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首页 活着有啥意思.pdf

活着有啥意思.pdf

活着有啥意思.pdf

上传者: kevinli1031 2010-03-24 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《活着有啥意思pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域,主题内容包含TheMeaningofLife:AVeryShortIntroduction‘warmintellectualpleasuremeticulous符等。

TheMeaningofLife:AVeryShortIntroduction‘warmintellectualpleasuremeticuloustreatmentofthesubjectItlookslikeEagletongotitright’MarioPisani,TheFinancialTimes‘Acharmingpersonalvoyageroundhimself,Icanonlysayitleftmethoroughlysurprised–anddelighted’SimonJenkins,TimesLiterarySupplementBooksoftheYear‘ThenameTerryEagletonassuresusofstimulation,style,sparkling,sometimesacerbic,wit,andwiderangingeruditionInotherwordsheiseminentlyreadableacommendablypocketsizedbook’GordonParsons,MorningStar‘Thebook’salittlegem’SuzanneHarrington,IrishExaminer‘Itisastimulatingandoftenentertaining…Cook’stouraroundthechiefmonumentsofwesternphilosophyandliterature…TheMeaningofLifeisunusualandrefreshing’JohnGray,TheIndependent‘Alivelystartingpointforlatenightdebate’JohnCornwell,TheSundayTimesAFRICANHISTORYJohnParkerandRichardRathboneAMERICANPOLITICALPARTIESANDELECTIONSLSandyMaiselTHEAMERICANPRESIDENCYCharlesOJonesANARCHISMColinWardANCIENTEGYPTIanShawANCIENTPHILOSOPHYJuliaAnnasANCIENTWARFAREHarrySidebottomANGLICANISMMarkChapmanTHEANGLOSAXONAGEJohnBlairANIMALRIGHTSDavidDeGraziaANTISEMITISMStevenBellerARCHAEOLOGYPaulBahnARCHITECTUREAndrewBallantyneARISTOTLEJonathanBarnesARTHISTORYDanaArnoldARTTHEORYCynthiaFreelandTHEHISTORYOFASTRONOMYMichaelHoskinATHEISMJulianBagginiAUGUSTINEHenryChadwickBARTHESJonathanCullerBESTSELLERSJohnSutherlandTHEBIBLEJohnRichesTHEBRAINMichaelO’SheaBRITISHPOLITICSAnthonyWrightBUDDHAMichaelCarrithersBUDDHISMDamienKeownBUDDHISTETHICSDamienKeownCAPITALISMJamesFulcherTHECELTSBarryCunliffeCHAOSLeonardSmithCHOICETHEORYMichaelAllinghamCHRISTIANARTBethWilliamsonCHRISTIANITYLindaWoodheadCLASSICSMaryBeardandJohnHendersonCLASSICALMYTHOLOGYHelenMoralesCLAUSEWITZMichaelHowardTHECOLDWARRobertMcMahonCONSCIOUSNESSSusanBlackmoreCONTEMPORARYARTJulianStallabrassCONTINENTALPHILOSOPHYSimonCritchleyCOSMOLOGYPeterColesTHECRUSADESChristopherTyermanCRYPTOGRAPHYFredPiperandSeanMurphyDADAANDSURREALISMDavidHopkinsDARWINJonathanHowardTHEDEADSEASCROLLSTimothyLimDEMOCRACYBernardCrickDESCARTESTomSorellDESIGNJohnHeskettDINOSAURSDavidNormanDOCUMENTARYFILMPatriciaAufderheideDREAMINGJAllanHobsonDRUGSLeslieIversenTHEEARTHMartinRedfernECONOMICSParthaDasguptaEGYPTIANMYTHGeraldinePinchVERYSHORTINTRODUCTIONSareforanyonewantingastimulatingandaccessiblewayintoanewsubjectTheyarewrittenbyexperts,andhavebeenpublishedinmorethanlanguagesworldwideTheseriesbeganin,andnowrepresentsawidevarietyoftopicsinhistory,philosophy,religion,science,andthehumanitiesOverthenextfewyearsitwillgrowtoalibraryofaroundvolumes–aVeryShortIntroductiontoeverythingfromancientEgyptandIndianphilosophytoconceptualartandcosmologyVeryShortIntroductionsavailablenow:EIGHTEENTHCENTURYBRITAINPaulLangfordTHEELEMENTSPhilipBallEMOTIONDylanEvansEMPIREStephenHoweENGELSTerrellCarverETHICSSimonBlackburnTHEEUROPEANUNIONJohnPinderandSimonUsherwoodEVOLUTIONBrianandDeborahCharlesworthEXISTENTIALISMThomasFlynnFASCISMKevinPassmoreFEMINISMMargaretWaltersTHEFIRSTWORLDWARMichaelHowardFOSSILSKeithThomsonFOUCAULTGaryGuttingTHEFRENCHREVOLUTIONWilliamDoyleFREEWILLThomasPinkFREUDAnthonyStorrFUNDAMENTALISMMaliseRuthvenGALAXIESJohnGribbinGALILEOStillmanDrakeGAMETHEORYKenBinmoreGANDHIBhikhuParekhGEOPOLITICSKlausDoddsGERMANLITERATURENicholasBoyleGLOBALCATASTROPHESBillMcGuireGLOBALIZATIONManfredStegerGLOBALWARMINGMarkMaslinTHEGREATDEPRESSIONANDTHENEWDEALEricRauchwayHABERMASJamesGordonFinlaysonHEGELPeterSingerHEIDEGGERMichaelInwoodHIEROGLYPHSPenelopeWilsonHINDUISMKimKnottHISTORYJohnHArnoldHIVAIDSAlanWhitesideHOBBESRichardTuckHUMANEVOLUTIONBernardWoodHUMANRIGHTSAndrewClaphamHUMEAJAyerIDEOLOGYMichaelFreedenINDIANPHILOSOPHYSueHamiltonINTELLIGENCEIanJDearyINTERNATIONALMIGRATIONKhalidKoserINTERNATIONALRELATIONSPaulWilkinsonISLAMMaliseRuthvenJOURNALISMIanHargreavesJUDAISMNormanSolomonJUNGAnthonyStevensKABBALAHJosephDanKAFKARitchieRobertsonKANTRogerScrutonKIERKEGAARDPatrickGardinerTHEKORANMichaelCookLAWRaymondWacksLINGUISTICSPeterMatthewsLITERARYTHEORYJonathanCullerLOCKEJohnDunnLOGICGrahamPriestMACHIAVELLIQuentinSkinnerTHEMARQUISDESADEJohnPhillipsMARXPeterSingerMATHEMATICSTimothyGowersTHEMEANINGOFLIFETerryEagletonMEDICALETHICSTonyHopeMEDIEVALBRITAINJohnGillinghamandRalphAGriffithsMODERNARTDavidCottingtonMODERNCHINARanaMitterMODERNIRELANDSeniaPašetaMOLECULESPhilipBallMORMONISMRichardLymanBushmanMUSICNicholasCookMYTHRobertASegalNATIONALISMStevenGrosbyTHENEWTESTAMENTASLITERATUREKyleKeeferNEWTONRobertIliffeNIETZSCHEMichaelTannerNINETEENTHCENTURYBRITAINChristopherHarvieandHCGMatthewNORTHERNIRELANDMarcMulhollandNUCLEARWEAPONSJosephMSiracusaTHEOLDTESTAMENTMichaelDCooganPARTICLEPHYSICSFrankClosePAULEPSandersPHILOSOPHYEdwardCraigPHILOSOPHYOFLAWRaymondWacksPHILOSOPHYOFSCIENCESamirOkashaPHOTOGRAPHYSteveEdwardsPLATOJuliaAnnasPOLITICSKennethMinoguePOLITICALPHILOSOPHYDavidMillerPOSTCOLONIALISMRobertYoungPOSTMODERNISMChristopherButlerPOSTSTRUCTURALISMCatherineBelseyPREHISTORYChrisGosdenPRESOCRATICPHILOSOPHYCatherineOsbornePSYCHOLOGYGillianButlerandFredaMcManusPSYCHIATRYTomBurnsTHEQUAKERSPinkDandelionQUANTUMTHEORYJohnPolkinghorneRACISMAliRattansiTHERENAISSANCEJerryBrottonRENAISSANCEARTGeraldineAJohnsonROMANBRITAINPeterSalwayTHEROMANEMPIREChristopherKellyROUSSEAURobertWoklerRUSSELLACGraylingRUSSIANLITERATURECatrionaKellyTHERUSSIANREVOLUTIONSASmithSCHIZOPHRENIAChrisFrithandEveJohnstoneSCHOPENHAUERChristopherJanawaySEXUALITYVéroniqueMottierSHAKESPEAREGermaineGreerSIKHISMEleanorNesbittSOCIALANDCULTURALANTHROPOLOGYJohnMonaghanandPeterJustSOCIALISMMichaelNewmanSOCIOLOGYSteveBruceSOCRATESCCWTaylorTHESPANISHCIVILWARHelenGrahamSPINOZARogerScrutonSTUARTBRITAINJohnMorrillTERRORISMCharlesTownshendTHEOLOGYDavidFFordTHEHISTORYOFTIMELeofrancHolfordStrevensTRAGEDYAdrianPooleTHETUDORSJohnGuyTWENTIETHCENTURYBRITAINKennethOMorganTHEVIKINGSJulianRichardsWITTGENSTEINACGraylingWORLDMUSICPhilipBohlmanTHEWORLDTRADEORGANIZATIONAmritaNarlikarGeorgeGarnettEXPRESSIONISMKaterinaReedTsochaGEOGRAPHYJohnAMatthewsandDavidTHerbertHISTORYOFLIFEMichaelBentonHISTORYOFMEDICINEWilliamBynumMEMORYJonathanFosterNELSONMANDELAEllekeBoehmerSCIENCEANDRELIGIONThomasDixonTHEUNITEDNATIONSJussiMHanhimäkiTHEVIETNAMWARMarkAtwoodLawrenceAvailablesoon:FormoreinformationvisitourwebsiteswwwoupcomukvsiwwwoupcomusTerryEagletonThemeaningoflifeAVeryShortIntroductionGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordOXDPOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanPolandPortugalSingaporeSouthKoreaSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYorkTerryEagletonThemoralrightsoftheauthorhavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedinhardbackFirstpublishedasaVeryShortIntroductionAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethesameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataEagleton,Terry,–Themeaningoflife:averyshortintroductionTerryEagletonpcmIncludesindexISBN:––––LifeMeaning(Philosophy)ITitleBDE–dcISBN––––TypesetbySPIPublisherServices,Pondicherry,IndiaPrintedinGreatBritainbyAshfordColourPressLtd,Gosport,HampshireForOliver,whofoundthewholeideadeeplyembarrassingThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsListofillustrationsxiPrefacexiiiQuestionsandanswersTheproblemofmeaningTheeclipseofmeaningIslifewhatyoumakeitFurtherreadingIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankListofillustrationsWittgensteinHultonArchiveGettyImagesA‘NewAge’gatheringMattCardyAlamyJerryFalwellWallyMcNameeCorbisAsportsfanRexFeaturesAnAnglicanvicarinMontyPython’s‘TheMeaningofLife’PhotocomCollectionCinémaMacbethHultonArchiveGettyImagesSchopenhauerHultonArchiveGettyImagesWaitingforGodotRobbieJackCorbisAristotleBettmannCorbisMontyPython’sGrimReaperPhotocomCollectionCinémaDeathMarkPowerMagnumPhotosTheBuenaVistaSocialClubRoadMovieProductionsTheKobalCollectionThepublisherandtheauthorapologizeforanyerrorsoromissionsintheabovelistIfcontactedtheywillbepleasedtorectifytheseattheearliestopportunityThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceAnyonerashenoughtowriteabookwithatitlelikethishadbetterbracethemselvesforapostbagcrammedwithlettersinerratichandwritingenclosingcomplexsymbolicdiagramsThemeaningoflifeisasubjectfitforeitherthecrazedorthecomic,andIhopeIhavefallenmoreintothelattercampthantheformerIhavetriedtotreatahighmindedtopicaslightlyandlucidlyaspossible,whileatthesametimetakingitseriouslyButthereissomethingabsurdlyoverreachingaboutthewholesubject,incontrasttothemoreminiaturescaleofacademicscholarshipYearsago,whenIwasastudentinCambridge,myeyewascaughtbythetitleofadoctoralthesiswhichread‘Someaspectsofthevaginalsystemoftheflea’Itwasnot,onewouldguess,themostsuitableworkforthosewithpooreyesightbutitrevealedanappealingmodestythatIhaveapparentlyfailedtolearnfromIcanatleastclaimtohavewrittenoneoftheveryfewmeaningoflifebookswhichdoesnotrecountthestoryofBertrandRussellandthetaxidriverIamverygratefultoJosephDunne,whoreadthebookinmanuscriptandmadesomeinvaluablecriticismsandsuggestionsTEThispageintentionallyleftblankChaptersQuestionsandanswersPhilosophershaveaninfuriatinghabitofanalysingquestionsratherthanansweringthem,andthisishowIwanttobeginIs‘Whatisthemeaningoflife’agenuinequestion,ordoesitjustlooklikeoneIsthereanythingthatcouldcountasananswertoit,orisitreallyakindofpseudoquestion,likethelegendaryOxfordexaminationquestionwhichissupposedtohavereadsimply:‘Isthisagoodquestion’‘Whatisthemeaningoflife’looksatfirstglancelikethesamekindofquestionas‘WhatisthecapitalofAlbania’,or‘Whatisthecolourofivory’ButisitreallyCoulditbemorelike‘Whatisthetasteofgeometry’ThereisonefairlystandardreasonwhysomethinkersregardthemeaningoflifequestionasbeingitselfmeaninglessThisisthecasethatmeaningisamatteroflanguage,notobjectsItisaquestionofthewaywetalkaboutthings,notafeatureofthingsthemselves,liketexture,weight,orcolourAcabbageoracardiographisnotmeaningfulinitselfitbecomessoonlybybeingcaughtupinourconversationsOnthistheory,wecanmakelifemeaningfulbyourtalkaboutitbutitcannothaveameaningPerhapsIshouldaddthatIamnotmyselfaphilosopher,afactwhichIamsuresomeofmyreviewerswillpointoutinanycaseTheMeaningofLifeinitself,anymorethanacloudcanItwouldnotmakesense,forexample,tospeakofacloudasbeingeithertrueorfalseRather,truthandfalsehoodarefunctionsofourhumanpropositionsaboutcloudsThereareproblemswiththisargument,astherearewithmostphilosophicalargumentsWeshallbelookingatafewofthemlateronLetustakeabrieflookatanevenmoreimposingquerythan‘Whatisthemeaningoflife’Perhapsthemostfundamentalquestionitispossibletoraiseis‘Whyisthereanythingatall,ratherthannothing’Whyisthereanythingaboutwhichwecanask‘Whatdoesitmean’inthefirstplacePhilosophersaredividedaboutwhetherthisisarealquestionorabogusone,thoughtheologiansforthemostpartarenotFormosttheologians,theanswertothisinquiryis‘God’Godissaidtobe‘Creator’oftheuniversenotbecauseheissomekindofmegamanufacturer,butbecauseheisthereasonwhythereissomethingratherthannothingHeis,astheysay,thegroundofbeingAndthiswouldstillbetrueofhimeveniftheuniversehadnobeginningHewouldstillbethereasonwhythereissomethingratherthannothingeveniftherehasbeensomethingfromalleternity‘Whyisthereanythingandnotjustnothing’couldberoughlytranslatedas‘Howcomethecosmos’Thiscouldbetakenasaquestionaboutcausality–inwhichcase,‘Howcome’wouldmean‘Wheredoesitcomefrom’ButthisissurelynotwhatthequerymeansIfwetriedtoanswerthequestionbytalkingabouthowtheuniversegotoffthegroundinthefirstplace,thenthosecausesmustthemselvesbepartofeverything,andwearebacktowherewestartedOnlyacausewhichwasnotpartofeverything–onewhichtranscendedtheuniverse,asGodissupposedtodo–couldavoidbeingdraggedbackintotheargumentinthiswaySothisisnotreallyaquestionabouthowtheworldcameaboutNor,fortheologiansatleast,isitaquestionaboutwhattheworldisfor,sinceintheiropiniontheworldQuestionsandanswershasnopurposewhatsoeverGodisnotacelestialengineerwhocreatedtheworldwithsomestrategicallycalculatedgoalinmindHeisanartistwhocreateditsimplyforhisownselfdelight,andfortheselfdelightofCreationitselfItisunderstandable,then,whyheiswidelyconsideredtohavesomethingofatwistedsenseofhumour‘Whyisthereanythingratherthannothing’isratheranexpressionofwondermentthatthereisaworldinthefirstplace,whentherecouldpresumablyquiteeasilyhavebeennothingPerhapsthisispartofwhatLudwigWittgensteinhasinmindwhenheremarksthat‘Nothowtheworldis,isthemystical,butthatitis’This,onemightclaim,isWittgenstein’sversionofwhattheGermanphilosopherMartinHeideggercallstheSeinsfrage,orquestionofBeing‘HowcomeBeing’isthequestiontowhichHeideggerwantstoreturnHeislessinterestedinhowparticularentitiescameabout,thaninthemindbendingfactthatthereareentitiesinthefirstplaceAndthesethingsareopentoourunderstanding,astheymighteasilynothavebeenFormanyphilosophers,however,notleastAngloSaxonones,‘HowcomeBeing’isasupremeexampleofapseudoquestionIntheirview,itwouldnotonlybedifficult,ifnotimpossible,toknowhowtoanswerititisdeeplydoubtfulthatthereisanythingtheretobeansweredForthem,itisreallyjustaponderousTeutonicwayofsaying‘Wow!’Itmaybeavalidquestionforthepoetormystic,butnotforthephilosopherAndintheAngloSaxonworldinparticular,thebarricadesbetweenthetwocampsarevigilantlymannedInaworklikePhilosophicalInvestigations,WittgensteinwasalerttothedifferencebetweenrealquestionsandphoneyonesApieceoflanguagecanhavethegrammaticalformofaquestionbutnotactuallybeoneOrourgrammarcanmisleadLudwigWittgenstein,TractatusLogicoPhilosophicus(London,),TheMeaningofLifeusintomistakingonekindofpropositionforanother‘Whatthen,fellowcountrymen,oncetheenemyisvanquished,canwenotaccomplishinthehourofvictory’soundslikeaquestionanticipatingananswer,butisinfactarhetoricalquestion,towhichonewouldprobablybeilladvisedtoreturnthereply:‘Nothing’Theutteranceiscastininterrogativeformsimplytoenhanceitsdramaticforce‘Sowhat’,‘Whydon’tyougetlost’,and‘Whatareyoustaringat’soundlikequestionsbutaren’treally‘Whereaboutsinthebodyisthesoul’mightsoundlikeareasonablesortofquestiontopose,butonlybecausewearethinkingalongthelinesofaquestionlike‘Whereaboutsinthebodyarethekidneys’‘Whereismyenvy’hastheformofakosherquestion,butonlybecauseweareunconsciouslymodellingiton‘Whereismyarmpit’WittgensteincametobelievethatagreatmanyphilosophicalpuzzlesariseoutofpeoplemisusinglanguageinthiswayTake,forexample,thestatement‘Ihaveapain’,whichisgrammaticallyakinto‘Ihaveahat’Thissimilaritymightmisleadusintothinkingthatpains,or‘experiences’ingeneral,arethingswehaveinthesamewaythatwehavehatsButitwouldbestrangetosay‘Here,takemypain’Andthoughitwouldmakesensetosay‘Isthisyourhatormine’,itwouldsoundoddtoask‘Isthisyourpainormine’Perhapsthereareseveralpeopleinaroomandapainfloatingaroundinitandaseachpersoninturndoublesupinagony,weexclaim:‘Ah,nowhe’shavingit!’ThissoundsmerelysillybutinfactithassomefairlymomentousimplicationsWittgensteinisabletodisentanglethegrammarof‘Ihaveahat’from‘Ihaveapain’notonlyinawaythatthrowslightontheuseofpersonalpronounslike‘I’and‘he’,butinwayswhichunderminethelongstandingassumptionthatmyexperiencesareakindofprivatepropertyInfact,theyseemevenmorelikeprivatepropertythanmyhat,sinceIcangiveawaymyhat,butnotmypainWittgensteinshowsushowgrammardeceivesusLudwigWittgenstein,commonlythoughttobethegreatestphilosopherofthetwentiethcenturyTheMeaningofLifeintothinkingthisway,andhiscasehasradical,evenpoliticallyradical,consequencesThetaskofthephilosopher,Wittgensteinthought,wasnotsomuchtoresolvetheseinquiriesasto

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