关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 Good_To_Great_-_Jim_Collins.pdf

Good_To_Great_-_Jim_Collins.pdf

Good_To_Great_-_Jim_Collins.pdf

上传者: 勤勤01 2010-03-25 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Good_To_Great_-_Jim_Collinspdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含WhySomeCompaniesMaketheLeapandOthersDon'tRANDOMHOUSEBUSINESSBOOKSAcknowled符等。

WhySomeCompaniesMaketheLeapandOthersDon'tRANDOMHOUSEBUSINESSBOOKSAcknowledgmentsPrefaceixxiii:GoodIstheEnemyofGreat:LevelLeadership:FirstWhoThenWhat:ConfronttheBrutalFacts(YetNeverLoseFaith):TheHedgehogConcept(SimplicitywithintheThreeCircles):ACultureofDiscipline:TechnologyAccelerators:TheFlywheelandtheDoomLoop:FromGoodtoGreattoBuilttoLastEPILOGuE:FrequentlyAskedQuestionsResearchAppendicesNotesIndexCHAPTERThat'swhatmakesdeathsohardunsatisfiedcuriosityBERYLMARKHAM,WestwiththeNightodistheenemyofgreatAndthatisoneofthekeyreasonswhywehavesolittlethatbecomesgreatWedon'thavegreatschools,principallybecausewehavegoodschoolsWedon'thavegreatgovernment,principallybecausewehavegoodgovernmentFewpeopleattaingreatlives,inlargepartbecauseitisjustsoeasytosettleforagoodlifeThevastmajorityofcompaniesneverbecomegreat,preciselybecausethevastmajoritybecomequitegoodandthatistheirmainproblemThispointbecamepiercinglycleartomein,whenIwashavingdinnerwithagroupofthoughtleadersgatheredforadiscussionaboutorganizationalperformanceBillMeehan,themanagingdirectoroftheSanFranciscoofficeofMcKinseyCompany,leanedoverandcasuallyconfided,"Youknow,Jim,weloveBuilttoLastaroundhereYouandyourcoauthordidaveryfinejobontheresearchandwritingUnfortunately,it'suseless"Curious,Iaskedhimtoexplain"Thecompaniesyouwroteaboutwere,forthemostpart,alwaysgreat,"hesaid"TheyneverhadtoturnthemselvesfromgoodcompaniesintogreatcompaniesTheyhadparentslikeDavidPackardandGeorgeMerck,whoshapedthecharacterofgreatnessfromearlyonButwhataboutthevastmajorityofcompaniesthatwakeuppartwaythroughlifeandrealizethatthey'regood,butnotgreat"InowrealizethatMeehanwasexaggeratingforeffectwithhis"useless"comment,buthisessentialobservationwascorrectthattrulygreatcomJimCollinsGoodtoGreatpanies,forthemostpart,havealwaysbeengreatAndthevastmajorityofgoodcompaniesremainjustthatgood,butnotgreatIndeed,Meehan'scommentprovedtobeaninvaluablegift,asitplantedtheseedofaquestionthatbecamethebasisofthisentirebooknamely,Canagoodcompanybecomeagreatcompanyand,ifso,howOristhediseaseof"justbeinggood"incurableFiveyearsafterthatfatefuldinnerwecannowsay,withoutquestion,thatgoodtogreatdoeshappen,andwe'velearnedmuchabouttheunderlyingvariablesthatmakeithappenInspiredbyBillMeehan'schallenge,myresearchteamandIembarkedonafiveyearresearcheffort,ajourneytoexploretheinnerworkingsofgoodtogreatToquicklygrasptheconceptoftheproject,lookatthechartonpage"Inessence,weidentifiedcompaniesthatmadetheleapfromgoodresultstogreatresultsandsustainedthoseresultsforatleastfifteenyearsWecomparedthesecompaniestoacarefullyselectedcontrolgroupofcomparisoncompaniesthatfailedtomaketheleap,oriftheydid,failedtosustainitWethencomparedthegoodtogreatcompaniestothecomparisoncompaniestodiscovertheessentialanddistinguishingfactorsatworkThegoodtogreatexamplesthatmadethefinalcutintothestudyattainedextraordinaryresults,averagingcumulativestockreturnstimesthegeneralmarketinthefifteenyearsfollowingtheirtransitionpointsToputthatinperspective,GeneralElectric(consideredbymanytobethebestledcompanyinAmericaattheendofthetwentiethcentury)outperformedthemarketbytimesoverthefifteenyearstoFurthermore,ifyouinvested$inamutualfundofthegoodtogreatcompaniesin,holdingeachcompanyatthegeneralmarketrateuntilthedateoftransition,andsimultaneouslyinvested$inageneralmarketstockfund,your$inthegoodtogreatfundtakenoutonJanuary,,wouldhavemultipliedtimes,comparedtoafoldincreaseinthemarketTheseareremarkablenumbers,madeallthemoreremarkablewhenyouconsiderthefactthattheycamefromcompaniesthathadpreviouslybeensoutterlyunremarkableConsiderjustonecase,WalgreensForoverfortyyears,Walgreenshadbumpedalongasaveryaveragecompany,moreorlesstrackingthegeneralmarketThenin,seeminglyoutofnowherebang!Walgreensbegantoclinibandclimband*AdescriptionofhowthechartsonpagesandwerecreatedappearsinchapternotesattheendofthebookJimCollinsCumulativeStockReturnsof$Invested,GoodtoGreatCompanies:$DtrectCompar~son$Compan~es$Notes:$dividedevenlyacrosscompaniesineachset,January,Eachcompanyheldatmarketrateofreturn,untiltransitiondateCumulativevalueofeachfundshownasofJanuaryDlv~dendsreinvested,adjustedforallstocksplitsclimbandclimbanditjustkeptclimbingFromDecember,,toJanuary,,$investedinWalgreensbeat$investedintechnologysuperstarIntelbynearlytwotimes,GeneralElectricbynearlyfivetimes,CocaColabynearlyeighttimes,andthegeneralstockmarket(includingtheNASDAQstockrunupattheendof)byoverfifteentimes*HowonearthdidacompanywithsuchalonghistoryofbeingnothingspecialtransformitselfintoanenterprisethatoutperformedsomeofthebestledorganizationsintheworldAndwhywasWalgreensabletomaketheleapwhenothercompaniesinthesameindustrywiththesameopportunitiesandsimilarresources,suchasEckerd,didnotmaketheleapThissinglecasecapturestheessenceofourquestThisbookisnotaboutWalgreensperse,oranyofthespecificcompa*Calculationsofstockreturnsusedthroughoutthisbookreflectthetotalcumulativereturntoaninvestor,dividendsreinvestedandadjustedforstocksplitsThe"generalstockmarket"(oftenreferredtoassimply"themarket")reflectsthetotalityofstockstradedontheNewYorkExchange,AmericanStockExchange,andNASDAQSeethenotestochapterfordetailsondatasourcesandcalculationsGoodtoGreatnieswestudiedItisaboutthequestionCanagoodcompanybecomeagreatcompanyand,ifso,howandoursearchfortimeless,universalanswersthatcanbeappliedbyanyorganizationThisbookisdedicatedtoteachingwhatwe'velearnedTheremainderofthisintroductorychaptertellsthestoryofourjourney,outlinesourresearchmethod,andpreviewsthekeyfindingsInchapter,welaunchheadlongintothefindingsthemselves,beginningwithoneofthemostprovocativeofthewholestudy:LevelleadershipUNDAUNTEDCURIOSITYPeopleoftenask,"Whatmotivatesyoutoundertakethesehugeresearchprojects"It'sagoodquestionTheansweris,"Curiosity"ThereisnothingIfindmoreexcitingthanpickingaquestionthatIdon'tknowtheanswertoandembarkingonaquestforanswersIt'sdeeplysatisfyingtoclimbintotheboat,likeLewisandClark,andheadwest,saying,"Wedon'tknowwhatwe'llfindwhenwegetthere,butwe'llbesuretoletyouknowwhenwegetback"HereistheabbreviatedstoryofthisparticularodysseyofcuriosityPhase:TheSearchWiththequestioninhand,