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nce4.pdf

nce4.pdf

上传者: BABY 2010-03-24 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《nce4pdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含UnitLessonFindingfossilmanFirstlistenandthenanswerthefollowingquestionWhya符等。

UnitLessonFindingfossilmanFirstlistenandthenanswerthefollowingquestionWhyarelegendshandeddownbystorytellersusefulWecanreadofthingsthathappened,yearsagointheNearEast,wherepeoplefirstlearnedtowriteButtherearesomepartsofthewordwhereevennowpeoplecannotwriteTheonlywaythattheycanpreservetheirhistoryistorecountitassagaslegendshandeddownfromonegenerationofanotherTheselegendsareusefulbecausetheycantellussomethingaboutmigrationsofpeoplewholivedlongago,butnonecouldwritedownwhattheydidAnthropologistswonderedwheretheremoteancestorsofthePolynesianpeoplesnowlivinginthePacificIslandscamefromThesagasofthesepeopleexplainthatsomeofthemcamefromIndonesiaabout,yearsagoButthefirstpeoplewhowerelikeourselveslivedsolongagothateventheirsagas,iftheyhadany,areforgottenSoarchaeologistshaveneitherhistorynorlegendstohelpthemtofindoutwherethefirst'modernmen'camefromFortunately,however,ancientmenmadetoolsofstone,especiallyflint,becausethisiseasiertoshapethanotherkindsTheymayalsohaveusedwoodandskins,butthesehaverottedawayStonedoesnotdecay,andsothetoolsoflongagohaveremainedwheneventhebonesofthemenwhomadethemhavedisappearedwithouttraceROBINPLACEFindingfossilmanNewwordsandexpressionsfossilman(title)adjrecountvsaganlegendnmigrationnanthropologistnarchaeologistnancestornPolynesianadjIndonesianflintnrotn,,LessonSparethatspiderFirstlistenandthenanswerthefollowingquestionHowmuchofeachyeardospidersspendkillinginsectsWhy,youmaywonder,shouldspidersbeourfriendsBecausetheydestroysomanyinsects,andinsectsincludesomeofthegreatestenemiesofthehumanraceInsectswouldmakeitimpossibleforustoliveintheworldtheywoulddevourallourcropsandkillourflocksandherds,ifitwerenotfortheprotectionwegetfrominsecteatinganimalsWeowealottothebirdsandbeastswhoeatinsectsbutallofthemputtogetherkillonlyafractionofthenumberdestroyedbyspidersMoreover,unlikesomeoftheotherinsecteaters,spidersneverdotheharmtousorourbelongingsSpidersarenotinsects,asmanypeoplethink,norevennearlyrelatedtothemOnecantellthedifferencealmostataglance,foraspideralwayshaseightlegsandinsectnevermorethansixHowmanyspidersareengagedinthisworknoourbehalfOneauthorityonspidersmadeacensusofthespidersingrassfieldinthesouthofEngland,andheestimatedthatthereweremorethan,,inoneacrethatissomethinglike,,spidersofdifferentkindsonafootballpitchSpidersarebusyforatleasthalftheyearinkillinginsectsItisimpossibletomakemorethanthewildestguessathowmanytheykill,buttheyarehungrycreatures,notcontentwithonlythreemealsadayIthasbeenestimatedthattheweightofalltheinsectsdestroyedbyspidersinBritaininoneyearwouldbegreaterthanthetotalweightofallthehumanbeingsinthecountryTHGILLESPLESparethatspiderfromTheListenerNewwordsandexpressionsbeastncensusnacrencontentadjLessonMatterhornmanFirstlistenandthenanswerthefollowingquestionWhatwasthemainobjectiveofearlymountainclimbersModernalpiniststrytoclimbmountainsbyaroutewhichwillgivethemgoodsport,andthemoredifficultitis,themorehighlyitisregardedInthepioneeringdays,however,thiswasnotthecaseatallTheearlyclimberswerelookingfortheeasiestwaytothetop,becausethesummitwastheprizetheysought,especiallyifitandneverbeenattainedbeforeItistruethatduringtheirexplorationstheyoftenfaceddifficultiesanddangersofthemostperilousnature,equippedinamannerwithwouldmakeamodernclimbershudderatthethought,buttheydidnotgooutoftheirwaytocourtsuchexcitementTheyhadasingleaim,asolitarygoalthetop!ItishardforustorealizenowadayshowdifficultitwasforthepioneersExceptforoneortwoplacessuchasZermattandChamonix,whichhadrapidlybecomepopular,AlpinevillagetendedtobeimpoverishedsettlementscutofffromcivilizationbythehighmountainsSuchinnsasthereweregenerallydirtyandfleariddenthefoodsimplylocalcheeseaccompaniedbybreadoftentwelvemonthsold,allwasheddownwithcoarsewineOftenavalleyboastednoinnatall,andclimbersfoundshelterwherevertheycouldsometimeswiththelocalpriest(whowasusuallyaspoorashisparishioners),sometimeswithshepherdsorcheesemakersInvariablythebackgroundwasthesame:dirtandpoverty,andveryuncomfortableFormenaccustomedtoeatingsevencoursedinnersandsleepingbetweenfinelinensheetsathome,thechangetotheAlpsmusthaveveryhardindeedWALTERUNSWORTHMatterhornManNewwordsandexpressionsMatterhornnalpinistnpioneervnsummitnattainvperilousadjshuddervcourtvsolitaryadjimpoverishvAlpineadjfleariddenadjcoarseadjboastvparishionernshepherdnlinenntheAlpsnLessonSeeinghandsFirstlistenandanswerthefollowingquestionHowdidVeradiscovershehadthisgiftofsecondsightSeveralcaseshavebeenreportedinRussiarecentlyofpeoplewhocandetectcolourswiththeirfingers,andevenseethroughsolidandwallsOnecaseconcernsandelevenyearoldschoolgirl,VeraPetrova,whohasnormalvisionbutwhocanalsoperceivethingswithdifferentpartsofherskin,andthroughsolidwallsThisabilitywasfirstnoticedbyherfatherOnedayshecameintohisofficeandhappenedtoputherhandsonthedoorofalockedsafeSuddenlysheaskedherfatherwhyhekeptsomanyoldnewspaperslockedawaythere,andevendescribedthewaytheyweredoneupinbundlesVera'scurioustalentwasbroughttothenoticeofascientificresearchinstituteinthetownofUlyanovsk,nearwhereshelives,andinAprilshewasgivenaseriesoftestsbyaspecialcommissionoftheMinistryofHealthoftheRussianFederalRepublicDuringthesetestsshewasabletoreadanewspaperthroughanopaquescreenand,strangerstill,bymovingherelbowoverachild'sgameofLottoshewasabletodescribethefiguresandcoloursprintedonitand,inanotherinstance,wearingstockingsandslippers,tomakeoutwithherfoottheoutlinesandcoloursofapicturehiddenunderacarpetOtherexperimentsshowedthatherkneesandshouldershadasimilarsensitivityDuringallthesetestsVerawasblindfoldand,indeed,exceptwhenblindfoldshelackedtheabilitytoperceivethingswithherskinItwasalsofoundthatalthoughshecouldperceivethingswithherfingersthisabilityceasedthemomentherhandswerewetERICDEMAUNYSeeinghandsfromTheListenerNewwordsandexpressionssolidadjsafenUlyanovskncommissionnopaqueadjlottonslippernblindfoldadjadvLessonYouthFirstlistenandthenanswerthefollowingquestion:HowdoesthewriterliketotreatyoungpeoplePeoplearealwaystalkingabout'theproblemofyouth'IfthereisonewhichItakeleavetodoubtthenitisolderpeoplewhocreateit,nottheyoungthemselvesLetusgetdowntofundamentalsandagreethattheyoungareafterallhumanbeingspeoplejustliketheireldersThereisonlyonedifferencebetweenanoldmanandayoungone:theyoungmanhasagloriousfuturebeforehimandtheoldonehasasplendidfuturebehindhim:andmaybethatiswheretherubisWhenIwasateenager,IfeltthatIwasjustyounganduncertainthatIwasanewboyinahugeschool,andIwouldhavebeenverypleasedtoberegardedassomethingsointerestingasaproblemForonething,beingaproblemgivesyouacertainidentity,andthatisoneofthethingstheyoungarebusilyengagedinseekingIfindyoungpeopleexcitingTheyhaveanairoffreedom,andtheynotadrearycommitmenttomeanambitionsorloveofcomfortTheyarenotanxioussocialclimbers,andtheyhavenodevotiontomaterialthingsAllthisseemstometolinkthemwithlife,andtheoriginsofthingsIt'sasiftheywere,insomesense,cosmicbeingsinviolentandlovelycontrastwithussuburbancreaturesAllthatisinmymindwhenImeetayoungpersonHemaybeconceited,illmannered,presumptuousorfatuous,butIdonotturnforprotectiontodrearyclichesaboutrespectofeldersasifmereagewereareasonforrespectIacceptthatweareequals,andIwillarguewithhim,asanequal,ifIthinkheiswrongFIELDENHUGHESfromOutoftheAir,TheListenerNewwordsandexpressionleavenfundamentalsngloriousadjsplendidadjrubnidentityndrearyadjcommitmentnmeanadjsocialclimberdevotionncosmicadjsuburbanadjconceitedadjpresumptuousadjfatuousadjclichenLessonThesportingspiritFirstlistenandthenanswerthefollowingquestionHowdoesthewriterdescribesportattheinternationallevelIamalwaysamazedwhenIhearpeoplesayingthatsportcreatesgoodwillbetweenthenations,andthatifonlythecommonpeoplesofthewouldcouldmeetoneanotheratfootballorcricket,theywouldhavenoinclinationtomeetonthehattlefieldEvenifonedidn'tknowfromconcreteexamples(theOlympicGames,forinstance)thatinternationalsportingcontestsleadtoorgiesofhatred,onecoulddeduceiffromgeneralprinciplesNearlyallthesportspractisednowadaysarecompetitiveYouplaytowin,andthegamehaslittlemeaningunlessyoudoyourutmosttowinOnthevillagegreen,whereyoupickupsidesandnofeelingoflocalpatriotismisinvolved,itispossibletoplaysimplyforthefunandexercise:butassoonasathequestionofprestigearises,assoonasyoufeelthatyouandsomelargerunitwillbedisgracedifyoulose,themostsavagecombativeinstinctsarearousedAnyonewhohasplayedeveninaschoolfootballmatchknowsthisAttheinternationallevel,sportisfranklymimicwarfareButthesignificantthingisnotthebehaviouroftheplayersbuttheattitudeofthespectators:and,behindthespectators,ofthenationswhoworkthemselvesintofuriesovertheseabsurdcontests,andseriouslybelieveatanyrateforshortperiodsthatrunning,jumpingandkickingaballaretestsofnationalvirtueGEORGEORWELLThesportingspiritNewwordsandexpressiongoodwillncricketninclinationncontestnorgyndeducevcompetitiveadjpatriotismndisgracevsavageadjcombativeadjmimicwarfarebehaviournabsurdadjLessonBatsFirstlistenandthenanswerthefollowingquestionInwhatwaydoesecholocationinbatsplayanutilitarianroleNotallsoundsmadebyanimalsserveaslanguage,andwehaveonlytoturntothatextraordinarydiscoveryofecholocationinbatstoseeacaseinwhichthevoiceplaysastrictlyutilitarianroleTogetafullappreciationofwhatthismeanswemustturnfirsttosomerecenthumaninventionsEveryoneknowsthatifheshoutsinthevicinityofawalloramountainside,anechowillcomebackThefurtheroffthissolidobstruction,thelongertimewillelapseforthereturnoftheechoAsoundmadebytappingonthehullofashipwillbereflectedfromtheseabottom,andbymeasuringthetimeintervalbetweenthetapsandthereceiptoftheechoes,thedepthoftheseaatthatpointcanbecalculatedSowasborntheechosoundingapparatus,nowingeneraluseinshipsEverysolidobjectwillreflectasound,varyingaccordingtothesizeandnatureoftheobjectAshoaloffishwilldothisSoitisacomparativelysimplestepfromlocatingtheseabottomtolocatingashoaloffishWithexperience,andwithimprovedapparatus,itisnowpossiblenotonlytolocateashoalbuttotellifitisherring,cod,orotherwellknownfish,bythepatternofitsechoIthasbeenfoundthatcertainbatsemitsqueaksandbyreceivingtheechoes,theycanlocateandsteerclearofobstaclesorlocateflyinginsectsonwhichtheyfeedThisecholocationinbatsisoftencomparedwithradar,theprincipleofwhichissimilarMAURICEBURTONCuriositiesofanimallifeNewwordsandexpressionsbatnstrictlyadvutilitarian

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