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首页 Manifesto of the Commnuist Party.pdf

Manifesto of the Commnuist Party.pdf

Manifesto of the Commnuist Part…

上传者: sssnow 2010-03-24 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Manifesto of the Commnuist Partypdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含ManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArch符等。

ManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)ManifestooftheCommunistPartyByKarlMarxandFredrickEngelsWritten:LateFirstPublished:FebruarySource:MarxEngelsSelectedWorks,VolumeOne,ProgressPublishers,Moscow,USSR,,ppTranslated:SamuelMooreincooperationwithFrederickEngels,TranscriptionMarkup:ZodiacandBrianBasgenProofread:CheckedandcorrectedagainsttheEnglishEditionof,byAndyBlunden,PublicDomain:ThisworkiscompletelyfreeMarxEngelsInternetArchive(marxistsorg),,ManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)AspectreishauntingEuropethespectreofcommunismAllthepowersofoldEuropehaveenteredintoaholyalliancetoexorcisethisspectre:PopeandTsar,MetternichandGuizot,FrenchRadicalsandGermanpolicespiesWhereisthepartyinoppositionthathasnotbeendecriedascommunisticbyitsopponentsinpowerWhereistheoppositionthathasnothurledbackthebrandingreproachofcommunism,againstthemoreadvancedoppositionparties,aswellasagainstitsreactionaryadversariesTwothingsresultfromthisfact:ICommunismisalreadyacknowledgedbyallEuropeanpowerstobeitselfapowerIIItishightimethatCommunistsshouldopenly,inthefaceofthewholeworld,publishtheirviews,theiraims,theirtendencies,andmeetthisnurserytaleoftheSpectreofCommunismwithamanifestoofthepartyitselfTothisend,CommunistsofvariousnationalitieshaveassembledinLondonandsketchedthefollowingmanifesto,tobepublishedintheEnglish,French,German,Italian,FlemishandDanishlanguagesManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)BourgeoisandProletariansThehistoryofallhithertoexistingsocietyisthehistoryofclassstrugglesFreemanandslave,patricianandplebeian,lordandserf,guildmasterandjourneyman,inaword,oppressorandoppressed,stoodinconstantoppositiontooneanother,carriedonanuninterrupted,nowhidden,nowopenfight,afightthateachtimeended,eitherinarevolutionaryreconstitutionofsocietyatlarge,orinthecommonruinofthecontendingclassesIntheearlierepochsofhistory,wefindalmosteverywhereacomplicatedarrangementofsocietyintovariousorders,amanifoldgradationofsocialrankInancientRomewehavepatricians,knights,plebeians,slavesintheMiddleAges,feudallords,vassals,guildmasters,journeymen,apprentices,serfsinalmostalloftheseclasses,again,subordinategradationsThemodernbourgeoissocietythathassproutedfromtheruinsoffeudalsocietyhasnotdoneawaywithclassantagonismsIthasbutestablishednewclasses,newconditionsofoppression,newformsofstruggleinplaceoftheoldonesOurepoch,theepochofthebourgeoisie,possesses,however,thisdistinctfeature:ithassimplifiedclassantagonismsSocietyasawholeismoreandmoresplittingupintotwogreathostilecamps,intotwogreatclassesdirectlyfacingeachotherBourgeoisieandProletariatFromtheserfsoftheMiddleAgessprangthecharteredburghersoftheearliesttownsFromtheseburgessesthefirstelementsofthebourgeoisieweredevelopedThediscoveryofAmerica,theroundingoftheCape,openedupfreshgroundfortherisingbourgeoisieTheEastIndianandChinesemarkets,thecolonisationofAmerica,tradewiththecolonies,theincreaseinthemeansofexchangeandincommoditiesgenerally,gavetoBybourgeoisieismeanttheclassofmoderncapitalists,ownersofthemeansofsocialproductionandemployersofwagelabourByproletariat,theclassofmodernwagelabourerswho,havingnomeansofproductionoftheirown,arereducedtosellingtheirlabourpowerinordertoliveEngels,EnglisheditionThatis,allwrittenhistoryIn,theprehistoryofsociety,thesocialorganisationexistingprevioustorecordedhistory,allbutunknownSincethen,AugustvonHaxthausen()discoveredcommonownershipoflandinRussia,GeorgLudwigvonMaurerprovedittobethesocialfoundationfromwhichallTeutonicracesstartedinhistory,and,byandby,villagecommunitieswerefoundtobe,ortohavebeen,theprimitiveformofsocietyeverywherefromIndiatoIrelandTheinnerorganisationofthisprimitivecommunisticsocietywaslaidbare,initstypicalform,byLewisHenryMorgan's()crowningdiscoveryofthetruenatureofthegensanditsrelationtothetribeWiththedissolutionoftheprimevalcommunities,societybeginstobedifferentiatedintoseparateandfinallyantagonisticclassesIhaveattemptedtoretracethisdissolutioninTheOriginoftheFamily,PrivateProperty,andtheState,secondedition,Stuttgart,Engels,EnglishEditionandGermanEdition(withthelastsentenceomitted)Guildmaster,thatis,afullmemberofaguild,amasterwithin,notaheadofaguildEngels,EnglishEditionManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)commerce,tonavigation,toindustry,animpulseneverbeforeknown,andthereby,totherevolutionaryelementinthetotteringfeudalsociety,arapiddevelopmentThefeudalsystemofindustry,inwhichindustrialproductionwasmonopolisedbyclosedguilds,nownolongersufficedforthegrowingwantsofthenewmarketsThemanufacturingsystemtookitsplaceTheguildmasterswerepushedononesidebythemanufacturingmiddleclassdivisionoflabourbetweenthedifferentcorporateguildsvanishedinthefaceofdivisionoflabourineachsingleworkshopMeantimethemarketskeptevergrowing,thedemandeverrisingEvenmanufacturernolongersufficedThereupon,steamandmachineryrevolutionisedindustrialproductionTheplaceofmanufacturewastakenbythegiant,ModernIndustrytheplaceoftheindustrialmiddleclassbyindustrialmillionaires,theleadersofthewholeindustrialarmies,themodernbourgeoisModernindustryhasestablishedtheworldmarket,forwhichthediscoveryofAmericapavedthewayThismarkethasgivenanimmensedevelopmenttocommerce,tonavigation,tocommunicationbylandThisdevelopmenthas,initsturn,reactedontheextensionofindustryandinproportionasindustry,commerce,navigation,railwaysextended,inthesameproportionthebourgeoisiedeveloped,increaseditscapital,andpushedintothebackgroundeveryclasshandeddownfromtheMiddleAgesWesee,therefore,howthemodernbourgeoisieisitselftheproductofalongcourseofdevelopment,ofaseriesofrevolutionsinthemodesofproductionandofexchangeEachstepinthedevelopmentofthebourgeoisiewasaccompaniedbyacorrespondingpoliticaladvanceofthatclassAnoppressedclassundertheswayofthefeudalnobility,anarmedandselfgoverningassociationinthemedievalcommune:hereindependenturbanrepublic(asinItalyandGermany)theretaxable“thirdestate”ofthemonarchy(asinFrance)afterwards,intheperiodofmanufacturingproper,servingeitherthesemifeudalortheabsolutemonarchyasacounterpoiseagainstthenobility,and,infact,cornerstoneofthegreatmonarchiesingeneral,thebourgeoisiehasatlast,sincetheestablishmentofModernIndustryandoftheworldmarket,conqueredforitself,inthemodernrepresentativeState,exclusivepoliticalswayTheexecutiveofthemodernstateisbutacommitteeformanagingthecommonaffairsofthewholebourgeoisieThiswasthenamegiventheirurbancommunitiesbythetownsmenofItalyandFrance,aftertheyhadpurchasedorconqueredtheirinitialrightsofselfgovernmentfromtheirfeudallordsEngels,Germanedition“Commune”wasthenametakeninFrancebythenascenttownsevenbeforetheyhadconqueredfromtheirfeudallordsandmasterslocalselfgovernmentandpoliticalrightsasthe"ThirdEstate"Generallyspeaking,fortheeconomicaldevelopmentofthebourgeoisie,Englandisheretakenasthetypicalcountry,foritspoliticaldevelopment,FranceEngels,EnglishEditionManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)Thebourgeoisie,historically,hasplayedamostrevolutionarypartThebourgeoisie,whereverithasgottheupperhand,hasputanendtoallfeudal,patriarchal,idyllicrelationsIthaspitilesslytornasunderthemotleyfeudaltiesthatboundmantohis“naturalsuperiors”,andhasleftremainingnoothernexusbetweenmanandmanthannakedselfinterest,thancallous“cashpayment”Ithasdrownedthemostheavenlyecstasiesofreligiousfervour,ofchivalrousenthusiasm,ofphilistinesentimentalism,intheicywaterofegotisticalcalculationIthasresolvedpersonalworthintoexchangevalue,andinplaceofthenumberlessindefeasiblecharteredfreedoms,hassetupthatsingle,unconscionablefreedomFreeTradeInoneword,forexploitation,veiledbyreligiousandpoliticalillusions,ithassubstitutednaked,shameless,direct,brutalexploitationThebourgeoisiehasstrippedofitshaloeveryoccupationhithertohonouredandlookeduptowithreverentaweIthasconvertedthephysician