCONCLUSIONRestatementThewriterrestatestheirpositiontoconcludeThestagingoftheessayis(initself)apersuasivedeviceStatementandrepeatedrestatementreinforcethewriter’spositionDependingonthenumber,strengthandlogicaldevelopmentofarguments,anygivenessaywillbemoreorlesspersuasive–andmoreorlesssuccessfulMostessaysincludeafewoptionalstages,suchasa‘leadin’(whichintroducesthetopicbyprovidingsomeverygeneralbackgroundinformationideas),andthe‘preview’stage(whichpreviewstheargumentsthatwillfollow)Arecommendationisoptional,dependingontheessaywwwtextwritecom©copyrightRobertLewisquestionThoughmanyessayswilldiffer,intermsofoptionalstaging,allessaysdisplaythesamekeystagesasaboveThesampleessaybelowillustratesamorecomplexstagingoftheessaygenreThisessay(below)isagoodexamplebecauseithasaclearpositionstatement,previewstheargumentsthatfollow,andproceedstodevelopargumentationlogicallyandcoherentlyTherecommendationstagefollowslogicallyfromtheessayquestion,asthewriterisrequiredtodiscusssolutionstotheproblemofgamblingQWhatarethecauses,effectsandpossiblesolutionstotheproblemofgamblingSTAGINGsampleessayLeadinPOSITIONPreviewSequenceofARGUMENTSRestatementRecommendationGAMBLINGManypeopleparticipateingamblingasaformofrecreationandentertainmentItisverypopularincountries,likeAustralia,wheremorethanbilliondollarswasspentongamblingintheyearHowever,gamblingisviewedbymanyasaproblemforsocietyTherearecauses,effectsandpossiblesolutionsfortheproblemsrelatedtogamblingGenerallyspeaking,thereareanumberofcausesofgamblingrelatedproblemsManygamblerslosemoneyandsomegetintodebtveryquicklyTheymayspendalltheirsavings,andthenborrowmoremoney,totryandgetoutofdebtInthisway,theymaygetintofurtherdebtTheeffectsofgamblingcanbedevastatingonboththeindividualandtheirfamiliesIfgamblersgetintoseriousdebt,theirfamiliesmaysufferhardshipandpovertyasaresultSomegamblersneglecttheirchildren,whomtheyabandonwhiletheyspendtimegamblingincasinosIftheyarecaught,theauthoritiesmighttaketheirchildrenawayStillothersmighttakeouttheirfrustrationontheirfriendsorfamilies,andpossiblybecomeviolentSolutionstotheproblemsofgamblinginvolvesocietyandthegovernmentIngeneral,peopleshouldtrytohelpthosewithgamblingproblemsThegovernmentshouldalsoplacerestrictionsongambling,andruneducationprograms,tohelpgamblingaddictsandraisepeople’sawarenessandunderstandingoftherelatedsocialproblemsInconclusion,ifweunderstandthecausesandeffectsofgambling,thesolutionsbecomeclearThrougheducationandsupportprograms,itispossibletogivepeopleandaddictstheknowledgeandassistancetheyneedtoresistorovercometheirgamblingproblemsInanassessmentofacandidate’sessaytheexaminerwillconsider(i)whetherthewriteranswersthequestion,(ii)theirexpression(grammaticalaccuracyandvocabulary),and(iii)thecohesionofthetext(includingwhetherargumentsarelogicallydeveloped)Therefore,whenpreparingforawritingexam,itisagoodideatopracticedevelopingargumentsonmanydifferentissuesandtopicswwwtextwritecom©copyrightRobertLewisthelanguagefeaturesoftheessayThelanguagefeaturesofanessayreflectthewriter’spurpose,namely,topersuadethereaderoftheirposition(opinion)onagivenissueWehavealreadymentionedthatthestagingoftheessayisitselfapersuasivedevice–byrepeatedlystatingandexpandingontheirarguments,thewriterisbeingpersuasiveThelanguagefeaturesofanessayalsoreflectthepersuasivestrategiescommonlyusedinargumentation:belogical,reasoneffectively,soundauthoritativeandreasonable(don’texaggerate),andcommunicateeffectively(preciselyandcohesively)Therelevantstrategiesandlanguagefeaturesaresummarisedinthetablebelow:PERSUASIVESTRATEGIESLanguageFeaturesBeLOGICALCONJUNCTIONSforListing,AdditionetcBeAUTHORITATIVETECHNICALVOCABULARYNominalisationREASONLanguageofCAUSEandEFFECTBeCOHESIVEREFERENCEWORDSSoundREASONABLELanguageofGENERALISATIONEachchapterofthisbookdiscussesoneofthesefivepersuasivestrategiesandrelevantlanguagefeaturesasoutlinedaboveIntheGrammarunitofeachchapter,furtherexplanationandexercisesareprovidedtohelpthereaderbecomemorefamiliarwiththekeylanguagefeaturesandtheireffectiveuseinwritingshortexamessayswwwtextwritecom©copyrightRobertLewistopiclanguagelearning…inthischapterlearnnewvocabularyandreadaboutthetopiclearnaboutconjunctions:beinglogicallearnaboutthreetypesofessayquestiondevelopideasandwriteanessayonthetopicaBizzymoment…visualise(n)toseeinyourmind,imaginevisualisation(n)processofimagining,inyourmind’seyewwwtextwritecom©copyrightRobertLewisreadingvocabularylanguagelearningMatchthewordexpressionwiththemeaning(R)effectivelya)apositivething,abenefitcontextb)situation,circumstancesmemorisec)wayofdoingst,techniquemethodd)putintothememoryadvantagee)withagoodeffect,resultinteractionf)suggest,adviserecommendg)exchangebetweentwodistinctionh)relieson,conditionalcomparativelyi)purpose,aimgoalj)abilitytofunctionfunctionalproficiencyk)cleardifferencedependsl)incomparisontostelseFillthegapusingexpressionsfromaboveThemaingoal…ofschoolispreparationforlifeManylanguagetestsaredesignedtoassess…………………………………Successinexams,………………onhowhardyouworkInthe……………………oftheclassroom,studentscanpracticespeakingOnewaytoprepareforthetestisto……………………facts………………………speaking,classroomlearningiseasierthanselfstudyThebest……………forlearningnewwordsisusingthem!Sally’steacher……………………………thatshedoesmorestudyThediscussionwasaverypositive………………………One……………………ofstudyingabroadismakingnewfriendsThemostobvious………………betweenAmericaandChinaislanguageDeafpeoplecommunicate……………………usingsignlanguagewwwtextwritecom©copyrightRobertLewisCompletethetablebelow,andrevisevocabularyfromTopic:languagelearningAdjectiveNounVerbAdverbstudylearntcopyunderstandmemoryisationenjoyablerepetitiveacquisitioninstructteachmethodicallyfunctionalingdependentlyinteractionrecommendationcontextualadvantageserioustextproficiencyconversationalspeechnecessarywwwtextwritecom©copyrightRobertLewisreadingvocabularylanguagelearningTherearemillionsofpeopleallovertheworldwhoformallystudyaforeignlanguage,buttherearecomparativelyfewwhoactuallylearntousethelanguageeffectivelyThereasonforthisisthatmostpeoplestudyaforeignlanguagethesamewaytheystudyasubjectatschoolTheymemorisewords,likefactsortelephonenumbers,butdon’tknowhowtousethewordstocommunicateSometimes,theirteachersdonotunderstandthedistinctionbetweenstudyingandreallylearningalanguageThemaingoalshouldbetoteachstudentstousethelanguage,notjuststudyitFormalclassesinaforeignlanguage,whilstpopular,maynotbethemosteffectivewaytolearnthelanguageThisdependsontheteacherandtheirmethodsIftheteacherrequiresthestudentstoonlycopytextandmemorisewordsandgrammarrules,thenthestudentsarenotlearningtouselanguageItisthereforenotsurprisingthatstudentswiththisexperienceofformalclassesdonotspeakthelanguageverywellTheyhavenothadtheopportunitytoactuallypracticecommunicatingThekeytosuccessfullanguagelearningisinteraction–thatis,usinglanguageforapurposeincontextInsomelanguageclassrooms,thelessonsinvolvestudentsworkinginpairsorgroups,andtakingturnsataskingandansweringquestionsInthisway,theclassroomactivityallowslearnerstousethelanguage,andacquirethebasicsofcommunicationLearningthroughinteractionhelpsstudentsdeveloptheirfunctionalproficiency,ratherthanjustsomevagueorabstractknowledgeofgrammarorvocabularyTheimportanceofinteractionisacknowledgedinmanybooksonlearningaforeignlanguage,whichrecommendthatstudentstravelabroad,andlearnthelanguageinthecountrywhereitisspokenTheadvantagesareperhapsobviousThemotivationforpractiseisverystrongStudentshavetocommunicateiftheywanttosurviveTheyhavetodothings,suchasbuyfood,findaccommodationandmaketravelarrangementsTheyarealsoexposedtothesamelanguagepatternsmanytimesandrepeatedlypracticewhattheyneedtosayThisprocessenablesstudentstolearntheirnewlanguagethroughusingitinactualcommunication(words)wwwtextwritecom©copyrightRobertLewisReadingcomprehensionTrueorFalseManystudentsofforeignlanguagescannotspeakthelanguageeffectivelyTFTheystudytheforeignlanguagewithoutactuallyusingitTFAllteachersunderstandthedifferencebetweenstudyingandlearningaforeignlanguageTFFormalclassesarethebestwaytolearnaforeignlanguageTFMemorisinggrammarrulesorvocabularyisnotashelpfulasinteractingintheclassroomTFStudentswhodonotpractisespeakingdonotspeakverywellTFTakingturnsataskingandansweringquestionsisnothelpfulTFAknowledgeofgrammarismoreimportantthanusingthelanguageTFMostbookssuggestitisbesttolearnaforeignlanguagethroughformallessonsinthecountrywherethelanguageisspokenTFWhenstudentslearnintheforeigncountrytheyhaveastrongreasontopracticecommunicationTFStudentsexperienceparticularlanguagepatternsrepeatedlywhenlivinginthecountrywherethelanguageisspokenTFFewbooksonlanguagelearningrecognisetheimportanceofinteractionTF•WritedownsomewaysyoulearntEnglishoranotherlanguage………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………wwwtextwritecom©copyrightRobertLewisgrammar:belogicalThegrammarfocusofthisunitishowtobeLOGICALorexpressideaslogicallyConjunctions,orjoiningwords,expressthelogicalrelationsbetweenideas,andthereforehelpusstructureanddevelopourargumentsTherearetwotypes:SENTENCELEVELandSTRUCTURALCONJUNCTIONS(i)SENTENCELEVELCONJUNCTIONSjoinideaswithinasentenceExample:ToothpasteisgoodforyourteethandapplesaretooExample:BrushingishealthybecauseitreducestoothdecayInExample,theconjunctionandexpresses‘addition’()InExample,theconjunctionbecauseexpresses‘causation’(>)(Seethetableonpageforalistofthemostcommonconjunctions)Fillthegapusingand,butorbecauseEgMyaunthasbeensick…and…shewastakentohospitalTheweatherisfine…………thesceneryisbeautifulThepolicearrestedaman………………hewasdrivingrecklesslyMarcelpaintspictures………………nobodylikesthemThenewcarsrunonsolarpower………………petrolistooexpensiveSilvysleepsallnight………………shesleepsintheafternoontooActionfilmsarepopular………………cartoonsareevenmorepopularIzumiwasborninTokyo………………shelivesinNewYorkChinesewritingisverybeautiful………………difficulttolearn………………soccerisfuntoplay,itisplayedeverywhereintheworldPetercollectsstamps………………hemakesmoneysellingthemFillthegapusingalthough,soorwhen………………thebellrings,thechildrenmoveofftotheirnextlesson………………themanfellfromatallbuilding,hewasunhurtJanewantedtolearnSpanish………………shewenttonightschoolSomeAmericanscarryguns………………theycanprotectthemselves………………trekkinginthedesertoneshouldtakelotsofwaterChocolateisbadforone’steeth………………ittastesdeliciousYoungAustralianscanvote………………theyturnyearsofageSarahboughtasecondhandcar………………sheturnedsixteen………………apersonmarries,sheshouldchoosetheirpartnercarefull

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