Ibegantoassembleateamofresearchers(WhenIuse"we"throughoutthisbook,IamreferringtotheresearchteamInall,twentyonepeopleworkedontheprojectatkeypoints,usuallyinteamsoffourtosixatatime)OurfirsttaskwastofindcompaniesthatshowedthegoodtogreatpatternexemplifiedinthechartonpageWelaunchedasixmonth"deathmarchoffinancialanalysis,"lookingforcompaniesthatshowedthefollimCollinslowingbasicpattern:fifteenyearcumulativestockreturnsatorbelowthegeneralstockmarket,punctuatedbyatransitionpoint,thencumulativereturnsatleastthreetimesthemarketoverthenextfifteenyearsWepickedfifteenyearsbecauseitwouldtranscendonehitwondersandluckybreaks(youcan'tjustbeluckyforfifteenyears)andwouldexceedtheaveragetenureofmostchiefexecutiveofficers(helpingustoseparategreatcompaniesfromcompaniesthatjusthappenedtohaveasinglegreatleader)WepickedthreetimesthemarketbecauseitexceedstheperformanceofmostwidelyacknowledgedgreatcompaniesForperspective,amutualfundofthefollowing"marquisset"ofcompaniesbeatthemarketbyonlytimesovertheyearsto:M,Boeing,CocaCola,GE,HewlettPackard,Intel,JohnsonJohnson,Merck,Motorola,Pepsi,ProcterGamble,WalMart,andWaltDisneyNotabadsettobeatFromaninitialuniverseofcompaniesthatappearedontheFortuneintheyearsto,wesystematicallysearchedandsifted,eventuallyfindingelevengoodtogreatexamples(I'veputadetaileddescriptionofoursearchinAppendixlA)However,acoupleofpointsdeservebriefmentionhereFirst,acompanyhadtodemonstratethegoodtogreatpatternindependentofitsindustryifthewholeindustryshowedthesamepattern,wedroppedthecompanySecond,wedebatedwhetherweshoulduseadditionalselectioncriteriabeyondcumulativestockreturns,suchasimpactonsocietyandemployeewelfareWeeventuallydecidedtolimitourselectiontothegoodtogreatresultspattern,aswecouldnotconceiveofanylegitimateandconsistentmethodforselectingontheseothervariableswithoutintroducingourownbiasesInthelastchapter,however,Iaddresstherelationshipbetweencorporatevaluesandenduringgreatcompanies,butthefocusofthisparticularresearcheffortisontheveryspecificquestionofhowtoturnagoodorganizationintoonethatproducessustainedgreatresultsAtfirstglance,weweresurprisedbythelistWhowouldhavethoughtthatFannieMaewouldbeatcompanieslikeGEandCocaColaOrthatWalgreenscouldbeatIntelThesurprisinglistadowdiergroupwouldbehardtofindtaughtusakeylessonrightupfrontItispossibletoturngoodintogreatinthemostunlikelyofsituationsThisbecamethefirstofmanysurprisesthatledustoreevaluateourthinkingaboutcorporategreatnessGoodtoGreatPhase:InsidetheBlackBoxWethenturnedourattentiontoadeepanalysisofeachcaseWecollectedallarticlespublishedonthetwentyeightcompanies,datingbackfiftyyearsormoreWesystematicallycodedallthematerialintocategories,suchasstrategy,technology,leadership,andsoforthThenweinterviewedmostofthegoodtogreatexecutiveswhoheldkeypositionsofresponsibilityduringthetransitioneraWealsoinitiatedawiderangeofqualitativeandquantitativeanalyses,lookingateverythingfromacquisitionstoexecutivecompensation,frombusinessstrategytocorporateculture,fromlayoffstoleadershipstyle,fromfinancialratiostomanagementturnoverWhenallwassaidanddone,thetotalprojectconsumedpeopleyearsofeffortWereadandsystematicallycodednearly,articles,generatedmorethan,pagesofinterviewtranscripts,andcreatedmillionbytesofcomputerdata(SeeAppendixDforadetailedlistofallouranalysesandactivities)WecametothinkofourresearcheffortasakintolookinginsideablackboxEachstepalongthewaywaslikeinstallinganotherlightbulbtoshedlightontheinnerworkingsofthegoodtogreatprocessWithdatainhand,webeganaseriesofweeklyresearchteamdebatesForeachofthetwentyeightcompanies,membersoftheresearchteamandIwouldsystematicallyreadallthearticles,analyses,interviews,andtheresearchcodingIwouldmakeapresentationtotheteamonthatspecificcompany,drawingpotentialconclusionsandaskingquestionsThenwewoulddebate,disagree,poundontables,raiseourvoices,pauseandlolimCollinsreflect,debatesomemore,pauseandthink,discuss,resolve,question,anddebateyetagainabout"whatitallmeans"Thecoreofourmethodwasasystematicprocessofcontrastingthegoodtogreatexamplestothecomparisons,alwaysasking,"What'sdifferent"Wealsomadeparticularnoteof"dogsthatdidnotbark"IntheSherlockHolmesclassic"TheAdventureofSilverBlaze,"Holmesidentified"thecuriousincidentofthedoginthenighttime'asthekeyclueItturnsoutthatthedogdidnothinginthenighttimeandthat,accordingtoHolmes,wasthecuriousincident,whichledhimtotheconclusionthattheprimesuspectmusthavebeensomeonewhoknewthedogwellInourstudy,whatwedidn'tfinddogsthatwemighthaveexpectedtobarkbutdidn'tturnedouttobesomeofthebestcluestotheinnerworkingsofgoodtogreatWhenwesteppedinsidetheblackboxandturnedonthelightbulbs,wewerefrequentlyjustasastonishedatwhatwedidnotseeaswhatwedidForexample:Largerthanlife,celebrityleaderswhorideinfromtheoutsidearenegativelycorrelatedwithtakingacompanyfromgoodtogreatTenofelevengoodtogreatCEOscamefrominsidethecompany,whereasthecomparisoncompaniestriedoutsideCEOssixtimesmoreoftenWefoundnosystematicpatternlinkingspecificformsofexecutivecompensationtotheprocessofgoingfromgoodtogreatTheideathatthestructureofexecutivecompensationisakeydriverincorporateperformanceissimplynotsupportedbythedataStrategypersedidnotseparatethegoodtogreatcompaniesfromthecomparisoncompaniesBothsetsofcompanieshadwelldefinedstrategies,andthereisnoevidencethatthegoodtogreatcompaniesspentmoretimeonlongrangestrategicplannrjnhatjsoncompaniesGoodtoGreatThegoodtogreatcompaniesdidnotfocusprincipallyonwhattodotobecomegreattheyfocusedequallyonwhatnottodoandwhgtostopdoingTechnologyandtechnologydrivenchangehasvirtuallynothingtodowithignitingatransformationfromgoodtogreatTechnologycanaccelerateatransformation,buttechnologycannotcauseatransformationMergersandacquisitionsplayvirtuallynoroleinignitingatransformationfromgoodtogreattwobigmediocritiesjoinedtogethernevermakeonegreatcompanyThegoodtogreatcompaniespaidscantattentiontomanagingchange,motivatingpeople,orcreatingalignmentUndertherightconditions,theproblemsofcommitment,alignment,motivation,andchangelargelymeltawayThegoodtogreatcompanieshadnoname,tagline,launchevent,orprogramtosignifytheirtransformationsIndeed,somereportedbeingunawareofthemagnitudeofthetransformationatthetimeonlylater,inretrospect,diditbecomeclearYes,theyproducedatrulyrevolutionaryleapinresults,butnotbyarevolutionaryprocessThegoodtogreatcompanieswerenot,byandlarge,ingreatindustries,andsomewereinterribleindustriesInnocasedowehaveacompanythatjusthappenedtobesittingonthenoseconeofarocketwhenittookoffGreatnessisnotafunctionofcircumstanceGreatness,itturnsout,islargelyamatterofconsciouschoicePhase:ChaostoConceptI'vetriedtocomeupwithasimplewaytoconveywhatwasrequiredtogofromallthedata,analyses,debates,and"dogsthatdidnotbarktothefinalfindingsinthisbookThebestanswerIcangiveisthatitwasanitgra$veDrocessofloopingbackandforth,developingideasandtestingthemagainstthedata,revisingtheideas,buildingaframework,vseeingitircakundertheweightofevidence,andrebuildingityetaginThatprocesswasrepeatedoverandover,untileverythinghungtogetherinacoherentframeworkofconceptsWeallhaveastrengthortwoinlife,andIsupposemineistheabilitytotakealumpofunorganizedinformation,seepatterns,andextractorderfromthemesstorchaostoconceptThatsaid,however,Iwishtounderscoreagainthattheconceptsinthefinalframeworkarenotmy"opinions"WhileIcannotextractmyownlimCollinspsychologyandbiasesentirelyfromtheresearch,eachfindinginthefinalframeworkmetarigorousstandardbeforetheresearchteamwoulddeemitsignificantEveryprimaryconceptinthefinalframeworkshowedupasachangevariableinpercentofthegoodtogreatcompaniesandinlessthanpercentofthecomparisoncompaniesduringthepivotalyearsAnyinsightthatfailedthistestdidnotmakeitintothebookasachapterlevelconceptHere,then,isanoverviewoftheframeworkofconceptsandapreviewofwhat'stocomeintherestofthebook(Seethediagrambelow)Thinkofthetransformationasaprocessofbuildupfollowedbybreakthrough,brokenintothreebroadstages:dmkedpeople,disciplinedthought,anddisciplinedactionWithineachofthesethreestages,therearetwokeyconcepts,shownintheframeworkanddescribedbelowWrappingaroundthisentireframeworkisaconceptwecametocalltheflywheel,whichcapturesthegestaltoftheentireprocessofgoingfromgoodtogreatLevelLeadershipWeweresurprised,shockedreally,todiscoverthetypeofleadershiprequiredforturningagoodcompanyintoagreatoneComparedtohighprofileleaderswithbigpersonalitieswhomakeheadlinesandbecomecelebrities,thegoodtogreatleadersseemtohavecomefromMarsSelfeffacing,quiet,reserved,evenshytheseleadersareaGoodtoGreatparadoxicalblendofpersonalhumilityandprofessionalwillTheyaremorelikeLincolnandSocratesthanPattonorCaesarFirstWhoThenWhatWeexpectedthatgoodtogreatleaderswouldbeginbysettinganewvisionandstrategyWefoundinsteadthattheyfirstgottherightpeopleonthebus,thewrongpeopleoffthebus,andtherightpeopleintherightseatsandthentheyfiguredoutwheretodriveitTheoldadage"Peopleareyourmostimportantasset"turnsouttobewrongPeoplearenotyourmostimportantassetTherightpeopleareIPCp*wConfidhttheBrutalFacts(YetNeverLoseFaith)WelearnedthataformerprisonerofwarhadmoretoteachusaboutwhatittakestofindapathtogreatnessthanmostbooksoncorporatestrategyEverygoodtogreat,companyembracedwhatwecametocalltheStockdaleParadox:Youmustmaintainunwaveringfaiththatyoucanandwillprevailintheend,regardlessofthedifficulties,ANDatthesametimehavethedisciplinetoconfrontthemostbrutalfactsofyourcurrentreality,whatevertheymightbeTheHedgehogConcept(SimplicitywithintheThreeCircles)Togofromgoodtogreatrequirestrane~n"ChecurseofcompetenceJustbecausesomethingisyourcorebusinessjustbecauseyou'vebeendoingitforyearsorperhapsevendecadesdoesnotnecessarilymeanyoucanbethebestintheworldatitAndifyoucannotbethebestintheworldatyourco

用户评论(0)

0/200

精彩专题

上传我的资料

每篇奖励 +2积分

资料评价:

/49
仅支持在线阅读

意见
反馈

立即扫码关注

爱问共享资料微信公众号

返回
顶部