,thelawyer,thepriest,thepoet,themanofscience,intoitspaidwagelabourersThebourgeoisiehastornawayfromthefamilyitssentimentalveil,andhasreducedthefamilyrelationtoameremoneyrelationThebourgeoisiehasdisclosedhowitcametopassthatthebrutaldisplayofvigourintheMiddleAges,whichreactionariessomuchadmire,founditsfittingcomplementinthemostslothfulindolenceIthasbeenthefirsttoshowwhatman’sactivitycanbringaboutIthasaccomplishedwondersfarsurpassingEgyptianpyramids,Romanaqueducts,andGothiccathedralsithasconductedexpeditionsthatputintheshadeallformerExodusesofnationsandcrusadesThebourgeoisiecannotexistwithoutconstantlyrevolutionisingtheinstrumentsofproduction,andtherebytherelationsofproduction,andwiththemthewholerelationsofsocietyConservationoftheoldmodesofproductioninunalteredform,was,onthecontrary,thefirstconditionofexistenceforallearlierindustrialclassesConstantrevolutionisingofproduction,uninterrupteddisturbanceofallsocialconditions,everlastinguncertaintyandagitationdistinguishthebourgeoisepochfromallearlieronesAllfixed,fastfrozenrelations,withtheirtrainofancientandvenerableprejudicesandopinions,aresweptaway,allnewformedonesbecomeantiquatedbeforetheycanossifyAllthatissolidmeltsintoair,allthatisholyisprofaned,andmanisatlastcompelledtofacewithsobersenseshis,realconditionsoflife,andhisrelationswithhiskindManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)TheneedofaconstantlyexpandingmarketforitsproductschasesthebourgeoisieovertheentiresurfaceoftheglobeItmustnestleeverywhere,settleeverywhere,establishconnexionseverywhereThebourgeoisiehasthroughitsexploitationoftheworldmarketgivenacosmopolitancharactertoproductionandconsumptionineverycountryTothegreatchagrinofReactionists,ithasdrawnfromunderthefeetofindustrythenationalgroundonwhichitstoodAlloldestablishednationalindustrieshavebeendestroyedoraredailybeingdestroyedTheyaredislodgedbynewindustries,whoseintroductionbecomesalifeanddeathquestionforallcivilisednations,byindustriesthatnolongerworkupindigenousrawmaterial,butrawmaterialdrawnfromtheremotestzonesindustrieswhoseproductsareconsumed,notonlyathome,butineveryquarteroftheglobeInplaceoftheoldwants,satisfiedbytheproductionofthecountry,wefindnewwants,requiringfortheirsatisfactiontheproductsofdistantlandsandclimesInplaceoftheoldlocalandnationalseclusionandselfsufficiency,wehaveintercourseineverydirection,universalinterdependenceofnationsAndasinmaterial,soalsoinintellectualproductionTheintellectualcreationsofindividualnationsbecomecommonpropertyNationalonesidednessandnarrowmindednessbecomemoreandmoreimpossible,andfromthenumerousnationalandlocalliteratures,therearisesaworldliteratureThebourgeoisie,bytherapidimprovementofallinstrumentsofproduction,bytheimmenselyfacilitatedmeansofcommunication,drawsall,eventhemostbarbarian,nationsintocivilisationThecheappricesofcommoditiesaretheheavyartillerywithwhichitbattersdownallChinesewalls,withwhichitforcesthebarbarians’intenselyobstinatehatredofforeignerstocapitulateItcompelsallnations,onpainofextinction,toadoptthebourgeoismodeofproductionitcompelsthemtointroducewhatitcallscivilisationintotheirmidst,ie,tobecomebourgeoisthemselvesInoneword,itcreatesaworldafteritsownimageThebourgeoisiehassubjectedthecountrytotheruleofthetownsIthascreatedenormouscities,hasgreatlyincreasedtheurbanpopulationascomparedwiththerural,andhasthusrescuedaconsiderablepartofthepopulationfromtheidiocyofrurallifeJustasithasmadethecountrydependentonthetowns,soithasmadebarbarianandsemibarbariancountriesdependentonthecivilisedones,nationsofpeasantsonnationsofbourgeois,theEastontheWestThebourgeoisiekeepsmoreandmoredoingawaywiththescatteredstateofthepopulation,ofthemeansofproduction,andofpropertyIthasagglomeratedpopulation,centralisedthemeansofproduction,andhasconcentratedpropertyinafewhandsThenecessaryconsequenceofthiswaspoliticalcentralisationIndependent,orbutlooselyconnectedprovinces,withseparateinterests,laws,governments,andsystemsoftaxation,becamelumpedtogetherintooneManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)nation,withonegovernment,onecodeoflaws,onenationalclassinterest,onefrontier,andonecustomstariffThebourgeoisie,duringitsruleofscarceonehundredyears,hascreatedmoremassiveandmorecolossalproductiveforcesthanhaveallprecedinggenerationstogetherSubjectionofNature’sforcestoman,machinery,applicationofchemistrytoindustryandagriculture,steamnavigation,railways,electrictelegraphs,clearingofwholecontinentsforcultivation,canalisationorrivers,wholepopulationsconjuredoutofthegroundwhatearliercenturyhadevenapresentimentthatsuchproductiveforcesslumberedinthelapofsociallabourWeseethen:themeansofproductionandofexchange,onwhosefoundationthebourgeoisiebuiltitselfup,weregeneratedinfeudalsocietyAtacertainstageinthedevelopmentofthesemeansofproductionandofexchange,theconditionsunderwhichfeudalsocietyproducedandexchanged,thefeudalorganisationofagricultureandmanufacturingindustry,inoneword,thefeudalrelationsofpropertybecamenolongercompatiblewiththealreadydevelopedproductiveforcestheybecamesomanyfettersTheyhadtobeburstasundertheywereburstasunderIntotheirplacesteppedfreecompetition,accompaniedbyasocialandpoliticalconstitutionadaptedinit,andtheeconomicandpoliticalswayofthebourgeoisclassAsimilarmovementisgoingonbeforeourowneyesModernbourgeoissociety,withitsrelationsofproduction,ofexchangeandofproperty,asocietythathasconjuredupsuchgiganticmeansofproductionandofexchange,islikethesorcererwhoisnolongerabletocontrolthepowersofthenetherworldwhomhehascalledupbyhisspellsFormanyadecadepastthehistoryofindustryandcommerceisbutthehistoryoftherevoltofmodernproductiveforcesagainstmodernconditionsofproduction,againstthepropertyrelationsthataretheconditionsfortheexistenceofthebourgeoisandofitsruleItisenoughtomentionthecommercialcrisesthatbytheirperiodicalreturnputtheexistenceoftheentirebourgeoissocietyonitstrial,eachtimemorethreateninglyInthesecrises,agreatpartnotonlyoftheexistingproducts,butalsoofthepreviouslycreatedproductiveforces,areperiodicallydestroyedInthesecrises,therebreaksoutanepidemicthat,inallearlierepochs,wouldhaveseemedanabsurditytheepidemicofoverproductionSocietysuddenlyfindsitselfputbackintoastateofmomentarybarbarismitappearsasifafamine,auniversalwarofdevastation,hadcutoffthesupplyofeverymeansofsubsistenceindustryandcommerceseemtobedestroyedandwhyBecausethereistoomuchcivilisation,toomuchmeansofsubsistence,toomuchindustry,toomuchcommerceTheproductiveforcesatthedisposalofsocietynolongertendtofurtherthedevelopmentoftheconditionsofbourgeoispropertyonthecontrary,theyhavebecometoopowerfulfortheseconditions,bywhichtheyarefettered,andsosoonastheyovercomethesefetters,theybringdisorderintothewholeofbourgeoissociety,endangertheexistenceofbourgeoispropertyTheconditionsofbourgeoissocietyaretoonarrowtocomprisethewealthcreatedbythemAndhowManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)doesthebourgeoisiegetoverthesecrisesOntheonehandbyenforceddestructionofamassofproductiveforcesontheother,bytheconquestofnewmarkets,andbythemorethoroughexploitationoftheoldonesThatistosay,bypavingthewayformoreextensiveandmoredestructivecrises,andbydiminishingthemeanswherebycrisesarepreventedTheweaponswithwhichthebourgeoisiefelledfeudalismtothegroundarenowturnedagainstthebourgeoisieitselfButnotonlyhasthebourgeoisieforgedtheweaponsthatbringdeathtoitselfithasalsocalledintoexistencethemenwhoaretowieldthoseweaponsthemodernworkingclasstheproletariansInproportionasthebourgeoisie,ie,capital,isdeveloped,inthesameproportionistheproletariat,themodernworkingclass,developedaclassoflabourers,wholiveonlysolongastheyfindwork,andwhofindworkonlysolongastheirlabourincreasescapitalTheselabourers,whomustsellthemselvespiecemeal,areacommodity,likeeveryotherarticleofcommerce,andareconsequentlyexposedtoallthevicissitudesofcompetition,toallthefluctuationsofthemarketOwingtotheextensiveuseofmachinery,andtothedivisionoflabour,theworkoftheproletarianshaslostallindividualcharacter,and,consequently,allcharmfortheworkmanHebecomesanappendageofthemachine,anditisonlythemostsimple,mostmonotonous,andmosteasilyacquiredknack,thatisrequiredofhimHence,the

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