关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 McGraw.Hill.What.You.Should.Know.About.COMMUNIS…

McGraw.Hill.What.You.Should.Know.About.COMMUNISM.and.Why.eBook-EEn.pdf

McGraw.Hill.What.You.Should.Kno…

上传者: sssnow 2010-03-24 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《McGraw.Hill.What.You.Should.Know.About.COMMUNISM.and.Why.eBook-EEnpdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含EditionIIWhatYouShouldKnowAboutCOMMUNISMandWhybyWILLIAMHENRYCHAMBERLINAdap符等。

EditionIIWhatYouShouldKnowAboutCOMMUNISMandWhybyWILLIAMHENRYCHAMBERLINAdaptedfromtheseriesofsixteenarticlespublishedunderthesametitleinSeniorScholasticandWorldWeekWEBSTERDIVISION,McGRAWHILLBOOKCOMPANYStLouisNewYorkSanFranciscoDallasTorontoLondonSydneyACKNOWLEDGMENTSTheEditorsgratefullyacknowledgetheassistanceofthefollowingindividualswhoservedasconsultantstoScholasticMagazinesfortheseriesofarticlesonwhichthishookisbased:SAMUELMBROWNELL,SuperintendentofPublicSchools,Detroit,MichiganRTREVMSGRO'NEILLCD'AMOUR,SuperintendentofSchools,Norway,MichiganEUGENELYONS,SeniorEditor,TheReadersDigest,Pleasantville,NYJWMAUCKER,President,StateCollegeofIowa,CedarFalls,IowaPHILIPEMOSELY,DirectoroftheEuropeanInstitute,ColumbiaUniversity,NewYorkCityHENRYLROBERTS,ProfessorofHistory,RussianInstitute,ColumbiaUniversity,NewYorkCityROWLANDHSARGEANT,President,RadioLibertyCommittee,NewYorkCityJOHNWSTUDEBAKER,VicePresidentandChairmanoftheEditorialBoards,ScholasticMagazines,NewYorkCityCover:SovfotoMapsbyBrunoJunkerCopyright,,,byScholasticMagazines,IncAllrightsreservedthprinting(revised)JulyManufacturedintheUSAThisMcGrawHilleditionispublishedbyarrangementwithScholasticMagazines,IncContentsIntroductionTheCommunistSystemKarlMarxandtheStartofCommunismFromLenintoStalinPurgesatHome,ExpansionAbroadTheColdWarUnderStalinCoexistenceWithKhrushchevTheManyShadesofCommunismLifeUnderCommunismintheSovietUnionEducation,CulturalLife,andReligionintheUSSRTheCommunistVictoryinChinaTheCommunistPatternofConquestWhyDoSomePeopleBecomeCommunistsTheMightofCommunismTheFreeWorld'sResponseAChronologyofCommunismPronunciationGuide(StudyAidsfolloweachchapter)MAPSANDCHARTSCommunismontheMarchPoliticalStructureoftheSovietUnionCommunismExpandsinEuropeDividedGermanyComparativePurchasingPower,inTimeWorked(USAandUSSR)CommunismExpandsinAsiaEastBerlinteenagersjoininaheroicbutfutilebidforfreedomduringtheJune,,revoltagainstCommunistruleIntroductionWhyStudyCommunismCommunismismorethanatheoryItisafightingforcethatdeeplyaffectsthelifeofeveryoneofusUScitizenspaybillionsofdollarsintaxeseachyear,percentofwhichgotosupportimmensearmamentsExpansionofUSArmedForceshasledtothefirstpeacetimedraftinthehistoryofthenation,callinghundredsofthousandsofyoungAmericansintotheArmedServicesThesemeasuresareneededtoprotectthecountryandtheFreeWorldfromthethreatofcommunism,andtheywillcontinueinforceaslongastheColdWartheconflictbetweentheFreeWorldandtheCommunistWorldlastsYouoweittoyourselftolearnallyoucanaboutcommunismIfyoudoandacarefulreadingofthisbookwillgiveyouagoodstartyouwillbehelpingtosafeguardyourfreedom,thefreedomofyourcountryandoftheotherfreecountriesoftheworldThisbookwillnotlimititsanalysisofcommunismtotheUnionofSovietSocialistRepublics,althoughasthefirstCommunistpower,asthedominantCommunistpowerintoday'sworld,andastheoneaboutwhichmostisknown,theSovietUnionwillbeemphasizedTwoGiantsofCommunismSinceNovember,,whenagroupofCommunistrevolutionariesviolentlyseizedpowerintsaristRussia,theUnionofSovietSocialistRepublicshasbeenthecenterofworldCommunistpowerUsingeconomicandpoliticaltechniquesradicallydifferentfromthoseoftheWesterndemocracies,theSovietUnionhas,inalmostyearssincetheBolshevikRevolution,forgedastrongeconomicsystemTodaythatsystemprovidesthebaseuponwhichSovietleadersdrawinattemptingtospreadcommunismthroughouttheworldInthelastyears,SovietmilitarymighthasbeenbuilttoapositionsecondonlytothatoftheUSaveryclosesecondindeed,accordingtosomeexpertsChinatheChinanowledbyMaoTsetungisanotherCommunistgiantWithSoviethelp,Mao'sChineseCommunistsseizedpowerthroughcivilwarinTodaymorethan,,ChineseliveundertheirruleEachofthesetwogiantsofcommunism,theSovietUnionandCommunistChina,possessesitsown"satellites"countrieswhoseforeignanddomesticpoliciestheylargelycontrolTheUSSR'sinfluenceoverHungary,Romania,Czechoslovakia,Bulgaria,EastGermany,andPolandisstrongYugoslaviaandAlbania,althoughCommunist,haveshowngreaterindependenceofSovietauthorityRedChinahasalsoextendeditscontrolintoneighboringstates,amongthemTibet,incorporatedasaChinese"autonomousregion"in,andNorthVietnamandNorthKorea,bothnowunderChineseinfluencedCommunistregimesAlbania,insouthernEurope,hasalsoaligneditselfwithRedChinaCuba,milesofftheFloridacoastoftheUS,hascomeunderthedictatorshipofCommunistFidelCastroItlookstobothRedChinaandtheUSSRforeconomichelp,andisgettingitTheThreattotheFreeWorldFreepeopleeverywheremustbealerttothedangersofcommunismandbepreparedtocombatthemintelligently,withoutfearIfinourdecisionswearemotivatedbyfear,wecouldmakedangerouspiecemealsurrenders,oractrashlyandperhapsendupusingcommunism'sowntacticsWhathastheSovietUnionbeendoingthatarousestheconcernoftheUnitedStatesandmanynonCommunistnationsAlreadynearlyathirdofthehumanracehasbeenbrought,againstitswill,undertheCommunistyokeBywordandaction,SovietleadershavemadecleartheirdeterminationtodestroyourformofsocietyandtoputCommunistgovernmentseverywhereWouldtheystartawartodothisTheSovietshaveoftenboastedofthedestructivepowerattheircommandWhenNikitaKhrushchevwastheSovietpremier,hetoldleadersofnonCommunistnationshowcitieslikeRome,Athens,andLondoncouldbereducedtoashesbyhiscountry'smissilesButtheUSgovernmenthasmadeitspositionclear:itwillretaliateThusAmericanmilitarymighthassofardeterredtheSovietsfromseizingWestBerlin,andtheCommunistChinesefrominvadingTaiwan,outpostofthefreeChineseSovietleadersarethoroughlycommittedtoCommunistdoctrineandtothespreadofcommunismthroughouttheworldAlongwithpropaganda,theyrattletheirrocketsandflextheiratomicmusclestofrightennationsintodoingtheirbiddingThesemilitarythreatsaresupplementedbyotherthreatsDuringhisvisittotheUnitedStatesin,Khrushchevwasaskedbyreporterswhathemeantwhenhesaid,"Wewillburyyou"Herepliedhedidnotmeanburialbybombs,butburialbypoliticalandeconomicvictoryHesaidthattheSovietUnion,by,willoutproduceusinallkindsofgoods,andwillthusbecomeashiningexampleofthesuccessofcommunismThepropagandaeffectwillbesotremendous,hethought,thatnationafternationwillbeconvertedtocommunismMeanwhile,KremlinleadersarenotsittingbackandwaitingfortheexampleofSoviet"progress"totakeeffectLikeLenin,Stalin,andKhrushchevbeforethem,theyareworkingtopromotecommunismEverywhereandespeciallyintheunderdevelopednationsofAsia,Africa,andSouthAmericaSovietagentsandlocalCommunistsareworkingtounseatexistinggovernmentsSovietpolicyhaslongbeentocapitalizeontheanticolonialfeelingsofthepeoplesofthenewnationsinordertobringtobearantiWestern,CommunistinfluencesintheirgovernmentsTheSovietleadersthushopetowintheemergingnationstotheirsideintheColdWar,andeventuallytoestablishcommunisminthemSevenTestsofFreedomThemenaceofcommunismtoourfreedomisnotnewSince,whentheCommunistsoverthrewthefirstRussiandemocraticgovernment(thenonlyeightmonthsold)andsetupaCommunistdictatorship,strongvoicesfromthedemocracieshavewarnedtheworldofthedangerOneofthemosteloquentvoicesraisedinoppositiontocommunismwasthatofWinstonChurchill,primeministerofGreatBritainduringWorldWarIIHesetdowntheseseventestsofman'sfreedomundergovernment:Istheretherighttofreeexpressionofopinion,tooppositionandcriticismoftheexistinggovernmentHavethepeopletherighttovoteoutagovernmentofwhichtheydisapprove,andareconstitutionalmeansprovidedbywhichtheycanmaketheirwillknownArethereindependentcourtsofjusticefreefromexecutivecontrol,andfreefromthreatsofmobviolenceandassociationwithanyparticularpoliticalpartyWillthesecourtsadministerwellestablishedlawswhichareassociatedinthehumanmindwiththebroadprinciplesofdecencyandjusticeWilltherebeequaljusticeforpooraswellasforrich,forindividualsaswellasforgovernmentofficialsWilltherightsoftheindividualbeexaltedIstheordinarycitizenfreefromthefearthatasecretpoliceorganizationunderthecontrolofasinglepoliticalpartywillpackhimoffwithoutfairoropentrialInotherwords,thechieftestsoffreedomarewhethercitizensarepermittedtothink,speak,act,andworkfreelyInthechaptersthatfollowyouwillseehowcommunismdeniesthosefreedomsandrightswetakeforgranted,andwhichwemusteverbeonthealerttodefendandprotectDemocracy'sChallengeThisisabookaboutcommunismnotaboutdemocracyWhenlivingconditionsinaCommunistcountryaredescribed,thereadershouldnotassumethattherearenoshortcomingsinthestandardoflivinginmanynonCommunistcountriesForexample,thedescriptionofhousingshortagesintheSovietUnionshouldnotbetakentomeanthathousingisadequateineverydemocraticcountryOntheotherhand,whenitcomestotheimportant"livingcondition"offreedomfortheindividual,therecanbenodisputethatthecitizenofademocracyhasrightsdeniedthepersonlivingundercommunismThatstory,WhatYouShouldKnowaboutDemocracyandWhy,istoldinacompanionbook(publishedbyScholasticBookServices,April,)WhystudycommunismAlookatthefrontpageofyourdailynewspaperwillgiveyoutheanswer:becausecommunismaffectsyourdailylifeyourpresentandyourfuturebecauseuponafirmunderstandingofcommunism,itsnatureanditshistory,dependsthefateofallmankindINTRODUCTIONSTUDYAIDSWordsandNamestoUnderstandColdWarBolshevikUSSRTaiwantsaristsatellitespropagandaunderdevelopednationsWestBerlinCheckupQuestionsWhyiscommunismcalleda"fightingforce"WhatcountrywasfirsttakenoverbytheCommunistsWhattestsofman'sfreedomdidWinstonChurchillsetdownWhatmeansaretheCommunistsusinginanattempttospreadtheirsystemthroughouttheworldWhatdeterrentshavekepttheSovietsfromseizingWestBerlinandotherareasoftheworldtheywouldliketocontrolQuestionstoThinkAboutWhatdidformerSovietPremierKhrushchevmeanwhenhesaidtotheUnitedStates,"Wewillburyyou"WhydoSovietleaderssupportindependencemovementsinmanyareasoftheworldTowhatextentdoestheSovietUnionmeettheseventestsoffreedomTowhatextentdoestheUnitedStatesmeetthemWhyisitimportanttolearnallwecanaboutcommunismBookstoReadPaperbackBooksCronyn,GeorgeW,APrimeronCommunism(reved)Button,ChDecter,Moshe(ed),TheProfileofCommunismCollier,Gunther,John,InsideRussiaToday(reved)Pyramid,Hoover,JEdgar,AStudyofCommunismHolt,Orwell,George,AnimalFarm(fiction)Signet,Schwartz,Harry(ed),TheManyFacesofCommunismBerkley,Whitney,ThomasP(ed),CommunistBlueprintfortheFutureButton,OtherBooksKirkpatrick,JeaneJ(ed),StrategyofDeceptionFarrar,Lowenthal,Richard,WorldCommunismOxfordUniv,Richer,AlfredJ,andNelson,RobertC,AStudyoftheUSSRandCommunism:AnHistoricalApproachPutnam,TheCommunistSystemThegovernmentsoftheworldtodayfallintothreebroadgroups:democratic,authoritarian,totalitarianWithineachgrouptherearevariationsinthedegreeofpowerexercisedbythegovernmentoverthepeopleTheworddemocracycomesfromtwoGreekwords:demos,meaning"people,"andkrator,meaning"ruler"AdemocraticgovernmentisagovernmentbyconsentofthepeopleThepeoplehavetherighttovotetoreplacetheirleadersatelectionsTheyhavefreedomtocriticizethegovernmentopenlyandtodisagreewithitspolicieswithoutfearofpunishmentAnauthoritariangovernmentisonethatisdominatedbyasingleleaderoradictatorialgroup(theauthority)Itusuallypermitsprivateownershipofproperty,butrestrictsfreedomofpoliticalaction,includingfreedomofexpressionAtotalitariangovernmentisonewhichexercisestotalcontrolThisincludescontrolofproperty,education,andthemeansofcommunicationnewspapers,books,magazines,radio,TV,theater,motionpictures,andotherformsofartEventhejobeachpersonholdsiscontrolledbythegovernmentThelinebetweenauthoritarianismandtotalitarianismissometimesthinBotharedictatorshipsofonepersonorarulinggroupthatcannotbechangedbytheorderlyprocessofvotingbythepeopleNeithersystemgivesthepeopletheopportunityforapeacefulchangeofgovernment,orpermitsindividualstocampaignoragitateforachangeATotalitarianSystemTheCommunistsystemisthemosttotalitariansysteminexistencetodayItexercisescompletecontroloverthelivesofthepeopleWhentheCommunistsseizedpowerintheBolshevikRevolutionof,theyimmediatelysetabouttighteningtheirgriponallphasesoflifeinthenewlyproclaimedSovietRepublicThebasisofCommunistorganizationwasandisthepropositionthattheCommunistParty,whichcontrolsthestate,knowswhatis"best"forthepeopleandactsasthe"vanguard"ofthepeopleCommunistsusestatepowertocontrolnotonlyanindividual'spoliticallife,buthiseconomicandsociallifeaswellCommunismisallembracingitisadogmaticbelief,aformofpoliticalorganization,aformofgovernment,aneconomicsystem,asystemofcontrolovertheindividual,andaworldwideconspiracyCommunismisadogmaticbeliefAccordingtotheCommunists,theirsystemisdestinedtotakecontroloftheentireworldThededicatedCommunistiscertainthathissystemisthe"waveofthefuture"Tobringthedayofcommunism'striumphnearer,hewilluseanymeanstreachery,falsification,orviolencetoadvancehiscauseAsadisciplinedagentoftheCommunistmovement,heisexpectedtofollowtheParty'sordersrigidlyandcarrythemoutunquestioninglyThePartyline,orpolicy,maychangefromtimetotimeastomethod,butthegoalofcommunismworlddominationremainsunchangedCommunismisaformofpoliticalorganizationTheCommunistPartycontrolsallpoliticallifeinCommunistcountriesPartymembershipiscloselyregulatedtoensureobediencetotopPartyleadersOfthetotalSovietpopulationofover,,,some,,arePartymembersAcandidateformembershipisacceptedonlyafterPartyleadershavecheckedhisbackgroundandaresatisfiedthatheisloyaltotheregimeAmemberisexpectedtoseethatPartyordersareobeyedinallhisdailycontactsatwork,athome,intheschools,anywhereItishisdutytoreportanybreachofPartydisciplinebyhisfellowworkers,friends,orfamilymembersIntheSovietUnion,PartyorganizationisparalleltothatofthegovernmentonnationalandlocallevelsAtthetopisthefirstsecretaryofthePartyHeisinchargeofthePartyPresidium(beforeknownasthePoliticalBureau,orPolitbureau),asmallgroupofmembersinwhodeterminePartypolicyThePresidiumdirectstheCentralCommittee(membersin),which,intheory,handlesPartyaffairsbetweenmeetingsofthePartyCongress(heldeveryfouryears)ThendPartyCongressmetinandhad,delegatesThefirstsecretaryalsohaschargeoftheSecretariat,whichcontrolsthechoiceofPartysecretaries(orleaders)allthewaydowntothelocalPartygroups,called"cells"CommunismisaformofgovernmentOnthesurface,agovernmentinaCommuniststateislikeanyothergovernmentItcarriesoutadministrative,judicial,andlegislativefunctionsCommunistgovernmentisbasicallydifferentfromdemocraticgovernment,however,inthatitservesmerelyasa"rubberstamp"fordecisionsthathavealreadybeenmadebyPartyleadersThisappliestoalllaws,appointments,andactionsofthevariousgovernmentagenciesImportantofficialsarePartymembers,subjecttoPartydisciplineAtpresent,thehighestofficialoftheSovietgovernmentisAlekseiNKosyginHeischairmanoftheCouncilofMinisters,whichdirectsthevariousministries(governmentdepartments),suchasforeignaffairs,economy,transportation,andothersInreality,however,heissubordinateinauthoritytoLeonidIBrezhnev,firstsecretaryofthePartyFormerSovietPremierKhrushchevheldbothofthesetoppostsingovernmentandPartyhimselfNominally,thehighestlawmakingbodyistheSupremeSovietoftheUSSR,whichhasalmost,members,called"deputies,"andtwochambers:theCouncil(orSoviet)oftheUnion,andtheCouncilofNationalitiesMembershipintheCounciloftheUnionisbasedonpopulationDeputiesintheCouncilofNationalitiesareselectedonageographicalbasisfromthevariousrepublicsthatmakeuptheUSSR,andfromsmallerareasTheSupremeSovietelectsthepremierandtheSvipremeCourtHowever,sinceallactionsoftheSupremeSovietrequirepriorPartyapproval,itismerelyarubberstampforPartypolicy"Elections"inCommunistcountriesoffervotersonlyone"choice"Forexample,candidatesfortheSupremeSovietandthelocalSoviets,orlegislativebodies,

用户评论(0)

0/200

精彩专题

上传我的资料

每篇奖励 +2积分

资料评价:

/23
仅支持在线阅读

意见
反馈

立即扫码关注

爱问共享资料微信公众号

返回
顶部